Timeline of the French Revolution

Last updated

The following is a timeline of the French Revolution.

Contents

French Revolution
Execution de Louis XVI Carnavalet.jpg
The execution of Louis XVI on the Place de la Révolution (now Place de la Concorde) (January 21, 1793)
Date1789–1799
Location France
ParticipantsFrench society
Outcome

1788 – The royal treasury is empty; Prelude to the Revolution

Louis XVI of France King of France and Navarre

Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.

Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne Catholic cardinal

Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne was a French churchman, politician and finance minister of Louis XVI.

Jacques Necker French statesman of Genevan birth and finance minister of Louis XVI

Jacques Necker was a banker of Genevan origin who became a finance minister for Louis XVI and a French statesman. Necker played a key role in French history before and during the first period of the French Revolution.

Day of the Tiles

The Day of the Tiles was an event that took place in the French town of Grenoble on 7 June in 1788. It was one of the first disturbances which preceded the French Revolution, and is credited by a few historians as its start.

Grenoble Prefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre. The city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains.

Assembly of Vizille

The Assembly of Vizille or Estates General of Dauphiné was the result of a meeting of various representatives in Grenoble. Its purpose was to discuss the events of The Day Of The Tiles, one of the first revolts preceding the French Revolution.

1789 – The Revolution Begins; the Estates-General and the Constituent Assembly

Tennis Court Oath pivotal event in the early days of the French Revolution

On 20 June 1789, the members of the French Third Estate, who had begun to call themselves the National Assembly, took the Tennis Court Oath, vowing "not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established". It was a pivotal event in the French Revolution.

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, who proposed that the Third Estate become the National Assembly (June 10, 1789) Sieyes depute Assemblee nationale.JPG
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, who proposed that the Third Estate become the National Assembly (June 10, 1789)

January

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès French abbé ad statesman

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, most commonly known as the abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer. He was one of the chief political theorists of the French Revolution, and also played a prominent role in the French Consulate and First French Empire.

February
March
April

Jean-Baptiste Réveillon, was a French wallpaper manufacturer. His career was an exemplary story of the self-made businessman in the Ancien Régime.

Faubourg Saint-Antoine Faubourg in Paris, France

The Faubourg Saint-Antoine was one of the traditional suburbs of Paris, France. It grew up to the east of the Bastille around the abbey of Saint-Antoine-des-Champs, and ran along the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine.

May

Jean Sylvain Bailly, leader of the Third Estate (1789) Jean Sylvain Bailly, Maire de Paris.png
Jean Sylvain Bailly, leader of the Third Estate (1789)

June

Jean Sylvain Bailly French astronomer, mathematician, freemason, and political leader

Jean Sylvain Bailly was a French astronomer, mathematician, freemason, and political leader of the early part of the French Revolution. He presided over the Tennis Court Oath, served as the mayor of Paris from 1789 to 1791, and was ultimately guillotined during the Reign of Terror.

Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France Prince of France

Louis Joseph de France was the second child and elder son of King Louis XVI of France and Marie Antoinette. As son of a king of France, he was a fils de France, and as the eldest son and heir apparent, he was Dauphin of France,.

Louis XVII of France

Louis XVII, born Louis-Charles, was the younger son of King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette.

July

July 14 – The Siege and Surrender of the Bastille

Lafayette in 1791 Gilbert du Motier Marquis de Lafayette.jpg
Lafayette in 1791

August

August 27 – Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

October 6 – Women's March on Versailles

The Women's March on Versailles (October 5-6, 1789) Women's March on Versailles01.jpg
The Women's March on Versailles (October 5–6, 1789)

1790 – the Rise of the Political Clubs

July 14 – Fête de la Fédération

1791 – The unsuccessful flight of the Royal Family from Paris

June 20–21 – The Royal Family flees Paris

King Louis XVI returns to Paris after his attempted flight (June 25, 1791) Duplessi-Bertaux - Arrivee de Louis Seize a Paris 2.png
King Louis XVI returns to Paris after his attempted flight (June 25, 1791)
The National Guard fires on demonstrators in the Champ de Mars (July 17, 1791) Fusillade du Champ de Mars (1791, 17 juillet).jpg
The National Guard fires on demonstrators in the Champ de Mars (July 17, 1791)

1792 – War and the overthrow of the monarchy

August 10 – Storming of the Tuileries; Downfall of the King

September 2–7 – Massacres in Paris prisons

September 20 – French victory at Valmy; Debut of the Convention

December 10, 1792-January 21, 1793 – Trial and Execution of Louis XVI

1793 – France at war against Europe; The Jacobins seize power; The Terror begins

Uprising in the Vendée

April 6 – Committee on Public Safety takes control of government

The triumph of Marat after his release from arrest Triomphe de Marat.jpg
The triumph of Marat after his release from arrest

