Timeline of the French Revolution

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The following is a timeline of the French Revolution.

Contents

French Revolution
Execution de Louis XVI Carnavalet.jpg
The execution of Louis XVI on the Place de la Révolution (now Place de la Concorde) (January 21, 1793)
Date1789–1799
Location France
ParticipantsFrench society
Outcome

1788 – The royal treasury is empty; Prelude to the Revolution

1789 – The Revolution Begins; the Estates-General and the Constituent Assembly

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, who proposed that the Third Estate become the National Assembly (June 10, 1789) Sieyes depute Assemblee nationale.JPG
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, who proposed that the Third Estate become the National Assembly (June 10, 1789)

January 1789

April 1789

May 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly, leader of the Third Estate (1789) Jean Sylvain Bailly, Maire de Paris.png
Jean Sylvain Bailly, leader of the Third Estate (1789)

June 1789

July 1789

July 14, 1789 – The Siege and Surrender of the Bastille

Lafayette in 1791 Gilbert du Motier Marquis de Lafayette.jpg
Lafayette in 1791

August 1789

August 27, 1789 – Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

October 6, 1789 – Women's March on Versailles

The Women's March on Versailles (October 5-6, 1789) A Versailles, a Versailles 5 octobre 1789 - Restoration.jpg
The Women's March on Versailles (October 5–6, 1789)

1790 – the Rise of the Political Clubs

July 14, 1790 – Fête de la Fédération

1791 – The unsuccessful flight of the Royal Family from Paris

June 20–21, 1791 – The Royal Family flees Paris

King Louis XVI returns to Paris after his attempted flight (June 25, 1791) Duplessi-Bertaux - Arrivee de Louis Seize a Paris 2.png
King Louis XVI returns to Paris after his attempted flight (June 25, 1791)
The National Guard fires on demonstrators in the Champ de Mars (July 17, 1791) Fusillade du Champ de Mars (1791, 17 juillet).jpg
The National Guard fires on demonstrators in the Champ de Mars (July 17, 1791)

1792 – War and the overthrow of the monarchy

August 10, 1792 – Storming of the Tuileries; Downfall of the King

September 2–7, 1792 – Massacres in Paris prisons

September 20, 1792 – French victory at Valmy; Debut of the Convention

December 10, 1792-January 21, 1793 – Trial and Execution of Louis XVI

1793 – France at war against Europe; The Jacobins seize power; The Terror begins

Uprising in the Vendée

April 6–May 30, 1793 - Committee on Public Safety takes control of government

The triumph of Marat after his release from arrest Triomphe de Marat.jpg
The triumph of Marat after his release from arrest

May 31-June 2, 1793 – The Jacobin Coup d'État

Sans-culottes threaten deputy Lanjuinais, on the podium during the takeover of the Convention (June 2, 1793) Muller - Lanjuinais a la tribune de la Convention.jpg
Sans-culottes threaten deputy Lanjuinais, on the podium during the takeover of the Convention (June 2, 1793)

July 13, 1793 – Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday

September 17, 1793 – The Reign of Terror begins

October 16, 1793 – The execution of Marie-Antoinette

Marie-Antoinette in the Temple Prison (1793) Marie Antoinette Adult11.jpg
Marie-Antoinette in the Temple Prison (1793)

1794 – The fury of the Terror, the Cult of the Supreme Being, and the Downfall of Robespierre

March 30, 1794 – The arrest and trial of Danton and Desmoulins

June 8, 1794 – Festival of the Supreme Being; Acceleration of the Terror

July 26–28, 1794 – Arrest and execution of Robespierre; End of the Terror

1795 – The Directory Replaces the Convention

May 20–24, 1795 – Last Paris uprising by the Jacobins and sans-culottes

June 25-July 27, 1795 – Renewed uprisings in the Vendée and a royalist invasion of Brittany

August 22-September 23, 1795 – The new Constitution is approved: the Directory takes power

October 5, 1795 – "A whiff of grapeshot": General Bonaparte suppresses a royalist rebellion in Paris

1796 – Napoleon's campaign in Italy; Defeat of the royalists in the Vendée; a failed uprising in Paris

1797 – Bonaparte chases the Austrians from Italy; a republican coup d'état against the royalists in Paris

September 4, 1797 – A republican coup d'état against the royalists

1798 – New republics in Switzerland and Italy; an election annulled; Bonaparte invades Egypt

1799 – France at War in Italy and Germany; Bonaparte returns from Egypt; the Consulate seizes power; End of the Revolution

Conflicts between the Directory and the Legislature (June 1799)

Bonaparte returns to France (October 9, 1799)

The Coup d'État of November 9–10

See also

Related Research Articles

French Revolution Revolution in France from 1789 to 1799

The French Revolution began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy. Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, and an extended period of political turmoil. This culminated in the appointment of Napoleon as First Consul in November 1799, which is generally taken as its end point. Many of its principles are now considered fundamental aspects of modern Liberal democracy.

