Consistent life ethic

Last updated

The consistent life ethic, or the consistent ethic of life is an ideology that opposes abortion, capital punishment, assisted suicide, and euthanasia. Adherents oppose war, or at the very least, unjust war; some adherents go as far as full pacifism and so oppose all war. [1] The term "consistent ethic of life" was popularized in 1983 by the Catholic Cardinal Joseph Bernardin to express an ideology based on the premise that all human life is sacred and should be protected by law. [2] Many authors have understood the ethic to be relevant to a broad variety of areas of public policy. [3]



The phrase "consistent ethic of life" was used as far back as a 1971 speech delivered by then-Archbishop Humberto Medeiros of Boston. [4]

Eileen Egan

In 1971, Roman Catholic pacifist Eileen Egan coined the phrase "seamless garment" to describe a holistic reverence for life. [5] [6] The phrase is a Bible reference from John 19:23 to the seamless robe of Jesus, which his executioners left whole rather than dividing it at his execution. The seamless garment philosophy holds that issues such as abortion, capital punishment, militarism, euthanasia, social injustice, and economic injustice all demand a consistent application of moral principles valuing the sanctity of human life. "The protection of life", said Egan, "is a seamless garment. You can't protect some life and not others." Her words were meant to challenge members of society who divided their commitment to protecting and cherishing human life, choosing anti-war stances but not anti-abortion work, or those members of the anti-abortion movement who were in favor of capital punishment.

J. Bryan Hehir

J. Bryan Hehir, staff writer for the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops on political affairs, is credited by Charles Curran with coining the term "consistent ethic of life" [7] [8]

Joseph Cardinal Bernardin

Cardinal Joseph Bernardin of Chicago helped publicize the consistent life ethic idea, initially in a lecture at Fordham University, Dec 6, 1983. At first Bernardin spoke out against nuclear war and abortion. However, he quickly expanded the scope of his view to include all aspects of human life. In that Fordham University lecture, Bernardin said: "The spectrum of life cuts across the issues of genetics, abortion, capital punishment, modern warfare and the care of the terminally ill." [9] Bernardin said that although each of the issues was distinct, nevertheless the issues were linked since the valuing and defending of (human) life were, he believed, at the center of both issues. Bernardin told an audience in Portland, Oregon: "When human life is considered 'cheap' or easily expendable in one area, eventually nothing is held as sacred and all lives are in jeopardy." [9]

Bernardin drew his stance from New Testament principles, specifically of forgiveness and reconciliation, yet he argued that neither the themes nor the content generated from those themes were exclusively Christian. [10] By doing this, Bernardin attempted to create a dialogue with others who were not necessarily aligned with Christianity.

Bernardin and other advocates of this ethic sought to form a consistent policy that would link abortion, capital punishment, economic injustice, euthanasia, and unjust war. [2] Bernardin sought to unify conservative Catholics (who opposed abortion) and liberal Catholics (who opposed capital punishment) in the United States. By relying on fundamental principles, Bernardin also sought to coordinate work on several different spheres of Catholic moral theology. In addition, Bernardin argued that since the 1950s the church had moved against its own historical, casuistic exceptions to the protection of life. "To summarize the shift succinctly, the presumption against taking human life has been strengthened and the exceptions made ever more restrictive." [2]

Growth and present-day activity

The Consistent Life Network and other member groups protesting in Washington, D.C., calling for an end to war. Consistent Life Network at peace rally.jpg
The Consistent Life Network and other member groups protesting in Washington, D.C., calling for an end to war.

The non-profit organization Consistent Life Network, founded in 1987 as the Seamless Garment Network, promotes adherence to the ethic through education and non-violent action. [11] [12] Individual endorsers belonging to the organization include Father Daniel Berrigan, theologian Harvey Cox, Village Voice columnist Nat Hentoff, Father Theodore Hesburgh, actress Patricia Heaton, L'Arche founder Jean Vanier, death penalty activist Sister Helen Prejean, pastor and activist Patrick Mahoney, author Ken Kesey, Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams and Nobel Peace Prize laureates Mairead Corrigan Maguire and Adolfo Pérez Esquivel. [13] Rachel MacNair, for ten years (1994–2004) President of Feminists for Life, an anti-abortion organization, is the director of the Institute for Integrated Social Analysis, the research arm of Consistent Life Network. [14] [15]

The Network also consists of member groups. Rehumanize International was created under the name Life Matters Journal by Aimee Murphy. It is currently headed by Murphy, Herb Geraghty, Maria Oswalt, and Sarah Slater. [16] [17] Secular Pro-Life, Democrats for Life of America, the Pro-Life Alliance of Gays and Lesbians (PLAGAL), and All Our Lives (a pro-contraception feminist group), New Wave Feminists (led by Destiny Herndon-De La Rosa), and the American Solidarity Party, a Christian Democratic political party, are all additional members. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] These organizations collaborate and with Consistent Life Network for activism and volunteer outreach efforts.

As with the American Solidarity Party, the Prohibition Party, a minor political party in the United States, endorses a consistent life ethic. [18] Kanye West, who ran a U.S. presidential campaign in 2020 heralded a consistent life ethic too. [23]

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops still continues to promote the consistent ethic of life through publications, volunteer efforts, and declarations. Several Catholic dioceses have groups created with the aim of promoting the consistent life ethic in their communities, and putting it into practice. [24] The Catholic Worker Movement, established by Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin, is an organization primarily aimed towards grassroots organization and volunteer work to serve the poor, marginalized, and those facing unexpected pregnancies. [25]

Other prominent authors who have written in support of the consistent life ethic include Frank Pavone, [26] James Martin, [27] John Dear, [28] [5] [29] Ron Sider, [30] James Hedges, [18] Tony Campolo, [31] [32] [33] Joel Hunter, [33] Wendell Berry, [34] [35] [29] and Shane Claiborne. [33] [36] [37]


According to Michael Leach, "If one contends, as we do, that the right of every fetus to be born should be protected by civil law and supported by civil consensus, then our moral, political and economic responsibilities do not stop at the moment of birth." [6] This viewpoint was emphasized by Pope John Paul II in his 1995 encyclical, Evangelium Vitae (Gospel of Life). [38] This book-length document outlined the Pope's emphasis on fostering a culture of life based on the New Testament and the life of Jesus. Specifically, he emphasized the value and inviolability of human life, from conception until natural death.


Rather than "thinking of a pregnant women and her fetus as being adversaries battling over exclusive rights, the right of a woman to control her body versus the right of the fetus to live long enough to control hers", a consistent life ethic would view both as valuable and important, and seek to provide both all the support they needed to live and live well. [39]

Capital punishment

Traditionally, arguments for the death penalty focus on the idea that it: 1) deters further violence; 2) enacts just retribution on the criminal, effectively gaining a sense of justice for society and those affected by the crime; 3) seeks to reform other criminals with the threat of such severe punishment and; 4) protects society from those criminals which the government has deemed to be the most heinous.[ citation needed ]

Bernardin and some other consistent life ethic advocates recognize the right of the state to use capital punishment. However, they reject the necessity of this type of punishment for many reasons, arguing that there are more appropriate and effective ways for the state to defend its people. Many consistent life ethic advocates call for a total abolition of the death penalty. The consistent ethic's opposition to capital punishment is rooted in the conviction that an atmosphere of respect for life must pervade a society, and resorting to the death penalty does not support this attitude. [40] Adherents argue that the result of the death penalty – removing the criminal from society, enacting justice on the criminal, and bringing about feelings of revenge for those affected and the greater society – do not necessarily have to be accomplished by taking a life.

One out-spoken anti-death penalty activist is Sister Helen Prejean. Her books Dead Man Walking and The Death of Innocents: An Eyewitness Account to Wrongful Executions are autobiographical accounts of the time she spent ministering to death row inmates. [41] Another notable independent Catholic anti-death penalty organization is Priests for Life.

Health care

Bernardin understood the consistent life ethic as implying a societal responsibility to provide adequate health care for all, especially the poor. [42] [43] [43]

According to Ron Hamel,

...a moral vision constituted by the consistent ethic of life sensitizes one to procedures, technological developments, and aspects of the health care system that fail to promote or do not adequately promote human dignity and do not sufficiently enhance human life. is not sufficient to only oppose euthanasia, but one must also be concerned about and address those factors that give rise to euthanasia and find ever better ways to care for the dying and ensure the dying the opportunity to forgo treatment and to live their lives fully while dying. [44]

As such, appeals to the consistent life ethic have been made in support of universal health care. [45]

Abuse of alcohol and other drugs

Writing for Life Teen, Caitlin Sica held that the abuse of alcohol and other drugs must be considered a "pro-life" issue, reporting that the "number of deaths from drug overdoses now supersedes the deaths from gun homicides and car crashes combined". [46]