May 31-June 2 – The Jacobin Coup d'État

Sans-culottes threaten deputy Lanjuinais, on the podium during the takeover of the Convention (June 2, 1793) Muller - Lanjuinais a la tribune de la Convention.jpg
Sans-culottes threaten deputy Lanjuinais, on the podium during the takeover of the Convention (June 2, 1793)

July 13 – Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday

September 17 – The Reign of Terror begins

October 16 – The execution of Marie-Antoinette

Marie-Antoinette in the Temple Prison (1793) Marie Antoinette Adult11.jpg
Marie-Antoinette in the Temple Prison (1793)

1794 – The fury of the Terror, the Cult of the Supreme Being, and the Downfall of Robespierre

March 30 – The arrest and trial of Danton and Desmoulins

June 8 – Festival of the Supreme Being; Acceleration of the Terror

July 26–28 – Arrest and execution of Robespierre; End of the Terror

1795 – The Directory Replaces the Convention

May 20–24 – Last Paris uprising by the Jacobins and sans-culottes

June 25-July 27 – Renewed uprisings in the Vendée and a royalist invasion of Brittany

August 22-September 23 – The new Constitution is approved: the Directory takes power

October 5 – "A whiff of grapeshot": General Bonaparte suppresses a royalist rebellion in Paris

1796 – Napoleon's campaign in Italy; Defeat of the royalists in the Vendée; a failed uprising in Paris

1797 – Bonaparte chases the Austrians from Italy; a republican coup d'état against the royalists in Paris

September 4 – A republican coup d'état against the royalists

1798 – New republics in Switzerland and Italy; an election annulled; Bonaparte invades Egypt

1799 – France at War in Italy and Germany; Bonaparte returns from Egypt; the Consulate seizes power; End of the Revolution

Conflicts between the Directory and the Legislature (June 1799)

Bonaparte returns to France (October 9, 1799)

The Coup d'État of November 9–10

See also

Timeline of the Napoleonic era

Related Research Articles

Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux French politician

Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux was a French politician of the Revolutionary period and Freemason.

Paul Barras French politician

Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras, commonly known as Paul Barras, was a French politician of the French Revolution, and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795–1799.

French Directory Executive power of the French Constitution of 1795-1799

The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee that governed France from 2 November 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety, until 9 November 1799, when it was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Coup of 18 Brumaire, and replaced by the French Consulate. It gave its name to the final four years of the French Revolution. On the other hand, according to the mainstream historiography - for example F. Furet and D. Richet in “French Revolution” - with the aforementioned terms is indicated also the regime and the period from the dissolution of the National Convention of Tuileries Palace on 26 October 1795, which was superseded by the two new elected Councils, and the coup d’état by Napoleon. Only in 1798 the Council of Five Hundred moved to the Palais Bourbon.

Jean-François Reubell or Rewbell was a French lawyer, diplomat, and politician of the Revolution.

Jacobin The most radical group in the French Revolution

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality, commonly known as the Jacobin Club or simply the Jacobins, became the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789 and following. The period of their political ascendency is known as the Reign of Terror, during which time tens of thousands were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes.

National Convention single-chamber assembly in France from 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795

The National Convention was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795.

Jacques-Nicolas Billaud-Varenne French revolutionary leader

Jacques-Nicolas Billaud-Varenne, also known as Jean Nicolas, was a French personality of the Revolutionary period. Though not one of the most well known figures of the French Revolution, Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne was an instrumental figure of the period known as the Reign of Terror. Billaud-Varenne climbed his way up the ladder of power during the period of The Terror, becoming one of the most militant members of the Committee of Public Safety. He was recognized and worked with French Revolution figures Georges Danton and Maximilien Robespierre, and is often considered one of the key architects of the period known as The Terror. "No, we will not step backward, our zeal will only be smothered in the tomb; either the Revolution will triumph or we will all die."

Thermidorian Reaction Counter-revolution in France against Robespierre, July 1794

The Thermidorian Reaction was a counter revolution which took place in France on 9 Thermidor of the Year II. On this day, the French politician Maximilien Robespierre was denounced by members of the National Convention as "a tyrant", leading to Robespierre and twenty-one associates including Louis Antoine de Saint-Just being arrested that night and beheaded on the following day.

Joseph Fouché French statesman

Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché was a French statesman and Minister of Police under First Consul Bonaparte, who later became Emperor Napoleon. He was particularly known for his ferocity with which he suppressed the Lyon insurrection during the Revolution in 1793 and for being minister of police under the Directory, the Consulate, and the Empire. In English texts, his title is often translated as Duke of Otranto.

Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai French novelist, playwright, journalist, politician, and diplomat

Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, politician, and diplomat.

François Louis Bourdon, also known as Bourdon de l'Oise, was a French politician of the Revolutionary period and procureur at the parlement of Paris.