French Directory Executive power of the French Constitution of 1795-1799

The Directory was the governing five-member committee in the French First Republic from 2 November 1795 until 9 November 1799, when it was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Coup of 18 Brumaire and replaced by the Consulate. It gave its name to the final four years of the French Revolution. Mainstream historiography also uses the term in reference to the period from the dissolution of the National Convention on 26 October 1795 to Napoleon's coup d’état.

Jean-François Reubell or Rewbell was a French lawyer, diplomat, and politician of the Revolution.

Jacobin political club during the French Revolution

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, renamed the Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality after 1792 and commonly known as the Jacobin Club or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789. The period of its political ascendancy includes the Reign of Terror, during which time well over ten thousand people were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes.

The Girondins, or Girondists, were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution.

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès

Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, usually known as the abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman, and political writer who was a chief political theorist of the French Revolution (1789–1799); he also held offices in the governments of the French Consulate (1799–1804) and the First French Empire (1804–1815). His pamphlet What Is the Third Estate? (1789) became the political manifesto of the Revolution, which facilitated transforming the Estates-General into the National Assembly, in June 1789. He was offered and refused an office in the French Directory (1795–1799). After becoming a director in 1799, Sieyès was among the instigators of the Coup of 18 Brumaire, which installed Napoleon Bonaparte to power. Moreover, apart from his political life, Sieyès coined the term "sociologie", and contributed to the nascent social sciences.

National Convention Single-chamber assembly in France from 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795

The National Convention was a parliament of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795.

<i>Sans-culottes</i>

The sans-culottes were the common people of the lower classes in late 18th-century France, a great many of whom became radical and militant partisans of the French Revolution in response to their poor quality of life under the Ancien Régime. The word sans-culotte, which is opposed to that of the aristocrat, seems to have been used for the first time on 28 February 1791 by officer Gauthier in a derogatory sense, speaking about a "sans-culottes army". The word came in vogue during the demonstration of 20 June 1792.

The Thermidorian Reaction is the common term, in the historiography of the French Revolution, for the period between the ousting of Maximilien Robespierre on 9 Thermidor II, or 27 July 1794, and the inauguration of the French Directory on 1 November 1795. The "Thermidorian Reaction" was named after the month in which the coup took place, and was the latter part of the National Convention's rule of France. It was marked by the end of the Reign of Terror, decentralization of executive powers from the Committee of Public Safety, and a turn from the radical leftist policies of the Montagnard Convention to more conservative positions. Economic and general populism, dechristianization, and harsh wartime measures were largely abandoned, as the members of the Convention, disillusioned and frightened of the centralized government of the Terror, preferred a more stable political order that would have the approval of the affluent. The Reaction saw the Left suppressed by brutal force, including massacres, as well as the disbanding of the Jacobin Club, the dispersal of the sans-culottes, and the renunciation of the Montagnard ideology.

Jean-Lambert Tallien

Jean-Lambert Tallien was a French political figure of the revolutionary period.

Joseph Fouché

Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché was a French statesman and Minister of Police under First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, who later became Emperor Napoleon. He was particularly known for the ferocity with which he suppressed the Lyon insurrection during the Revolution in 1793 and for being minister of police under the Directory, the Consulate, and the Empire. In English texts, his title is often translated as Duke of Otranto.

Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron French politician and journalist

Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron was a French politician, journalist, representative to the National Assembly, and a representative on mission during the French Revolution.

Louis Legendre French politician

Louis Legendre was a French politician of the Revolution period.

Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé

Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé was a French soldier and politician.

Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier

Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier was a French politician of the French Revolution.

Feuillant (political group)

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, better known as Feuillants Club, was a political grouping that emerged during the French Revolution. It came into existence on 16 July 1791 when the left-wing Jacobins split between moderates (Feuillants), who sought to preserve the position of the king and supported the proposed plan of the National Constituent Assembly for a constitutional monarchy; and radicals (Jacobins), who wished to press for a continuation of to overthrow Louis XVI. It represented the last and most vigorous attempt of the moderate constitutional monarchists to steer the course of the revolution away from the radical Jacobins.

