Architecture of Belgrade is the architecture and styles developed in Belgrade, Serbia. Belgrade has wildly varying architecture, from the centre of Zemun, typical of a Central European town,to the more modern architecture and spacious layout of New Belgrade. The oldest architecture is found in Kalemegdan park. Outside of Kalemegdan, the oldest buildings date only from 19th century, due to its geographic position and frequent wars and destructions. The oldest public structure in Belgrade is a nondescript Turkish türbe, while the oldest house is a modest clay house on Dorcol, the House at 10 Cara Dušana Street from 1727.
Western influence began in the 19th century, when the city completely transformed from an oriental town to the contemporary architecture of the time, with influences from neoclassicism, romanticism and academic art. Serbian architects took over the development from the foreign builders in the late 19th century, producing the National Theatre, Old Palace, St. Michael's Cathedral and later, in the early 20th century, the National Assembly and National Museum, influenced by art nouveau.Elements of Neo-Byzantine architecture are present in buildings such as House of Vuk's Foundation, the Old Post Office in Kosovska street, and sacral architecture, such as St. Mark's Church (based on the Gracanica monastery), and the Temple of Saint Sava.
During the socialist period, much housing was built quickly and cheaply to house the huge influx of people from the countryside following World War II, sometimes resulting in the brutalist architecture of the blokovi (blocks) of New Belgrade; a socrealism trend briefly ruled, resulting in buildings like the Dom Sindikata.However, in the mid-1950s, the modernist trends took over, and still dominate the Belgrade architecture.
Little remains in Belgrade of its early period. The Nebojša Tower, from ca. 1460, is a lonely testimony of the pre-Ottoman medieval defenses of the town.
Belgrade was the main urban centre of Ottoman Serbia throughout the Early Modern period. Ottoman culture significantly influenced the city, in architecture, cuisine, language, and dress, especially in arts, and Islam.
During the 17th century many of the Serbian Orthodox Churches that were built in Belgrade took all the characteristics of Baroque churches built in the Austrian dministered regions where Serbs lived. The churches usually had a bell tower, and a single nave building with the iconostasis inside the church covered with Renaissance-style paintings. These churches can mostly be found in Zemun.
The 19th century was a time of development of Serbian nationalism, which sought to develop a "national style" in architecture too, in line with national romanticism ideas. Within the broader movement of historicism, in parallel to neoclassical architecture, Serbia saw the development in particular of a Byzantine Revival architecture style.
In the 19th century the city completely transformed from an oriental town to the contemporary architecture of the time, with influences from neoclassicism, romanticism and academic art. Serbian architects took over the development from the foreign builders in the late 19th century, producing the National Theatre, Old Palace, St. Michael's Cathedral and later, in the early 20th century, the National Assembly and National Museum, influenced by art nouveau.Elements of Neo-Byzantine architecture are present in buildings such as the House of Vuk's Foundation, the Old Post Office in Kosovska street, and sacral architecture, such as St. Mark's Church (based on the Gracanica monastery), and the Temple of Saint Sava.
Serbia's modern sacral architecture got its main impetus from the dynastic burial church in Oplenac which was commissioned by the Karadordevic dynasty 1909.With the arrival of Russian émigré artist after the October revolution, Belgrade's main governmental edifices were planned by eminent Russian architects trained in Russia. It was King Aleksandar I who was the patron of the neobyzantine movement. Its main proponents were Aleksander Deroko, Momir Korunovic, Branko Kristic, Grigorijji Samojlov and Nikola Krasnov (Никола́й Петро́вич Красно́в). Their main contribution were the royal castles on Dedinje, the Church of Saint Sava, St. Mark's Church, Belgrade. After the communist era ended Mihailo Mitrovic and Nebojša Popovic were proponents of new tendencies in sacral architecture which used classic examples in the Byzantine tradition.
The Art Nouveau and Vienna Secession style flourished in the north of the country at the turn of the 20th century, when the Vojvodina region was still part of the Hungarian kingdom under the Habsburgs. Subotica and Zrenjanin host particularly remarkable buildings from the period. Novi Sad and Belgrade were not immune from the architectural novelty either.