Louis Legendre French politician

Louis Legendre was a French politician of the Revolution period.

Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé French soldier and politician

Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé was a French soldier and politician.

Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier French politician

Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier was a French politician of the French Revolution.

Maximilien Robespierre French revolutionary lawyer and politician

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution. As a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, Robespierre was an outspoken advocate for the citizens without a voice, for their unrestricted admission to the National Guard, to public offices, and for the right to petition. He campaigned for universal manhood suffrage, abolition of celibacy and the abolition of slavery in the French colonies. Robespierre played an important part in the agitation which brought about the fall of the French Legislative Assembly in August 1792 and the summoning of a National Convention.

Jacques-Alexis Thuriot de la Rosière French noble

Jacques-Alexis Thuriot, known as Thuriot de la Rosière, and later as chevalier Thuriot de la Rosière, chevalier de l'Empire was an important French statesman of the French Revolution, and a minor figure under the French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Pierre-Louis Bentabole French politician

Pierre Louis Bentabole was a revolutionary Frenchman, born in Landau Haut Rhin on 4 June 1756 and died in Paris on 22 April 1798. As lawyer, he presided practiced in the district of Hagenau and Saverne; he was deputy of the Bas-Rhin to the National Convention on 4 September 1792. He voted to execute Louis XVI. On 6 October 1794, he was appointed to the Committee of Public Safety.

Jean-Baptiste Clauzel, born in Lavelanet on September 21, 1746 and died in Paris on July 2, 1803, was a French politician. In 1790, he was elected mayor of his hometown. In 1791, his countrymen sent him sit in the Legislative Assembly where he was very discreet. In 1792, he was re-elected to the Convention by the department of Ariege he sided on the Mountain. At the trial of Louis XVI in January 1793, this "royalist" vote the king's death, without suspension ruled against the appeal of the people. He did not vote the impeachment of Jean-Paul Marat while claiming to be "far from approving all the principles of the Revolution espoused by his fanatic friend." Despite his opposition to the Girondins, he vote by MPs maintenance allowances to Members under arrest. His served as a representative on mission to the Army of the Pyrenees (West) from the end of August 1793 when he was recalled to Paris. He was among those who organized the downfall of Maximilien Robespierre. After 9 Thermidor Year II he joined the Committee of General Security, and supported the closing of the Jacobin Clubs. An active Thermidorian, he showed a readiness during the insurrection of the 1st Prairial. He denounced and arrested the "last Montagnards and called for the arrest of Bertrand Barrere, Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne and Jean-Marie Collot. Returned to the army of the Pyrenees, he found it disgracefully disorganized and unable to fight.

Fall of Maximilien Robespierre

The fall of Maximilien Robespierre refers to the series of events beginning with Maximilien Robespierre's address to the National Convention on 8 Thermidor Year II, his arrest the next day, and his execution on 10 Thermidor Year II. In the speech of 8 Thermidor, Robespierre spoke of the existence of internal enemies, conspirators, and calumniators, within the Convention and the governing Committees. He refused to name them, which alarmed the deputies who feared Robespierre was preparing another purge of the Convention.

References

Notes and CItations

  1. Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard, Alfred Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française, Robert Laffont,
  2. Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard, Alfred Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française, Robert Laffont, Paris, 1998. (In French)
  3. Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, p. 318.
  4. Tulard, Fayard, and Fierro 1998, p. 79.
  5. 1 2 Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1998, p. 339.
  6. Ghachem, Malick W. The Old Regime and the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  7. Mignet, François (1834). "History of the French Revolution, from 1789 to 1814" . Retrieved October 16, 2016. [H]e thought he ought not to reject a symbol, meaningless for him, but in the eyes of the people, that of liberty; he placed on his head a red cap presented to him on the top of a pike. The multitude were quite satisfied with this condescension. A moment or two afterwards, they loaded him with applause, as, almost suffocated with hunger and thirst, he drank off, without hesitation, a glass of wine presented to him[.]
  8. Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1996, pp. 1094-1095.
  9. Howe, Foreign Policy and the French Revolution, Springer, 2008, p. 113.
  10. Cited in Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française (1998), p. 1113
  11. Koch, Christophe-Guillaume, Histoire abrégée des traités de paix entre les puissances de l'Europe, depuis la Paix de Westphalie, Tome I, Méline, Cans & Compagnie, Bruxelles, 1857, p. 550. (French)
  12. Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1998, p. 367.
  13. Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1998, p. 369.
  14. Ministère de l'Intérieur: Police nationale, République française, Histoire, section La Révolution française (1789-1799), (French)
  15. Traité de Réunion de la République de Genève à la France, 26 April 1798. (In French)
  16. Thiers, Adolphe, Histoire de la Révolution française, 1839 (Ninth edition), Volume 10, Chapter XIII, Project Gutenberg digital edition
  17. Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, p. 410.

Bibliography