Timeline of Belgrade

Last updated

The following is a timeline of the history of Belgrade , the capital of Serbia.

Contents

Timeline

Early years

Historical periodEvents
Vinča culture
  • 5400–4500 BCE: Vinča culture is born in what is today Belgrade's suburb of Vinča . Within the coming two millennia it evolves into a dominant neolithic culture in Europe, especially influencing the Balkans. Sometimes this era is called the First Golden Age of Belgrade. By 4500 BC Vinča culture disperses into several sub-cultures. [1]
Barbarian invasions

Early AD

Historical periodEvents
Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
  • 395: Singidunum becomes a northwestern frontier city of the Eastern Roman Empire after the death of Theodosius I (r. 379–395) [11]
Iranian, Germanic, and Hunic invasions: 5th century
Byzantine/Frankish rule and Slavic arrival: 6–9th centuries

9th — 16th centuries

Historical periodEvents
Byzantine, Bulgarian, and Hungarian rule: 9th–11th centuries
  • 827: The First Bulgarian Empire control the fortress. The city is called by Western sources Alba Bulgarica.
  • Frankish Empire temporary annexes Taurunum, today's northern Belgrade.
  • 16 April 878: First known written record of the Slavic name Beligrad.
  • 896: Army of Hungarians attack Belgrade.
  • 1018: The Byzantine emperor Basil II seizes Belgrade from the Bulgarian Empire. Occasional clashes with Hungary.
  • 1072: Belgrade was retaken by Byzantine Empire.
  • 1096: The city was destroyed by Hungarians, but the Byzantine Empire remained in control of it.
Hungarian, Byzantine, and Bulgarian rule: 11th–12th centuries
  • 1096–1189: The Crusaders are passing through Belgrade.
  • 1127: Hungarian king Stefan II destroys Belgrade and used the obtained stones to build a fortress in Zemun.
  • 1154: Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus destroys Zemun and takes the stones back to rebuild Belgrade.
  • 1182: Hungary attack and sacked the city.
  • 1185: Byzantine Empire regained it by diplomacy but loses to the newly reestablished Bulgarian Empire.
Serbian, Hungarian, and Bulgarian rule: 13th century
  • 1202: The Hungarians seize Belgrade.
  • 1203: The Bulgarians retake the city.
  • 1213: The city is given to Hungary by emperor Boril.
  • 1221: Belgrade is returned to Bulgaria.
  • 1246: The city becomes part of Hungary.
  • 1284: The Hungarians gift to the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin; this is the first time that Belgrade comes under Serbian rule.
Hungarian rule: 14th–16th centuries

16th — 19th centuries

Historical periodEvents
Ottoman and Austrian rule: 16th–19th centuries
Ottoman and Serbian rule: 1804—1878
Principality/Kingdom of Serbia: 1878–1914

Early 20th century

Historical periodEvents
Austro-Hungarian invasion 1914
  • 28 July [ O.S. 15 July] 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. World War I begins with the bombing of Belgrade in the evening of the same day. Dušan Đonović falls as the first victim of the warfare.
  • 2 December 1914: Austrians bombard and occupy Belgrade.
  • 15 December 1914: The Serbs liberate Belgrade.
Austro-Hungarian occupation 1915–18
  • 6–9 October 1915: German and Austrian troops led by August von Mackensen re-occupy Belgrade. Colonel Dragutin Gavrilović sacrifices the entire legion for the city.
  • 1 November 1918: The Serbs liberate Belgrade.
Kingdom of Serbia 1918
  • 24 November 1918: The Assembly of Syrmia proclaims the secession of Syrmia from the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and unification with the Kingdom of Serbia, thus unifying Belgrade with Zemun in the same state.
  • 25 November 1918: The Great people's assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci and other Slavs proclaims the unification of Banat, Bačka and Baranja with the Kingdom of Serbia, thus unifying Belgrade and the settlements on the Danube's left bank in the same state.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1918–1941
  • 1 December 1918: Belgrade becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The document was signed at Krsmanović's House at Terazije. [16]
  • 28 January [ O.S. 15 January] 1919: In order to coordinate the dating in different parts of the newly formed state, the territories of former Serbia and Montenegro adopt Gregorian calendar, which had already been in use in the other parts of the kingdom.
  • 1923: ParisBudapest air line extended to Belgrade.
  • 25 March 1927: The first Belgrade airport (Dojno polje Airport) opened.
  • 6 January 1929: King Aleksandar Karađorđević dissolved the National Assembly and started his dictatorship. Belgrade becomes the capital of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
  • 24 March 1929: Radio Belgrade started broadcasting.
  • 1 April 1934: Zemun annexed to the City of Belgrade.
  • 27 October 1935: The first bridge over the Danube, the Pančevački most (Bridge of Pančevo) is built.
  • 11 September 1937: Belgrade Fair opened.
  • 20 May 1938: Drying out of the wetland on the Sava's left bank begins, making place for the future New Belgrade.
  • 14 December 1939: Leftist students' protests against the government, poverty and war. During the police breakdown of the demonstrations, five to ten protesters are killed (depending on the sources).
  • 27 March 1941: Huge protests against joining the Axis.
  • 6–8 April 1941: Nazi Germany bombs Belgrade ( Operation Retribution ). 2,271–4,000 casualties, depending on the sources. Many public and private buildings completely destroyed, including the building of the National Library of Serbia, along with an invaluable collection of books, manuscripts, charters, old maps, journals and many other documents. The Royal Yugoslav Army, while retreating, destroys all the bridges crossing Sava and Danube.
Nazi German occupation 1941–1944
  • 12 April 1941: Belgrade is occupied by German forces.
  • April 1941 – October 1944: Belgrade is occupied and divided. Old part of the city becomes a part of Nazi Germany and the capital of the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia, governed by puppet Government of National Salvation. The settlements on the Danube's left bank become a part of the Banat autonomous region, formally responsible to the puppet governments in Belgrade, but in practice governed by its Volksdeutsche (ethnic German) minority, while Zemun becomes a part of the Independent State of Croatia. Four concentration camps have operated on the territory of the occupied Belgrade: Sajmište, Banjica, Topovske Šupe, and Milišić's brickyard. Approximately 50,000 people have died in these camps, most of them in Sajmište concentration camp, on the territory controlled by the Independent State of Croatia.
  • 1942: The Germans, using forced labour, build Old Sava Bridge.
  • April–September 1944: The Allies have bombed Belgrade eleven times. 1,000 – 5,000 civilian casualties, depending on the sources.
  • 14 September 1944 – 24 November 1944: Belgrade Offensive by the units of the Soviet Red Army and the Yugoslav Partisans. The main battles in the Belgrade's urban area took place 28 September 1944 – 20 October 1944.
  • 20 October 1944: Liberation of Belgrade. Miladin Zarić, an ordinary citizen, saves Old Sava Bridge from demolition, by cutting the detonator wires, making it the only large bridge in Europe, beside Ludendorff Bridge, that the Germans didn't succeed in demolishing while retreating. This way, the Soviet troops manage to cross Sava river and to definitely expel the Germans from the city.
  • 22 October 1944: Liberation of Zemun.

Late 20th century

Historical periodEvents
Communist Yugoslavia 1944–1991
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia/Serbia and Montenegro 1992–2006

Modern era

Historical periodEvents
Republic of Serbia 2006–present

See also

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