Timeline of the French Revolution

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The following is a timeline of the French Revolution.

Contents

French Revolution
Execution de Louis XVI Carnavalet.jpg
The execution of Louis XVI on the Place de la Révolution (now Place de la Concorde) (January 21, 1793)
Date1789–1799
Location France
ParticipantsFrench society
Outcome

1788 – The royal treasury is empty; Prelude to the Revolution

1789 – The Revolution Begins; the Estates-General and the Constituent Assembly

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, who proposed that the Third Estate become the National Assembly (June 10, 1789) Sieyes depute Assemblee nationale.JPG
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, who proposed that the Third Estate become the National Assembly (June 10, 1789)

January

February
March
April

May

Jean Sylvain Bailly, leader of the Third Estate (1789) Jean Sylvain Bailly, Maire de Paris.png
Jean Sylvain Bailly, leader of the Third Estate (1789)

June

July

July 14 – The Siege and Surrender of the Bastille

Lafayette in 1791 Gilbert du Motier Marquis de Lafayette.jpg
Lafayette in 1791

August

August 27 – Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

October 6 – Women's March on Versailles

The Women's March on Versailles (October 5-6, 1789) A Versailles, a Versailles 5 octobre 1789 - Restoration.jpg
The Women's March on Versailles (October 5–6, 1789)

1790 – the Rise of the Political Clubs

July 14 – Fête de la Fédération

1791 – The unsuccessful flight of the Royal Family from Paris

June 20–21 – The Royal Family flees Paris

King Louis XVI returns to Paris after his attempted flight (June 25, 1791) Duplessi-Bertaux - Arrivee de Louis Seize a Paris 2.png
King Louis XVI returns to Paris after his attempted flight (June 25, 1791)
The National Guard fires on demonstrators in the Champ de Mars (July 17, 1791) Fusillade du Champ de Mars (1791, 17 juillet).jpg
The National Guard fires on demonstrators in the Champ de Mars (July 17, 1791)

1792 – War and the overthrow of the monarchy

August 10 – Storming of the Tuileries; Downfall of the King

September 2–7 – Massacres in Paris prisons

September 20 – French victory at Valmy; Debut of the Convention

December 10, 1792-January 21, 1793 – Trial and Execution of Louis XVI

1793 – France at war against Europe; The Jacobins seize power; The Terror begins

. On Monday, 21 January, Louis XVI, at age 38, was beheaded by guillotine on the Place de la Révolution.

Uprising in the Vendée

April 6 – Committee on Public Safety takes control of government

The triumph of Marat after his release from arrest Triomphe de Marat.jpg
The triumph of Marat after his release from arrest

May 31-June 2 – The Jacobin Coup d'État

Sans-culottes threaten deputy Lanjuinais, on the podium during the takeover of the Convention (June 2, 1793) Muller - Lanjuinais a la tribune de la Convention.jpg
Sans-culottes threaten deputy Lanjuinais, on the podium during the takeover of the Convention (June 2, 1793)

July 13 – Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday

September 17 – The Reign of Terror begins

October 16 – The execution of Marie-Antoinette

Marie-Antoinette in the Temple Prison (1793) Marie Antoinette Adult11.jpg
Marie-Antoinette in the Temple Prison (1793)

1794 – The fury of the Terror, the Cult of the Supreme Being, and the Downfall of Robespierre

March 30 – The arrest and trial of Danton and Desmoulins

June 8 – Festival of the Supreme Being; Acceleration of the Terror

July 26–28 – Arrest and execution of Robespierre; End of the Terror

1795 – The Directory Replaces the Convention

May 20–24 – Last Paris uprising by the Jacobins and sans-culottes

June 25-July 27 – Renewed uprisings in the Vendée and a royalist invasion of Brittany

August 22-September 23 – The new Constitution is approved: the Directory takes power

October 5 – "A whiff of grapeshot": General Bonaparte suppresses a royalist rebellion in Paris

1796 – Napoleon's campaign in Italy; Defeat of the royalists in the Vendée; a failed uprising in Paris

1797 – Bonaparte chases the Austrians from Italy; a republican coup d'état against the royalists in Paris

September 4 – A republican coup d'état against the royalists

1798 – New republics in Switzerland and Italy; an election annulled; Bonaparte invades Egypt

1799 – France at War in Italy and Germany; Bonaparte returns from Egypt; the Consulate seizes power; End of the Revolution

Conflicts between the Directory and the Legislature (June 1799)

Bonaparte returns to France (October 9, 1799)

The Coup d'État of November 9–10

See also

Related Research Articles

French Revolution Revolution in France, 1789 to 1799

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Paul Barras French politician

Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras, commonly known as Paul Barras, was a French politician of the French Revolution, and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795–1799.

French Directory Executive power of the French Constitution of 1795-1799

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Jean-François Reubell or Rewbell was a French lawyer, diplomat, and politician of the Revolution.

Jacobin The more radical constitutional reform group in the French Revolution

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality, commonly known as the Jacobin Club or simply the Jacobins, became the most influential political club during the French Revolution of 1789 and following. The period of their political ascendancy includes the Reign of Terror, during which time well over ten thousand people were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes.

The Girondins, Girondists or Gironde were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution.

National Convention Single-chamber assembly in France from 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795

The National Convention was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly. Created after the great insurrection of 10 August 1792, it was the first French government organized as a republic, abandoning the monarchy altogether. The Convention sat as a single-chamber assembly from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795.

Jacques-Nicolas Billaud-Varenne French revolutionary leader

Jacques-Nicolas Billaud-Varenne, also known as Jean Nicolas, was a French personality of the Revolutionary period. Though not one of the most well known figures of the French Revolution, Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne was an instrumental figure of the period known as the Reign of Terror. Billaud-Varenne climbed his way up the ladder of power during that period, becoming one of the most militant members of the Committee of Public Safety. He was recognized and worked with French Revolution figures Georges Danton and Maximilien Robespierre, and is often considered one of the key architects of The Terror. "No, we will not step backward, our zeal will only be smothered in the tomb; either the Revolution will triumph or we will all die."

Jean-Lambert Tallien French political figure of the revolutionary period

Jean-Lambert Tallien was a French political figure of the revolutionary period.

Joseph Fouché French statesman

Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché was a French statesman and Minister of Police under First Consul Bonaparte, who later became Emperor Napoleon. He was particularly known for his ferocity with which he suppressed the Lyon insurrection during the Revolution in 1793 and for being minister of police under the Directory, the Consulate, and the Empire. In English texts, his title is often translated as Duke of Otranto.

François Louis Bourdon, also known as Bourdon de l'Oise, was a French politician of the Revolutionary period and procureur at the parlement of Paris.

Louis Legendre French politician

Louis Legendre was a French politician of the Revolution period.

Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé French soldier and politician

Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé was a French soldier and politician.

Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier French politician

Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier was a French politician of the French Revolution.

Feuillant (political group) political party

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, better known as Feuillants Club, was a political grouping that emerged during the French Revolution. It came into existence on 16 July 1791 when the left-wing Jacobins split between moderates (Feuillants), who sought to preserve the position of the king and supported the proposed plan of the National Constituent Assembly for a constitutional monarchy; and radicals (Jacobins), who wished to press for a continuation of direct democratic action to overthrow Louis XVI. It represented the last and most vigorous attempt of the moderate constitutional monarchists to steer the course of the revolution away from the radical Jacobins.

Maximilien Robespierre French revolutionary lawyer and politician

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and statesman who was one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. As a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he campaigned for universal manhood suffrage, and the abolition both of celibacy for the clergy and of slavery. Robespierre was an outspoken advocate for the citizens without a voice, for their unrestricted admission to the National Guard, to public offices, and for the right to carry arms in self-defence. He played an important part in the agitation which brought about the fall of the French monarchy in August 1792 and the summoning of a National Convention.

Insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793

The insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793, during the French Revolution, resulted in the fall of the Girondin party under pressure of the Parisian sans-culottes, Jacobins of the clubs, and Montagnards in the National Convention. By its impact and importance, this insurrection stands as one of the three great popular insurrections of the French Revolution, following those of 14 July 1789 and 10 August 1792.

Pierre-Louis Bentabole French politician

Pierre Louis Bentabole was a revolutionary Frenchman, born in Landau Haut Rhin on 4 June 1756 and died in Paris on 22 April 1798. As lawyer, he presided practiced in the district of Hagenau and Saverne; he was deputy of the Bas-Rhin to the National Convention on 4 September 1792. He voted to execute Louis XVI. On 6 October 1794, he was appointed to the Committee of Public Safety.

Fall of Maximilien Robespierre The coup detat of 27 July 1794 (9 Thermidor II) which deposed Robespierre.

The Coup d'état of 9 Thermidor or the Fall of Maximilien Robespierre refers to the series of events beginning with Maximilien Robespierre's address to the National Convention on 8 Thermidor Year II, his arrest the next day, and his execution on 10 Thermidor Year II. In the speech of 8 Thermidor, Robespierre spoke of the existence of internal enemies, conspirators, and calumniators, within the Convention and the governing Committees. He refused to name them, which alarmed the deputies who feared Robespierre was preparing another purge of the Convention.

References

Notes and CItations

  1. Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard, Alfred Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française, Robert Laffont,
  2. Jean Tulard, Jean-François Fayard, Alfred Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française, Robert Laffont, Paris, 1998. (In French)
  3. Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, p. 318.
  4. Tulard, Fayard, and Fierro 1998, p. 79.
  5. 1 2 Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1998, p. 339.
  6. Ghachem, Malick W. The Old Regime and the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  7. Mignet, François (1834). "History of the French Revolution, from 1789 to 1814" . Retrieved October 16, 2016. [H]e thought he ought not to reject a symbol, meaningless for him, but in the eyes of the people, that of liberty; he placed on his head a red cap presented to him on the top of a pike. The multitude were quite satisfied with this condescension. A moment or two afterwards, they loaded him with applause, as, almost suffocated with hunger and thirst, he drank off, without hesitation, a glass of wine presented to him[.]
  8. Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1996, pp. 1094–1095.
  9. Howe, Foreign Policy and the French Revolution, Springer, 2008, p. 113.
  10. Cited in Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française (1998), p. 1113
  11. Koch, Christophe-Guillaume, