Timeline of the French Revolution

Last updated

The following is a timeline of the French Revolution.

Contents

French Revolution
Execution de Louis XVI Carnavalet.jpg
The execution of Louis XVI on the Place de la Révolution (now Place de la Concorde) (January 21, 1793)
Date1789–1799
Location France
ParticipantsFrench society
Outcome

1788 – The royal treasury is empty; Prelude to the Revolution

1789 – The Revolution Begins; the Estates-General and the Constituent Assembly

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, who proposed that the Third Estate become the National Assembly (June 10, 1789) Sieyes depute Assemblee nationale.JPG
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, who proposed that the Third Estate become the National Assembly (June 10, 1789)

January 1789

April 1789

May 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly, leader of the Third Estate (1789) Jean Sylvain Bailly, Maire de Paris.png
Jean Sylvain Bailly, leader of the Third Estate (1789)

June 1789

July 1789

July 14, 1789 – The Siege and Surrender of the Bastille

Lafayette in 1791 Gilbert du Motier Marquis de Lafayette.jpg
Lafayette in 1791

August 1789

August 27, 1789 – Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

October 4, 1789 – Women's March on Versailles

The Women's March on Versailles (October 5-6, 1789) A Versailles, a Versailles 5 octobre 1789 - Restoration.jpg
The Women's March on Versailles (October 5–6, 1789)

1790 – the Rise of the Political Clubs

July 14, 1790 – Fête de la Fédération

1791 – The unsuccessful flight of the Royal Family from Paris

June 20–21, 1791 – The Royal Family flees Paris

King Louis XVI returns to Paris after his attempted flight (June 25, 1791) Duplessi-Bertaux - Arrivee de Louis Seize a Paris 2.png
King Louis XVI returns to Paris after his attempted flight (June 25, 1791)
The National Guard fires on demonstrators in the Champ de Mars (July 17, 1791) Fusillade du Champ de Mars (1791, 17 juillet).jpg
The National Guard fires on demonstrators in the Champ de Mars (July 17, 1791)

1792 – War and the overthrow of the monarchy

August 10, 1792 – Storming of the Tuileries; Downfall of the King

September 2–7, 1792 – Massacres in Paris prisons

September 20, 1792 – French victory at Valmy; Debut of the Convention

December 10, 1792 – January 21, 1793 – Trial and Execution of Louis XVI

1793 – France at war against Europe; The Jacobins seize power; The Terror begins

Uprising in the Vendée

April 6 – May 30, 1793 - Committee on Public Safety takes control of government

The triumph of Marat after his release from arrest Triomphe de Marat.jpg
The triumph of Marat after his release from arrest

May 31 – June 2, 1793 – The Montagnard Coup d'État

Sans-culottes threaten deputy Lanjuinais, on the podium during the takeover of the convention (June 2, 1793) Muller - Lanjuinais a la tribune de la Convention.jpg
Sans-culottes threaten deputy Lanjuinais, on the podium during the takeover of the convention (June 2, 1793)

July 13, 1793 – Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday

September 17, 1793 – The Reign of Terror begins

October 16, 1793 – The execution of Marie-Antoinette

Marie-Antoinette in the Temple Prison (1793) Marie Antoinette Adult11.jpg
Marie-Antoinette in the Temple Prison (1793)

1794 – The fury of the Terror or, the Cult of the Supreme Being, and the Downfall of Robespierre

March 30, 1794 – The arrest and trial of Danton and Desmoulins

Madame Elisabeth was executed at Place de la Revolution Vigee Le Brun, manner of - Elisabeth of France.jpg
Madame Élisabeth was executed at Place de la Révolution

May 10, 1794 - Louis XVI's Sister, Madame Élisabeth is Executed

June 8, 1794 – Festival of the Supreme Being; Acceleration of the Terror

July 26–28, 1794 – Arrest and execution of Robespierre; End of the Terror

1795 – The Directory Replaces the Convention

May 20–24, 1795 – Last Paris uprising by the Jacobins and sans-culottes

June 25 – July 27, 1795 – Renewed uprisings in the Vendée and a royalist invasion of Brittany

August 22 – September 23, 1795 – The new Constitution is approved: the Directory takes power

October 5, 1795 – "A whiff of grapeshot": General Bonaparte suppresses a royalist rebellion in Paris

1796 – Napoleon's campaign in Italy; Defeat of the royalists in the Vendée; a failed uprising in Paris

1797 – Bonaparte chases the Austrians from Italy; a republican coup d'état against the royalists in Paris