Yugoslav architecture emerged in the first decades of the 20th century before the establishment of the state; during this period a number of South Slavic creatives, enthused by the possibility of statehood, organized a series of art exhibitions in Serbia in the name of a shared Slavic identity. Following governmental centralization after the 1918 creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, this initial bottom-up enthusiasm began to fade. Yugoslav architecture became more and more dictated by an increasingly concentrated national authority which sought to establish a unified state identity.
Beginning the 1920s, Yugoslav architects began to advocate for architectural modernism, viewing the style as the logical extension of progressive national narratives. The Group of Architects of the Modern Movement, an organization founded in 1928 by architects Branislav Ð Kojic, Milan Zlokovic, Jan Dubovy, and Dusan Babic pushed for the widespread adoption of modern architecture as the "national" style of Yugoslavia to transcended regional differences. Despite these shifts, differing relationships to the west made the adoption of modernism inconsistent in Yugoslavia WWII. Of all Yugoslav cities, Belgrade has highest concentration of modernist structures.
The architecture of Yugoslavia was characterized by emerging, unique, and often differing national and regional narratives.As a socialist state remaining free from the Iron Curtain, Yugoslavia adopted a hybrid identity that combined the architectural, cultural, and political leanings of both Western liberal democracy and Soviet communism.
During the socialist period in Belgrade much housing was built quickly and cheaply to house the huge influx of people from the countryside following World War II, resulting in the brutalist architecture of New Belgrade's blokovi (blocks); a socrealism trend briefly ruled, resulting in buildings like the Dom Sindikata.However, in the mid-1950s, the modernist trends took over, and still dominate the Belgrade architecture.
Immediately following the Second World War, Yugoslavia's brief association with the Eastern Bloc ushered in a short period of socialist realism. Centralization within the communist model led to the abolishment of private architectural practices and the state control of the profession. During this period, the governing Communist Party condemned modernism as "bourgeois formalism," a move that caused friction among the nation's pre-war modernist architectural elite.
Socialist realist architecture in Yugoslavia came to an abrupt end with Josip Broz Tito's 1948 split with Stalin. In the following years the nation turned increasingly to the West, returning to the modernism that had characterized pre-war Yugoslav architecture.During this era, modernist architecture came to symbolize the nation's break from the USSR (a notion that later diminished with growing acceptability of modernism in the Eastern Bloc). The nation's postwar return to modernism is perhaps best exemplified in Vjenceslav Richter's widely acclaimed 1958 Yugoslavia Pavilion at Expo 58, the open and light nature of which contrasted the much heavier architecture of the Soviet Union.
During this period, the Yugoslav break from Soviet socialist realism combined with efforts to commemorate World War II, which together led to the creation of an immense quantity of abstract sculptural war memorials, known today as spomenik
In the late 1950s and early 1960s Brutalism began to garner a following within Yugoslavia, particularly among younger architects, a trend possibly influenced by the 1959 disbandment of the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne.
With 1950s decentralization and liberalization policies in SFR Yugoslavia, architecture became increasingly fractured along ethnic lines. Architects increasingly focused on building with reference to the architectural heritage of their individual socialist republics in the form of critical regionalism.Growing distinction of individual ethnic architectural identities within Yugoslavia was exacerbated with the 1972 decentralization of the formerly centralized historical preservation authority, providing individual regions further opportunity to critically analyze their own cultural narratives.
The international style, which had arrived in Yugoslavia already in the 1980s, took over the scene in Belgrade after the wars and isolation of the 1990s. Big real estate projects, including Sava City and the redevelopment of the Ušće Towers, led the ground, with little respect for the local architecturale heritage.
In 2015, an agreement was reached with Eagle Hills (a UAE company) on the Belgrade Waterfront (Beograd na vodi) deal, for the construction of a new part of the city on currently undeveloped wasteland by the riverside. This project, officially started in 2015 and is one of the largest urban development projects in Europe, will cost at least 3.5 billion euros. According to Srdjan Garcevic, "Vaguely contemporary but somehow cheap-looking, it is planted illegally in the middle of the city on unstable soil – serving the interests of the anonymous lucky few."