In the same vein, James Hedges, in an article titled "Prohibition Platform incorporates a Consistent Life Ethic", stated that "Alcohol in many ways causes 'premature deaths,' and it degrades the quality of life before death." [18]

Chris Christie opined that "pro-life just doesn't pertain to matters of abortion; it means fighting for a person's life at all stages, no matter how complicated or messy that person's life gets" and noted that in the United States, "only 2.5 million of the 23.1 million people who needed treatment for drug or alcohol abuse actually received it". [47]


The consistent life ethic has been invoked to include care for immigrants and refugees. [48] [45] [49] [50] While not directly appealing to the consistent life ethic, other Catholics have sought to apply the "pro-life" ethic to the issue of immigration. [51] [52] [53]


Leonardo Blair, in The Christian Post , discussed how speaking out racism is a "pro-life" issue, specifically commenting on the murder of George Floyd in May 2020: [54]

I would go on to write about my experience and raise my voice in media interviews but there are many more people of color in America who have suffered through far worse. Some have lived to tell their stories and many others have not. For those that live, the trauma lives with us and we simply learn to cope while praying and pushing for a more perfect union in America. ... Evangelicals are pro-life people and I strongly believe if nothing else, standing against anything which threatens the life of our brothers and sisters in Christ must also be treated as a pro-life issue. We have all been witnesses to a killing that leaves very little doubt about why it happened. Let’s stand for justice in the name of Jesus. [54]

Wearing of masks during the COVID-19 pandemic

James Martin, a Jesuit priest, affirmed a belief in a consistent life ethic, specifically stating that a "reverence for life includes a desire to care for the unborn child in the womb, the elderly person in danger of euthanasia, the refugee starving on the border, the L.G.B.T. youth tempted to suicide and the inmate being readied for execution on death row". [55] Martin stated that to that list, sacred lives also include "the woman standing in line at the grocery store checkout counter, the elderly man seated in a church pew or the office worker who has just stepped aboard public transportation." [55] Because masks prevent of contagion, the act of wearing a mask in Martin's view is being "pro-life". [55]


One criticism made of the consistent life ethic position is that it inadvertently helped provide "cover" or support for politicians who supported legalized abortion or wanted to minimize this issue, a circumstance that Bernardin himself both recognized and deplored. [56] [4] A critic of Joseph Bernardin, George Weigel rejected the claims that the consistent life ethic had been created to cover up for abortion rights, saying that Bernardin was "a committed pro-lifer". [57]

Archbishop José Gómez of Los Angeles criticized the "seamless garment" approach in 2016 because in his view it results in "a mistaken idea that all issues are morally equivalent." [58]

The "seamless garment" approach was also criticized by then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger while he was serving as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. In a July 2004 letter written to now former-Cardinal Theodore McCarrick and to the United States Bishops as a whole, Cardinal Ratzinger makes it clear that the church does not treat capital punishment with the same moral weight that it does abortion and euthanasia: "Not all moral issues have the same moral weight as abortion and euthanasia. For example, if a Catholic were to be at odds with the Holy Father on the application of capital punishment or on the decision to wage war, he would not for that reason be considered unworthy to present himself to receive Holy Communion...There may be a legitimate diversity of opinion even among Catholics about waging war and applying the death penalty, but not however with regard to abortion and euthanasia." [59]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Christian left is a range of center-left and left-wing Christian political and social movements that largely embrace social justice viewpoints and uphold a social gospel.

Joseph Bernardin Catholic cardinal

Joseph Louis Bernardin was an American Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Cincinnati from 1972 until 1982, and as Archbishop of Chicago from 1982 until his death in 1996 from pancreatic cancer. Bernardin was elevated to the cardinalate in 1983 by Pope John Paul II.

Right to life

The right to life is the belief that a being has the right to live and, in particular, should not be killed by another entity including government. The concept of a right to life arises in debates on issues of capital punishment, war, abortion, euthanasia, police brutality, justifiable homicide, and animal rights. Various individuals may disagree on which areas this principle applies, including such issues previously listed.

United States Conference of Catholic Bishops American Catholic episcopal conference

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) is the episcopal conference of the Catholic Church in the United States. Founded in 1966 as the joint National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) and United States Catholic Conference (USCC), it is composed of all active and retired members of the Catholic hierarchy in the United States and the territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands. In the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the bishops in the six dioceses form their own episcopal conference, the Puerto Rican Episcopal Conference. The bishops in U.S. insular areas in the Pacific Ocean – the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the territory of American Samoa, and the territory of Guam – are members of the Episcopal Conference of the Pacific.

Evangelium vitae translated in English to "The Gospel of Life", is a papal encyclical promulgated on 25 March 1995 by Pope John Paul II. It deals with issues pertaining to the sanctity of human life, including murder, abortion, euthanasia, and capital punishment, reaffirming the Church's stances on said issues in a way generally considered consistent with previous Church teachings.

A culture of life describes a way of life based upon the belief that human life at all stages from conception through natural death is sacred. It opposes the destruction of human life at any stage, including abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, studies and medicines involving embryonic stem cells, and contraception. It also promotes policies that "lift up the human spirit with compassion and love." The term originated in moral theology, especially that of the Catholic Church, and was popularly championed by Pope John Paul II; it has been widely used by religious leaders in evangelical Christianity as well. The philosophy of such a culture is a consistent life ethic.

United States anti-abortion movement Movement opposed to abortion in the United States

The United States anti-abortion movement contains elements opposing induced abortion on both moral and religious grounds and supports its legal prohibition or restriction. Advocates generally argue that human life begins at conception and that the human zygote is a person and therefore has a right to life. The anti-abortion movement includes a variety of organizations, with no single centralized decision-making body. There are diverse arguments and rationales for the anti-abortion stance. Some anti-abortion activists allow for some permissible abortions, including therapeutic abortions, in exceptional circumstances such as incest, rape, severe fetal defects or when the woman's health is at risk.

The major world religions have taken varied positions on the morality of capital punishment and as such, they have historically impacted the way in which governments handle such punishment practices. Although the viewpoints of some religions have changed over time, their influence on capital punishment generally depends on the existence of a religious moral code and how closely religion influences the government. Religious moral codes are often based on a body of teachings, such as the Old Testament or the Qur'an.

In religion and ethics, the inviolability of life, or sanctity of life, is a principle of implied protection regarding aspects of sentient life that are said to be holy, sacred, or otherwise of such value that they are not to be violated. This can be applied to both animals and humans or micro-organisms; for instance, in religions that practice Ahimsa, both are seen as holy and worthy of life. The value is inherent: Life is created in the womb.

Pro-life are movements which advocate against the legalization of euthanasia or the practice of abortion.

Blase J. Cupich Catholic bishop

Blase Joseph Cupich is an American prelate of the Catholic Church, a cardinal who serves as ninth archbishop of the Archdiocese of Chicago.

Stephen Spiro (1939–2007) was a political activist known for his opposition against the Vietnam War and his advocacy of a consistent life ethic. Opposing the Vietnam war based on the theory of Just War, he objected to being conscripted, but as the law only allowed for conscientious objection to all wars, he was convicted of avoiding conscription and given a suspended sentence of five years. He was later pardoned by President Gerald Ford.

Luis Ladaria Ferrer Roman Catholic cardinal

Luis Francisco Ladaria Ferrer is a Spanish Jesuit, theologian and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. After a thirty-year career teaching theology, he joined the Roman Curia in 2004 as Secretary-General of the International Theological Commission. An archbishop from 2008 until his appointment to the cardinalate in 2018, he became Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) in 2017.

The National Pro-Life Religious Council (NPRC) is a Christian coalition representing numerous Christian anti-abortion denominations and organizations in the United States.

The Pontifical Academy for Life or Pontificia Accademia per la Vita is a Pontifical Academy of the Roman Catholic Church dedicated to promoting the Church's consistent life ethic. It also does related research on bioethics and Catholic moral theology.

Acceptance and approval of capital punishment within the Catholic Church has varied throughout time, with the Church becoming significantly more critical of the practice since the mid-20th century. In 2018, the Catechism of the Catholic Church was revised to read that "in the light of the Gospel" the death penalty is "inadmissible because it is an attack on the inviolability and dignity of the person", and that the Catholic Church "works with determination for its abolition worldwide."

Professor David Simon Oderberg is an Australian philosopher of metaphysics and ethics based in Britain since 1987. He is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Reading. He describes himself as a non-consequentialist or a traditionalist in his works. Broadly speaking, Oderberg places himself in opposition to Peter Singer and other utilitarian or consequentialist thinkers. He has published over thirty academic papers and has authored four books, Real Essentialism, Applied Ethics, Moral Theory, and The Metaphysics of Identity over Time. Professor Oderberg is an alumnus of the Universities of Melbourne, where he completed his first degrees, and Oxford where he gained his D.Phil.

The Catholic Church opposes all forms of abortion procedures whose direct purpose is to destroy a zygote, blastocyst, embryo or fetus, since it holds that "human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. From the first moment of his existence, a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person – among which is the inviolable right of every innocent being to life." However, the Church does recognize as morally legitimate certain acts which indirectly result in the death of the fetus, as when the direct purpose is removal of a cancerous womb. Canon 1398 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law imposes automatic excommunication on Latin Catholics who procure a completed abortion, if they fulfill the conditions for being subject to such a sanction. Eastern Catholics are not subject to automatic excommunication, but by Canon 1450 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches they are to be excommunicated by decree if found guilty of the same action, and they may be absolved of the sin only by the eparchial bishop. In addition to teaching that abortion is immoral, the Catholic Church also makes public statements and takes actions in opposition to its legality.

Since the Catholic Church views abortion as gravely wrong, it considers it a duty to reduce its acceptance by the public and in civil legislation. While it considers that Catholics should not favour abortion in any field, it recognises that Catholics may accept compromises that, while permitting abortions, lessen their incidence by, for instance, restricting some forms or enacting remedies against the conditions that give rise to them. It is accepted that support may be given to a political platform that contains a clause in favour of abortion but also elements that will actually reduce the number of abortions, rather than to an anti-abortion platform that will lead to their increase.


  1. Worthen, Molly (15 September 2012). "The Power of Political Communion". New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  2. 1 2 3 Bernardin, Joseph. Consistent ethics of life 1988, Sheed and Ward
  3. Overberg, Kenneth R. (2006). Ethics and AIDS: Compassion and Justice in a Global Crisis. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 28. ISBN   978-0-7425-5012-4.
  4. 1 2 Gregg, Samuel (13 August 2015). "The Consistent—and Not So Seamless—Ethic of Life". Catholic World Report. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  5. 1 2 Dear, J. (2005). The God of Peace: Toward A Theology of Nonviolence. Wipf & Stock Publishers. p. 158ff. ISBN   978-1-59752-112-3 . Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  6. 1 2 Leach, Michael (6 November 2012). "Cardinal Bernardin's gift fits all sizes". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  7. Curran, C.E. (2006). Loyal Dissent: Memoir of a Catholic Theologian. Moral Traditions series. Georgetown University Press. p. 103. ISBN   978-1-58901-363-6 . Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  8. Other attribute the term to Bernardin himself, eg. Cosacchi, D.; Martin, E. (2016). The Berrigan Letters: Personal Correspondence between Daniel and Philip Berrigan. Orbis Books. p. 13. ISBN   978-1-60833-631-9 . Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  9. 1 2 Overberg, Kenneth R. S.J.:"A Consistent Ethic of Life", Catholic Update, St. Anthony's Press, 2009
  10. Walter, James J. and Shannon, Thomas A.: Contemporary Issues in Bioethics: A Catholic perspective, Rowan and Littlefeild Publishers, 2005.
  11. "Vision & Mission". consistent-life. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  12. "Member Organizations". consistent-life. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  13. "Consistent Life Individual Endorsers As of January 9, 2017" (PDF). Consistent Life Network. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  14. "Institute for Integrated Social Analysis". Consistent Life Network. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  15. Derr, M.K.; MacNair, R.; Naranjo-Huebl, L. (2005). Prolife Feminism: Yesterday and Today. Feminism and Nonviolence Studies Association. ISBN   978-1-4134-9577-5.
  17. Graham, Ruth (11 October 2016). "The New Culture of Life". Slate. ISSN   1091-2339 . Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  18. 1 2 3 4 James Hedges (June 2020). "Prohibition Platform incorporates a Consistent Life Ethic". National Prohibitionist. Mercersburg Printing. 10 (2): 4. ISSN   1549-9251.
  19. Hughes, Mariann (30 October 2016). "The search for a third way in U.S. politics". Our Sunday Visitor. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  20. "Complete Platform". American Solidarity Party. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  21. Halper, Daniel (9 June 2016). "WH Denies Endorsement Will Intimidate FBI Investigators". Weekly Standard. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  22. "About". New Wave Feminists. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  23. "Kanye West picks 'biblical life coach' as presidential running mate". Premier Christian Radio. 10 July 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  24. "Culture Of Life | USCCB". Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  25. "Catholic Worker Movement". Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  26. Pavone, Frank (1 January 1999). "The Consistent Ethic of Life: Myths and Realities". Priests for Life. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  27. Gun Control is a Pro-Life Issue, America, 17 December 2012
  28. Dear, John (15 July 2008). "The Consistent Ethic of Life". Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  29. 1 2 "Consistent Life Network Endorsers". Consistent Life Network. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  30. Sider, Ron (1987). Completely Pro-Life. Intervarsity Press. ISBN   978-0-8308-1706-1.
  31. Campolo, Tony (18 October 2006). "Who is Really Pro-Life?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 January 2017. (revised 25 May 2011)
  32. Merritt, Jonathan (17 December 2013). "Tony Campolo hits hard on abortion, gay marriage, Israel and more". Religion News Service. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  33. 1 2 3 Pally, Marcia (28 December 2011). "The New Evangelicals: How Christians are rethinking Abortion and Gay Marriage". Australian Broadcasting Commission. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  34. Berry, Wendell (22 June 1986). "The consequences of treating a fetus as a human being: Reader survey on abortion". Whole Earth Review. Letter to. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  35. Berry, Wendell. The failure of war.
  36. Claiborne, Shane (22 January 2013). "A Dialogue on What it Means to be Pro-Life". Red Letter Christians. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  37. Claiborne, Shane (2006). The Irresistible Revolution . Zondervan. ISBN   9780310266303.
  38. John Paul II (1995), Evangelium Vitae, Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana
  39. Kelly, Kevin (22 June 1986). "The consequences of treating a fetus as a human being". Whole Earth Review.
  40. Bernardin, Cardinal Joseph A.: The Seamless Garment: Writings on the Consistent Ethic of Life Orbis Books, 2008.
  41. MacNair, Rachel M., and Zunes, Stephen: Consistently Opposing Killing: from abortion to assisted suicide, the death penalty and war, pages 58–60. Praeger Publishers, 2008.
  42. Bernardin 1985.
  43. 1 2 Bernardin 1986. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBernardin1986 (help)
  44. Hamel, Ron (November 2008). "Twenty-Five Years Later: Cardinal Bernardin's Consistent Ethic of Life". Health Progress. pp. 56–59. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  45. 1 2 "On health care, a consistent ethic of life". The Long Island Catholic. 48 (23). 30 September 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  46. Sica, Caitlin (30 August 2018). "Why Addiction is a Pro-Life Issue". Life Teen . Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  47. Zezima, Katie (23 June 2014). "Chris Christie has very complicated views on drugs". The Washington Post . Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  48. Scribner, Todd (31 July 2014). "The Gospel of Life and the Catholic approach to the refugee crisis". Catholics in Alliance for the Common Good. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  49. Adkins, Jason (13 August 2014). "Catholic Spirit: Border children and a consistent ethic of life". Minnesota Catholic Conference. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  50. Kangas, Billy (22 January 2015). "Keeping "Pro-Life" Consistent". The Orant. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  51. Snyder, L.; et al. (20 January 2015). "Catholic Leaders to Congress: Immigration Reform is a Pro-Life Issue". Faith in Public Life. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016.
  52. Allen, John L. Jr. (5 April 2014). "Immigration reform becomes a Catholic 'pro-life' cause". Boston Globe. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  53. Winters, Michael Sean (21 January 2015). "Catholic leaders push immigration as pro-life issue". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  54. 1 2 Blair, Leonardo (29 May 2020). "Why speaking out against the killing of George Floyd is a pro-life issue". The Christian Post . Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  55. 1 2 3 James Martin (21 July 2020). "Father James Martin: Wearing a mask is pro-life". America . Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  56. Neff, Ronald N. (16 August 2005). "The "Seamless Garment" Revisited". Sobran's. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  57. Weigel, George (February 2011). "The End of the Bernardin Era: The rise, dominance, and decline of a culturally accommodating Catholicism". First Things. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  58. Staff Reporter (4 February 2016). "Archbishop Gomez: The Root Violence in Our Society Is the Violence Against the Most Vulnerable". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  59. "Worthiness to Receive Holy Communion: General Principles | EWTN". EWTN Global Catholic Television Network. Retrieved 19 October 2020.


Further reading