September 4, 1797 – A republican coup d'état against the royalists

1798 – New republics in Switzerland and Italy; an election annulled; Bonaparte invades Egypt

1799 – France at War in Italy and Germany; Bonaparte returns from Egypt; the Consulate seizes power; End of the Revolution

Conflicts between the Directory and the Legislature (June 1799)

Bonaparte returns to France (October 9, 1799)

The Coup d'État of November 9–10

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">French Revolution</span> Revolution in France from 1789 to 1799

The French Revolution was a period of political and societal change in France that began with the Estates General of 1789, and ended with the formation of the French Consulate in November 1799. Many of its ideas are considered fundamental principles of liberal democracy, while its values and institutions remain central to modern French political discourse.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">French Directory</span> Executive power of the French Constitution of 1795–1799

The Directory was the governing five-member committee in the French First Republic from 26 October 1795 until 10 November 1799, when it was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Coup of 18 Brumaire and replaced by the Consulate. Directoire is the name of the final four years of the French Revolution. Mainstream historiography also uses the term in reference to the period from the dissolution of the National Convention on 26 October 1795 to Napoleon's coup d’état.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jean-François Rewbell</span> French lawyer and diplomat (1747–1807)

Jean-François Reubell or Rewbell was a French lawyer, diplomat, and politician of the Revolution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles François Dumouriez</span> French general (1739–1823)

Charles-François du Périer Dumouriez was a French military officer, minister of Foreign Affairs, minister of War in a Girondin cabinet and army general during the French Revolutionary War. Dumouriez is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 3.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jacobins</span> Political club during the French Revolution

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, renamed the Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality after 1792 and commonly known as the Jacobin Club or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789. The period of its political ascendancy includes the Reign of Terror, during which well over 10,000 people were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Girondins</span> Political faction in the French Revolution

The Girondins, or Girondists, were a political group during the French Revolution. From 1791 to 1793, the Girondins were active in the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. Together with the Montagnards, they initially were part of the Jacobin movement. They campaigned for the end of the monarchy, but then resisted the spiraling momentum of the Revolution, which caused a conflict with the more radical Montagnards. They dominated the movement until their fall in the insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793, which resulted in the domination of the Montagnards and the purge and eventual mass execution of the Girondins. This event is considered to mark the beginning of the Reign of Terror.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Convention</span> Single-chamber assembly in France from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795

The National Convention was the constituent assembly of the Kingdom of France for one day and the French First Republic for its first three years during the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jean-Lambert Tallien</span> French politician (1767–1820)

Jean-Lambert Tallien was a French politician of the revolutionary period. Though initially an active agent of the Reign of Terror, he eventually clashed with its leader, Maximilien Robespierre, and is best known as one of the key figures of the Thermidorian Reaction that led to the fall of Robespierre and the end of the Terror.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joseph Fouché</span> French statesman, revolutionary and police chief (1763–1820)

Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché was a French statesman, revolutionary, and Minister of Police under First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, who later became a subordinate of Emperor Napoleon. He was particularly known for the ferocity with which he suppressed the Lyon insurrection during the Revolution in 1793 and for being minister of police under the Directory, the Consulate, and the Empire. In 1815, he served as President of the Executive Commission, which was the provisional government of France installed after the abdication of Napoleon. In English texts, his title is often translated as Duke of Otranto.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray</span> French writer and diplomat

Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray was a French novelist, playwright and journalist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paris Commune (1789–1795)</span> Parisian government from 1789 to 1795

The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille, it consisted of 144 delegates elected by the 60 divisions of the city. Before its formal establishment, there had been much popular discontent on the streets of Paris over who represented the true Commune, and who had the right to rule the Parisian people. The first mayor was Jean Sylvain Bailly, a relatively moderate Feuillant who supported constitutional monarchy. He was succeeded in November 1791 by Pétion de Villeneuve after Bailly's unpopular use of the National Guard to disperse a riotous assembly in the Champ de Mars.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron</span> French politician and journalist

Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron was a French politician, journalist, representative to the National Assembly, and a representative on mission during the French Revolution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Revolutionary Tribunal</span> Tribunal during the French revolution

The Revolutionary Tribunal was a court instituted by the National Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders. It eventually became one of the most powerful engines of the Reign of Terror.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé</span>

Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé was a French musketeer, general, and revolutionary politician who served for a few months as minister of war.