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula. Nearly 1.7 million people live within the administrative limits of the City of Belgrade.
Zemun is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. Zemun was a separate town that was absorbed into Belgrade in 1934. The development of New Belgrade in the late 20th century affected the expansion of the continuous urban area of Belgrade.
Brutalist architecture is an architectural style which emerged during the 1950s in the United Kingdom, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterised by minimalist constructions that showcase the bare building materials and structural elements over decorative design. The style commonly makes use of exposed, unpainted concrete or brick, angular geometric shapes and a predominantly monochrome colour palette; other materials, such as steel, timber, and glass, are also featured.
The Temple of Saint Sava is a Serbian Orthodox church which sits on the Vračar plateau in Belgrade, Serbia. It was planned as the bishopric seat and main cathedral of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The church is dedicated to Saint Sava, the founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church and an important figure in medieval Serbia. It is built on the presumed location of St. Sava's grave. His coffin had been moved from Mileševa Monastery to Belgrade. It was placed on a pyre and burnt in 1595 by Ottoman Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha. Bogdan Nestorović and Aleksandar Deroko were finally chosen to be the architects in 1932 after a second revised competition in 1926/27. This sudden decision instigated an important debate in interwar Yugoslavia which centred around the temple's size, design and symbolic national function. This was accompanied by a sizeable increase in the base area of the ambitiously conceived project. The new design departed from the competition guidelines issued in 1926, and was to replicate the dimensions and architecture of Hagia Sophia.
New Belgrade is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. It is a planned city, built since 1948 in a previously uninhabited area on the left bank of the Sava river, opposite old Belgrade. In recent years, it has become the central business district of Belgrade and its fastest developing area, with many businesses moving to the new part of the city, due to more modern infrastructure and larger available space. With 212,104 inhabitants, it is the second most populous municipality of Serbia after Novi Sad.
The Byzantine Revival was an architectural revival movement, most frequently seen in religious, institutional and public buildings. It incorporates elements of the Byzantine style associated with Eastern and Orthodox Christian architecture dating from the 5th through 11th centuries, notably that of Constantinople and the Exarchate of Ravenna. Neo-Byzantine architecture emerged in the 1840s in Western Europe and peaked in the last quarter of the 19th century in the Russian Empire, and later Bulgaria. The Neo-Byzantine school was active in Yugoslavia between World War I and World War II.
Milan Zloković was a Serbian architect. His works epitomised two epochs of architecture in Belgrade.
Dragiša Brašovan was a Serbian modernist architect, one of the leading architects of the early 20th century in Yugoslavia.
Bogoslovija is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is mostly located in Belgrade's municipality of Palilula, with some parts belonging to the municipality of Zvezdara.
The architecture of Serbia has a long, rich and diverse history. Some of the major European style from Roman to Postmodern are demonstrated, including renowned examples of Raška, Serbo-Byzantine with its revival, Morava, Baroque, Classical and Modern architecture, with prime examples in Brutalism and Streamline Moderne.
Architecture of North Macedonia refers to architecture ever practised on the territory of present-day North Macedonia.
The architecture of Kosovo dates back to the Neolithic period and includes the Copper, Bronze and Iron Ages, Antiquity and the Medieval period. It has been influenced by the presence of different civilizations and religions as evidenced by the structures which have survived to this day. Local builders have combined building techniques of conquering empires with the materials at hand and the existing conditions to develop their own varieties of dwellings.
The Modern Serbo-Byzantine architectural style, Neo-Byzantine architectural style or Serbian national architectural style is the style in Serbian architecture which lasted from the second half of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century. This style originated in the tradition of medieval Serbian-Byzantine school and was part of international Neo-Byzantine style.
