The Mountain

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The Mountain

La Montagne
Leaders  Georges Danton
  Maximilien Robespierre
  Paul Barras
  Bertrand Barère
Founded1792;227 years ago (1792)
Dissolved1799;220 years ago (1799)
Headquarters Tuileries Palace, Paris
Newspaper  L'Ami du peuple
  Le Vieux Cordelier
  Le Père Duchesne
Political club(s) Jacobin Club
Cordeliers Club
Ideology Centralization
Dirigism [1] [2]
Jacobinism
Radicalism [3]
Political position Left-wing [4] [5]
Colors     Red

The Mountain (French : La Montagne) was a political group during the French Revolution. Its members, called the Montagnards (French:  [mɔ̃taɲaʁ] ), sat on the highest benches in the National Assembly.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

National Assembly (French Revolution) assembly during the French Revolution

During the French Revolution, the National Assembly, which existed from 4 June 1789 to 9 July 1789, was a revolutionary assembly formed by the representatives of the Third Estate of the Estates-General; thereafter it was known as the National Constituent Assembly, though popularly the shorter form persisted.

Contents

They were the most radical group and opposed the Girondins. The term, first used during a session of the Legislative Assembly, came into general use in 1793. By the summer of 1793, that pair of opposed minority groups divided the National Convention. That year, led by Maximilien Robespierre, the Montagnards unleashed the Reign of Terror.

The Girondins, Girondists or Gironde were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution.

National Convention Single-chamber assembly in France from 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795

The National Convention was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795.

Maximilien Robespierre French revolutionary lawyer and politician

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and politician who was one of the best known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. As a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he campaigned for universal manhood suffrage, and the abolition both of celibacy for the clergy and of slavery. Robespierre was an outspoken advocate for the citizens without a voice, for their unrestricted admission to the National Guard, to public offices, and for the right to carry arms in self-defence. Robespierre played an important part in the agitation which brought about the fall of the French monarchy in August 1792 and the summoning of a National Convention.

The Mountain was composed mainly of members of the middle class, but represented the constituencies of Paris. As such, the Mountain was sensitive to the motivations of the city and responded strongly to demands from the working class sans-culottes. [6] The Mountaineers had little understanding of the daily life and needs of the people in the cities and towns beyond Paris. Although they attempted some rural land reform, most of it was never enacted and they generally focused on the needs of the urban poor over that of rural France. The Mountain operated on the belief that what was best for Paris would be best for all of France. [7]

<i>Sans-culottes</i> radical left-wing partisans of the lower classes during French Revolution

The sans-culottes were the common people of the lower classes in late 18th century France, a great many of whom became radical and militant partisans of the French Revolution in response to their poor quality of life under the Ancien Régime. The word sans-culotte, which is opposed to that of the aristocrat, seems to have been used for the first time on 28 February 1791 by officer Gauthier in a deregatory sense, speaking about a "sans-culottes army". The word came in vogue during the demonstration of 20 June 1792.

The Girondins were a moderate political faction created during the Legislative Assembly period. [8] They were the political opponents of the more radical representatives within the Mountain. The Girondins had wanted to avoid the execution of Louis XVI and supported a constitution which would have allowed a popular vote to overturn legislation. [8] The Mountain accused the Girondins of plotting against Paris because this caveat within the proposed constitution would have allowed rural areas of France to vote against legislation that benefits Paris, the main constituency of the Mountain. However, the real discord in the Convention occurred not between the Mountain and the Gironde, but between the aggressive antics of the minority of the Mountain and the rest of the Convention. [9]

The Mountain was not unified as a party and relied on leaders like Maximilien Robespierre, Georges Danton and Jacques Hébert, who themselves came to represent different factions. [10] Hébert, a journalist, gained a following as a radical patriot Mountaineer (members who identified with him became known as the Hébertists) while Danton led a more moderate faction of the Mountain (followers came to be known as Dantonists). [11] Regardless of the divisions, the nightly sessions of the Jacobin club, which met in the rue Saint-Honoré, can be considered to be a type of caucus for the Mountain. [12] In June 1793, the Mountain successfully ousted most of the moderate Gironde members of the Convention with the assistance of radical sans-culottes. [13]

Georges Danton French revolutionary

Georges Jacques Danton was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution, in particular as the first president of the Committee of Public Safety. Danton's role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as "the chief force in the overthrow of the French monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic".

Jacques Hébert 1757-1794 French journalist and politician

Jacques René Hébert was a French journalist and the founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution.

The Hébertists, or Exaggerators were a radical revolutionary political group associated with the populist journalist Jacques Hébert, a member of the Cordeliers club. They came to power during the Reign of Terror and played a significant role in the French Revolution.

Following their coup, the Mountain, led by Hérault-Sécuells, quickly began construction on a new constitution which was completed eight days later. [14] The Committee of Public Safety reported the constitution to the Convention on 10 June and a final draft was adopted on 24 June. The process occurred quickly because as Robespierre, a prominent member of the Mountain, announced on 10 June the "good citizens demanded a constitution" and the "Constitution will be the reply of patriotic deputies, for it is the work of the Mountain". [15] However, this constitution was never actually enacted. [16] The Constitution of 1793 was abandoned when Robespierre later granted himself and the Committee of Public Safety dictatorial powers in order to "defend the Revolution". [17]

Committee of Public Safety De facto executive government in France (1793–1794)

The Committee of Public Safety, created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto, interim, and executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–1794), a stage of the French Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee—composed at first of nine and later of twelve members—was given broad supervisory powers over military, judicial and legislative efforts. It was formed as an administrative body to supervise and expedite the work of the executive bodies of the Convention and of the government ministers appointed by the Convention. As the Committee tried to meet the dangers of a coalition of European nations and counter-revolutionary forces within the country, it became more and more powerful.

French Constitution of 1793 constitution

The Constitution of 1793, also known as the Constitution of the Year I or the Montagnard Constitution, was the second constitution ratified for use during the French Revolution under the First Republic. Designed by the Montagnards, principally Maximilien Robespierre and Louis Saint-Just, it was intended to replace the outdated Constitution of 1791. With sweeping plans for democratization and wealth redistribution, the new document promised a significant departure from the relatively moderate goals of the Revolution in previous years.

History

Origins

It is difficult to pinpoint the conception of the Montagnard group because the lines which defined it were themselves quite nebulous early on. Originally, members of The Mountain were the men who sat in the highest rows of the Jacobin Clubs, loosely organized political debate clubs open to the public. [18] Though members of the Montagnards were known for their commitment to radical political resolutions prior to 1793, the contours of political groups presented an ever-evolving reality that shifted in response to events. Would-be prominent Montagnard leaders like Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet and Jean Bon Saint-André were tempted by early Girondin proposals and soon many moderates—even anti-radicals—felt the need to push for radical endeavors in light of threats both within and without the country. [19] It was only after the trial of Louis XVI in December 1792, which united the Montagnards on a position of regicide, that the ideals and power of the group fully consolidated.

Rise and Terror

The rise of Montagnards corresponds to the fall of the Girondins. The Girondins hesitated on the correct course of action to take with Louis XVI after his attempt to flee France on 20 June 1791. Some of the Girondins believed they could use the king as figurehead. While the Girondins hesitated, the Montagnards took a united stand during the trial in December 1792–January 1793 and favored the king's execution. [20]

Riding on this victory, the Montagnards then sought to discredit the Girondins. They used tactics previously employed by the Girondins to denounce them as liars and enemies of the Revolution. [21] They also formed a legislative committee in which Nicolas Hentz proposed a limitation of inheritances, gaining more support for the Montagnards. Girondin members were subsequently banned from the Jacobin club and excluded from the National Convention on 31 May – 2 June 1793. Any attempted resistance was crushed. Maximilien Robespierre then continued to consolidate his power over the Montagnards with the use of the Committee of Public Safety. [22]

Policies of the Mountain

Through attempted land redistribution policies, the Mountain showed some support for the rural poor. In August 1793, Montagnard member Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès drafted a piece of legislation which dealt with agricultural reform; in particular, he urged "relief from rent following harvest loss, compensation for improvements and fixity of tenure". [23] This was in part to combat restlessness of share-croppers in the southwest. This draft never made it into law, but the drastic reforms suggest the Mountain's awareness of the need to please their base of support, both the rural and urban poor. [23]

The arrest of Maximilien Robespierre and his followers showing at the centre of the image gendarme Merda firing at Robespierre (colour engraving by Jean-Joseph-Francois Tassaert after the painting by Fulchran-Jean Harriet, Carnavalet Museum) Shot.jpg
The arrest of Maximilien Robespierre and his followers showing at the centre of the image gendarme Merda firing at Robespierre (colour engraving by Jean-Joseph-François Tassaert after the painting by Fulchran-Jean Harriet, Carnavalet Museum)

Other policies aimed at supporting the poor included price controls enacted by the Mountain in 1793. This law, called the General Maximum, was supported by a group of agitators within the Mountain known as the Enragés. It fixed prices and wages throughout France. [11] At the same time, bread prices were rising as the commodity became scarce, and in an initiative spearheaded by Collot d’Herbois and Billaud-Varenne, a law was enacted in July 1793 that forbade the hoarding of "daily necessities". [24] The hoarding of grain became a crime punishable by death. [25]

Other economic policies enacted by the Mountain included an embargo on the export of French goods. As a result of this embargo, France was essentially unable to trade with foreign markets and the import of goods effectively ended. [26] In theory, this protected French markets from foreign goods and required French people to support French goods. In addition to the embargo against foreign goods, Act 1651, passed by the Mountain in October 1793, further isolated France from the rest of Europe by forbidding any foreign vessels from trading along the French coast. [27]

Decline and fall

The fall and exclusion of the Montagnards from the National Convention began with the collapse of the Revolution's radical phase and the death of Robespierre on 10 Thermidor (28 July 1794). While the Montagnards celebrated unity, there was growing heterogeneity within the group as Robespierre and his Committee of Public Safety overextended themselves with their tight control over the military and their extreme opposition to corruption in the government. [28] Their overextension drew the ire of other revolutionary leaders and a number of plots coalesced on 9 Thermidor (Thermidorian Reaction) when collaborators with the more moderate group the Dantonists acted in response to fears that Robespierre planned to execute them. [20]

The purge of Robespierre was strongly similar to previous measures employed by the Montagnards to expel disagreeable factions, such as the Girondins. However, as Robespierre was widely considered the heart of the Montagnards, his death symbolized their collapse. Few desired to take on the name of Montagnards afterwards, leaving around only about 100 men. [19] Finally, at the end of 1794 the Mountain largely devolved into a group called The Crest (French : crête), which lacked any real power. [29]

Factions and prominent members

The Mountain was born in 1792, with the merger of two prominent left-wing clubs: the Jacobins and Cordeliers. The Jacobins were initially moderate republicans and the Cordeliers were radical populist. In late 1792, Danton and his supporters wanted a reconciliation with the Girondins, which caused a break with Robespierre. After the trial of Girondins in 1793, Danton became strongly moderate while Robespierre continued his authoritarian policies.

The moderates of Danton were also rival to the followers of Jacques Hébert who wanted the persecution of all non-Montagnards and the dechristianisation of France. When Robespierre eliminated first the Hébertists (March 1794) and then the Dantonistes (April 1794), his group ruled The Mountain. This was until the Thermidorian Reaction, when several conspirators supported by The Plain instituted a coup d'état. They executed Robespierre and his supporters and split from The Mountain to form the Thermidorian Left. The Montagnards that survived were arrested, executed or deported. By 1795 the Mountain had effectively been obliterated.

Robespierrists
Hébertists
Indulgents

Electoral results

Election yearNo. of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
No. of
overall seats won
+/–Leader
National Convention
1792 907,200 (2nd)26.7
200 / 749
Increase2.svg 64
Maximilien Robespierre
Legislative Body
1795 Did not participateDid not participate
64 / 750
Decrease2.svg 136
1798 Unknown (1st)70.7
175 / 750
Increase2.svg 111
1799 Unknown (1st)Unknown
240 / 500
Increase2.svg 65

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References

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  2. Edward Berenson (1984). Populist Religion and Left-Wing Politics in France. Princeton University Press. p. 308.
  3. "Montagnard". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  4. Jennifer Llewellyn; Steve Thompson (2015). "The Girondins and Montagnards". Alpha History.
  5. Gregory Fremont-Barnes (2007). Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies. Greenwood Press. p. 867.
  6. Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), pp. 75–76.
  7. William D. Edmonds, "The Siege" in Jacobinism and the Revolt of Lyon, (Clarendon Press, 1990), p. 249.
  8. 1 2 Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), pp. 50–51.
  9. R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 26.
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  11. 1 2 Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), pp. 64–66.
  12. R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 25.
  13. Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), p. 66.
  14. R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 34.
  15. R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 35.
  16. Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), p. 67.
  17. Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), p. 71.
  18. "Definition of 'mountain' - Collins English Dictionary". Collins English Dictionary.
  19. 1 2 François Furet and Mona Ozouf, A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (Belknap Press, 1989), pp. 380–390.
  20. 1 2 Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 5th ed. (Pearson, 2009), pp. 72–77.
  21. Marisa Linton, Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship, and Authenticity in the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 174–175.
  22. Robert J. Alderson, This Bright Era of Happy Revolutions: French Consul Michel-Ange-Bernard Mangourit and International Republicanism in Charleston, 1792-1794 (University of South Carolina Press, 2008), pp. 9–10.
  23. 1 2 P. M. Jones, "The 'Agrarian Law': Schemes for Land Redistribution during the French Revolution", Past & Present, no. 133 (1991), p. 112.
  24. Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, 6th ed. (Pearson Education, Inc. 2006), p. 68.
  25. R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press), 2005. p. 226.
  26. R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), 226.
  27. R. R. Palmer, Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of the Terror in the French Revolution with a new foreword by Isser Woloch (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 227.
  28. Peter McPhee, Robespierre: A Revolutionary Life (Yale University Press, 2012), p. 271.
  29. "Montagnard". Encyclopædia Britannica.

Bibliography

Further reading