<i>La Révolution française</i> (film) 1989 film

La Révolution française is a two-part 1989 historical film co-produced by France, Germany, Italy and Canada for the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution. The full film runs at 360 minutes, but the edited-for-television version is slightly longer. It purports to tell a faithful and neutral story of the Revolution, from the calling of the Estates-General to the death of Maximilien de Robespierre. The film had a large budget and boasted an international cast. It was shot in French, German and English.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Feuillant (political group)</span> Political party in France

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, better known as Feuillants Club, was a political grouping that emerged during the French Revolution. It came into existence on 16 July 1791. The assembly split between the Feuillants on the right, who sought to preserve the position of the king and supported the proposed plan of the National Constituent Assembly for a constitutional monarchy; and the radical Jacobins on the left, who wished to press for a continuation of the overthrow of Louis XVI. It represented the last and most vigorous attempt of the moderate constitutional monarchists to steer the course of the revolution away from the radical Jacobins.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maximilien Robespierre</span> French revolutionary lawyer and politician (1758–1794)

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and statesman who became one of the most widely known, influential, and controversial figures of the French Revolution.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793</span> Coupe by the Montagnards and fall of the Girondins

The insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793, during the French Revolution, started after the Paris commune demanded that 22 Girondin deputies and members of the Commission of Twelve should be brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal. Jean-Paul Marat led the attack on the representatives in the National Convention, who in January had voted against the execution of the King and since then had paralyzed the Convention. It ended after thousands of armed citizens surrounded the Convention to force it to deliver the deputies denounced by the Commune.The insurrection resulted in the fall of 29 Girondins and two ministers under pressure of the sans-culottes, Jacobins, and Montagnards.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fall of Maximilien Robespierre</span> Arrest and execution of Robespierre during the French Revolution

The Coup d'état of 9 Thermidor or the Fall of Maximilien Robespierre is the series of events beginning with Maximilien Robespierre's address to the National Convention on 8 Thermidor Year II, his arrest the next day, and his execution on 10 Thermidor. In the speech of 8 Thermidor, Robespierre spoke of the existence of internal enemies, conspirators, and calumniators, within the Convention and the governing Committees. He refused to name them, which alarmed the deputies who feared Robespierre was preparing another purge of the Convention.

References

Notes and Citations

  1. Melzer, S.E.; Rabine, L.W. (1992). Rebel Daughters: Women and the French Revolution. University of California Humanities Research Institute Series. Oxford University Press. p. 158. ISBN   978-0-19-028180-9 . Retrieved 2023-02-09.
  2. Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard, Alfred Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française, Robert Laffont,
  3. Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard, Alfred Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française, Robert Laffont, Paris, 1998. (In French)
  4. Tulard, Fayard & Fierro 1998, p. 318.
  5. Tulard, Fayard & Fierro 1998, p. 79.
  6. 1 2 Tulard, Fayard & Fierro 1998, p. 339.
  7. Ghachem, Malick W. The Old Regime and the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  8. Mignet, François (1834). "History of the French Revolution, from 1789 to 1814" . Retrieved October 16, 2016. [H]e thought he ought not to reject a symbol, meaningless for him, but in the eyes of the people, that of liberty; he placed on his head a red cap presented to him on the top of a pike. The multitude were quite satisfied with this condescension. A moment or two afterwards, they loaded him with applause, as, almost suffocated with hunger and thirst, he drank off, without hesitation, a glass of wine presented to him[.]
  9. Tulard, Fayard & Fierro 1998, pp. 1094–1095.
  10. Howe, Foreign Policy and the French Revolution, Springer, 2008, p. 113.
  11. Cited in Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française (1998), p. 1113
  12. Koch, Christophe-Guillaume, Histoire abrégée des traités de paix entre les puissances de l'Europe, depuis la Paix de Westphalie, Tome I, Méline, Cans & Compagnie, Bruxelles, 1857, p. 550. (French)
  13. "To What Extent Was Robespierre the Driving Force of the Great Terror?…". coggle.it.
  14. The French Revolution: From Enlightenment to Tyranny by Ian Davidson, p. xiv
  15. Tulard, Fayard & Fierro 1998, p. 369.
  16. Lazare Carnot, republican patriot, by Huntley Dupre, p. 185-187
  17. Richard T. Bienvenu (1968) The Ninth of Thermidor, p. 223
  18. Ministère de l'Intérieur: Police nationale, République française, Histoire, section La Révolution française (1789-1799) , (French)
  19. Traité de Réunion de la République de Genève à la France, 26 April 1798. (In French)
  20. Thiers, Adolphe, Histoire de la Révolution française, 1839 (Ninth edition), Volume 10, Chapter XIII, Project Gutenberg digital edition
  21. Tulard, Fayard & Fierro 1998, p. 410.

Bibliography

online

In French