The House of Vuk's Foundation is the name of a historical building in Belgrade, built in 1879, that serves as the headquarters of the Vuk's Foundation. Located on the Теrazije at 2 Kralja Milana Street, it is one of the oldest structures in that part of Belgrade. Aleksandar Bugarski, a prominent 19th-century Serbian architect, designed the original building as a two-story house in the Academic art style of the day.
The Veterans' Club Building in Belgrade, at 19 Braće Jugovića Street, is a monumental building, today the Military Club of Serbia, whose basic activities are informing and education of the members of the Serbian Army and the civilian sector through numerous cultural activities such as: exhibitions, concerts, book promotions, public discussions, lectures etc. The premises of the Club are also used for receptions, conferences, seminars, presentations, fairs, business meetings, cocktails, balls and fashion shows. The construction of the Club was finished in 1931 after the design of the professor and architect Jovan Jovanović and Živojin Piperski. The building was built in the style of modernism with the elements of the еxpressionism. The lot for the construction of the Club was donated by the Administration of the City of Belgrade, as a gift to former veterans. The Veterans' Club was built thanks to the donations of the members of the National Defence and the subventions given by the patron king Aleksandar the Unifier. Apart from the military purpose, many cultural associations which cherished patriotism and good relations between the army and the people, that is, the civilians. The most active associations were The Association of the reserve officers and veterans, The Association of the volunteers, Sokolska matica, Adriatic guard, the League of the friends of France etc. were also placed in the Veterans' Club. One part of the object was intended for the accommodation of the guests from the rest of the country. The Club obtained the character of a hotel mostly by constructing of the additional part towards Simina Street. The Veterans' Club has two parts, one built between 1929 and 1932, towards Braće Jugovića Street, and the other, added in 1939 towards Simina, Francuska and Emilijana Josimovića Street. After the invasion and occupation of the country in April 1941 this building was used by the German occupying authority.In August 1941 Wehrmacht officers moved in and the building became the Gestapo Headquarter for the entire Balkan. After the war, on the Victory Day, on 9 May 1946, it was officially established as the Yugoslav Army Club. The first post-war commander and the head of the Club was a professor, a colonel, an academic painter and a graphic artist Branko Šotra. In 1984,based on the decision of the City of Belgrade Assembly, the building was designated as the cultural property. Since 2010 the Club has become the seat of the Меdia centre "Defence" and the Artistic ensemble "Stanislav Binički".
Main Post Office Building in Belgrade is located on the corner of Takovska Street and Boulevard of Kralj Aleksandar, close to the National Assembly, the building of the President of Serbia and the Belgrade City Assembly. It is one of the most representative buildings of the most important state institution for postal traffic and services. It was constructed in the period from 1935 to 1938 as the palace of the Post Office Savings Bank, the Main Post Office and the Main Telegraph. Since the completion of the work to date, the part of the palace from Takovska Street designed for the work of the Main Post Office has not changed its basic purpose. On the other hand, the part of the palace from King Alexander Boulevard in which the Post Office Savings Bank was located, from 1946 to September 2006, was used to house the National Bank until its relocation to a new facility on Slavija Square. Since 2003, some ministries of the Republic of Serbia were located in this building, and since 2013, it is used by the Constitutional Court of Serbia. The same year, in 2013, the Palace of the Main Post Office was declared a cultural monument.
The Building of the Patriarchate is a building in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is the administrative seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church and its head, the Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Finished in 1935, the building was declared a cultural monument on 18 December 1984.
The architecture of Yugoslavia was characterized by emerging, unique, and often differing national and regional narratives. As a socialist state remaining free from the Iron Curtain, Yugoslavia adopted a hybrid identity that combined the architectural, cultural, and political leanings of both Western liberal democracy and Soviet communism.
Milica Čolak-Antić Krstić was a Serbian architect, she is considered one of the most important female architects in Serbia and Yugoslavia during the first half of the twenty-first century. She spent her twenty-six-year career employed by the State, at a time when women could only be public employees, working for the ministry of civil engineering. Milica's career flourished in the period between the two wars, influenced mostly by Modernism. As a respected architect, she reached in 1940 the rank of inspector, the highest position and received numerous awards for her achievements.