First White Terror

The White Terror was a period during the French Revolution in 1795, when a wave of violent attacks swept across much of France. The victims of this violence were people identified as being associated with the Reign of Terror – followers of Robespierre and Marat, and members of local Jacobin clubs. The violence was perpetrated primarily by those whose relatives or associates had been victims of the Great Terror, or whose lives and livelihoods had been threatened by the government and its supporters before the Thermidorean Reaction. Principally these were, in Paris, the Muscadins, and in the countryside, monarchists, supporters of the Girondins, those who opposed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and those otherwise hostile to the Jacobin political agenda. The Great Terror had been largely an organised political programme, based on laws such as the Law of 22 Prairial, and enacted through official institutions such as the Revolutionary Tribunal, but the White Terror was essentially a series of uncoordinated attacks by local activists who shared common perspectives but no central organisation. In particular locations, there were however more organised counter-revolutionary movements such as the Companions of Jehu in Lyon and the Companions of the Sun in Provence. The name 'White Terror' derives from the white cockades worn in the hats of royalists.

Maximilien Robespierre French revolutionary lawyer and politician

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and statesman who was one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. As a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he campaigned for universal manhood suffrage and the abolition both of celibacy for the clergy, and slavery. In 1791, Robespierre became an outspoken advocate for the citizens without a political voice, for their unrestricted admission to the National Guard, to public offices, and for the right to carry arms in self-defence. He played an important part in the agitation which brought about the fall of the French monarchy on 10 August 1792 and the summoning of a National Convention. His goal was to create a united and indivisible France, equality before the law, to abolish prerogatives and to defend the principles of direct democracy.

Fall of Maximilien Robespierre

The Coup d'état of 9 Thermidor or the Fall of Maximilien Robespierre refers to the series of events beginning with Maximilien Robespierre's address to the National Convention on 8 Thermidor Year II, his arrest the next day, and his execution on 10 Thermidor Year II. In the speech of 8 Thermidor, Robespierre spoke of the existence of internal enemies, conspirators, and calumniators, within the Convention and the governing Committees. He refused to name them, which alarmed the deputies who feared Robespierre was preparing another purge of the Convention.

References

Notes and CItations

  1. Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard, Alfred Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française, Robert Laffont,
  2. Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard, Alfred Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française, Robert Laffont, Paris, 1998. (In French)
  3. Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, p. 318.
  4. Tulard, Fayard, and Fierro 1998, p. 79.
  5. 1 2 Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1998, p. 339.
  6. Ghachem, Malick W. The Old Regime and the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  7. Mignet, François (1834). "History of the French Revolution, from 1789 to 1814" . Retrieved October 16, 2016. [H]e thought he ought not to reject a symbol, meaningless for him, but in the eyes of the people, that of liberty; he placed on his head a red cap presented to him on the top of a pike. The multitude were quite satisfied with this condescension. A moment or two afterwards, they loaded him with applause, as, almost suffocated with hunger and thirst, he drank off, without hesitation, a glass of wine presented to him[.]
  8. Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1996, pp. 1094–1095.
  9. Howe, Foreign Policy and the French Revolution, Springer, 2008, p. 113.
  10. Cited in Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française (1998), p. 1113
  11. Koch, Christophe-Guillaume, Histoire abrégée des traités de paix entre les puissances de l'Europe, depuis la Paix de Westphalie, Tome I, Méline, Cans & Compagnie, Bruxelles, 1857, p. 550. (French)
  12. "To What Extent Was Robespierre the Driving Force of the Great Terror?…". coggle.it.
  13. The French Revolution: From Enlightenment to Tyranny by Ian Davidson, p. xiv
  14. Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1998, p. 369.
  15. Lazare Carnot, republican patriot, by Huntley Dupre, p. 185-187
  16. Richard T. Bienvenu (1968) The Ninth of Thermidor, p. 223
  17. Ministère de l'Intérieur: Police nationale, République française, Histoire, section La Révolution française (1789-1799), (French)
  18. Traité de Réunion de la République de Genève à la France, 26 April 1798. (In French)
  19. Thiers, Adolphe, Histoire de la Révolution française, 1839 (Ninth edition), Volume 10, Chapter XIII, Project Gutenberg digital edition
  20. Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, p. 410.

Bibliography

online

In French