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Jirhangga (Manchu: ᠵᡳᡵᡥᠠᠩᡤᠠ; Chinese: 吉爾杭阿; also known as Koer-hanger in English; died June 1, 1856) was an eminent Manchu official in the late Qing dynasty. He served as the Governor of Jiangsu, which belonged to Bordered Yellow Banner, and was appointed to that post by Imperial Commissioner Xiang Rong (向榮). He was killed in action by rebels during the Taiping Rebellion.[ citation needed ]
Before the Chinese New Year of 1856, Jirhangga and the Mayor of Nanjing led 15,000 troops into Shanghai [ clarification needed ]. This was followed by street fighting, the recovery of the Shanghai county, and the arrest of thousands of Small Swords Society members.
In March 1856, Jirhangga and Nanjing's Mayor led 40,000 troops stationed in Mount Jiuhua. The army was intended to capture the capital of the Taiping Rebellion in Nanjing.[ citation needed ]
In 1865, when the Taiping General Qin Rigang brought forces to strengthen the offensive against Beijing in the North, Jirhangga immediately attacked, despite having only a fraction of the troops, and against the advice of his staff. After five days of fighting, Jirhangga was killed by artillery shells as he was standing on the city wall of the Dantu District city,[ clarification needed ] waving the Qing's banner.[ citation needed ]
Under orders from Xiang Rong, Zhang Guoliang brought reinforcements from Jiangnan DaYing to save Jirhangga, but arrived too late, as Jirhangga had been killed a week earlier. Zhang Guoliang still recovered the vital city of Zhenjiang from the Taiping, who had occupied it for five years. Jirhangga's death and the five-day combat changed the Taiping rebels' former offensive toward the north.[ citation needed ]
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China from 1850 to 1864, between the Manchu Qing dynasty and the Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom – though following the fall of Nanjing the last rebel army was not wiped out until 1871. After fighting the bloodiest civil war in world history, with 30 to 50 million dead, the established Qing government won decisively, although the outcome is considered a pyrrhic victory.
The Xianfeng Emperor, or by temple name Emperor Wenzong of Qing (清文宗), given name Yizhu (奕詝), was the eighth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigned from 1850 to 1861. During his reign the Qing dynasty experienced several wars and rebellions including the Taiping Rebellion, Nian Rebellion, and Second Opium War. He was the last Chinese emperor to have total executive ruling power. After his death, the Qing dynasty was controlled by Empress Dowager Cixi.
The Nian Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868, contemporaneously with Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) in South China. The rebellion failed to topple the Qing dynasty, but caused immense economic devastation and loss of life that became major long-term factors in the collapse of the Qing regime in the early 20th century.
The Jintian Uprising was an armed revolt formally declared by Hong Xiuquan on 11 January 1851 during the late Qing Dynasty. The uprising was named after the rebel base in Jintian, a town in Guangxi within present-day Guiping. It marked the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion.
Chen Yucheng, born Chen Picheng, was a Chinese general during the Taiping Rebellion and later served as the Heroic (Ying) Prince of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in the later stages of the rebellion, his famous nickname was "Four-eyed Dog" because of two prominent moles below his eyes. His two moles resembled eyes from afar, and it spooked some Qing soldiers.
The Xiang Army or Hunan Army was a standing army organized by Zeng Guofan from existing regional and village militia forces called tuanlian to contain the Taiping Rebellion in Qing China. The name is taken from the Hunan region where the Army was raised. The Army was financed through local nobles and gentry, as opposed to through the centralized Manchu-led Qing dynasty. The army was mostly disbanded by Zeng after the re-capture of the Taiping capital at Nanking.
Zhang Guoliang, born in Guangdong, was a Field Marshal for the Qing dynasty. He was born in Gaoyao, Zhaoqing, Guangdong, China, although Qing state that he is from Meixian, Guangdong. He was originally a bandit in Guangxi but later joined the Qing Army. He raised the Green Standard Army by 250,000 to fight against the Taiping Rebellion in the second rout the Army Group Jiangnan in 1860 and was defeated by Li Xiucheng. Zhang served as a minister to the emperor and a vice commander of Army Group Jiangnan until his death by suicide. Zeng Guofan praised Zhang and said he was Jiangnan's "Great Wall of China."
Cheng Xueqi (Chinese: 程學啟; courtesy name Fangzhong 方忠; born in Tongcheng, Anhui, was a general of the Taiping Rebellion who surrendered to the Qing dynasty in 1861 with Ding Ruchang. He was an eminent Han Chinese official and a Captain General in the army of the late Qing dynasty. He led the Huai Army to fight effectively against the Taiping rebels and helped to restore the stability of Qing, along with other prominent figures, including Li Hongzhang and Zeng Guofan, setting the scene for the successful defense of Shanghai and the Suzhou Massacre POW Incident. The Tongzhi Emperor praised Cheng as "intelligent and brave".
Jiangnan Daying (Chinese: 江南大營 or the Jiangnan Battalion; was an army group assembled by the Qing dynasty. The army group consist of mostly Green Standard Army, and their goal was to quell the Taiping Rebellion around the Jiangnan region. The army group twice encircled Nanjing, the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, but were defeated by the Taiping forces on both occasions.
The Tianjing Incident occurred during the late Qing Dynasty from September 2 to October 1856. This was a major political internal conflict within the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom which took place in its capital city Tianjing. A few key leaders of the Taiping Rebellion were killed: the East King Yang Xiuqing, the North King Wei Changhui and the Yan King Qin Rigang. More than 27,000 other opposition rivals including soldiers perished in the conflict as well. The Tianjing Incident was said to be one of the factors which led to the eventual failure of the Taiping Rebellion, as well as the turning point in its fate.
The Battle of Nanjing (1853) began after the fall of Wuhan on March 8, 1853, and ended with the fall of the capital city of Nanking on March 19, 1853, to Taiping troops, a few days after the Qing Government evacuated the city.
The First rout of the Jiangnan Battalion took place between 1853 and 1856 when the Qing government raised the Green Standard Army to fight against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. The action involved Qing forces surrounding the city of Nanking, the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
The Battle of Jiangnan (1860), also known as the Second rout of the Jiangnan Battalion was a battle between the Qing government's Green Standard Army and the army of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion. The Green Standard Army twice attempted to besiege Nanjing, capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, but was unable to break through. To break the siege of Nanjing, the Taiping forces maneuvered to divert Qing forces by sacking Hangzhou, before quickly moving back to Nanjing to counter-encircle the Qing siege forces and routing the Green Standard Army garrison completely, breaking the siege of Nanjing.
Anti-Qing sentiment refers to a sentiment principally held in China against Manchu rule during the Qing dynasty (1636–1912), which was criticized by opponents as being barbaric. The Qing was accused of destroying traditional Han culture by forcing Han to wear their hair in a queue in the Manchu style. It was blamed for suppressing Chinese science, causing China to be transformed from the world's premiere power to a poor, backwards nation. The people of the Eight Banners lived off government pensions unlike the general Han civilian population.
Xiang Rong was a Chinese military general and politician. He was born in Wuxi County, Chongqing, and was promoted from the rank of a foot soldier during the later years of the Qing dynasty (1636–1912). He was involved in early military operations against the Taiping Rebellion in Henan from 1850 onwards. From then he was a Senior Colonel, after one year the military promoted him be the tidu (提督) of Guangxi, even though he failed, he made the Taiping believers flee Guangxi.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, later shortened to Heavenly Kingdom or Heavenly Dynasty, was an unrecognized oppositional state in China and Chinese Christian theocratic absolute monarchy from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing.
The Qing dynasty (1636–1912) was established by conquest and maintained by armed force. The founding emperors personally organized and led the armies, and the continued cultural and political legitimacy of the dynasty depended on the ability to defend the country from invasion and expand its territory. Therefore, military institutions, leadership, and finance were fundamental to the dynasty's initial success and ultimate decay. The early military system centered on the Eight Banners, a hybrid institution that also played social, economic, and political roles. The Banner system was developed on an informal basis as early as 1601, and formally established in 1615 by Jurchen leader Nurhaci (1559–1626), the retrospectively recognized founder of the Qing. His son Hong Taiji (1592–1643), who renamed the Jurchens "Manchus," created eight Mongol banners to mirror the Manchu ones and eight "Han-martial" banners manned by Chinese who surrendered to the Qing before the full-fledged conquest of China proper began in 1644. After 1644, the Ming Chinese troops that surrendered to the Qing were integrated into the Green Standard Army, a corps that eventually outnumbered the Banners by three to one.
Events from the year 1860 in China.
Events from the year 1856 in China.
The Battle of Changsha was fought in the early years of the Taiping Rebellion throughout 1852. After defeating Qing forces in Guangxi, the Taipings advanced into neighboring Hunan province. The city was heavily defended and a delay in the Taiping advance allowed Qing forces to reinforce the city. The first attempt to advance north was stopped at an ambush at the Suoyi ford in the Xiang River, where over 10,000 Taiping sailors and soldiers were killed.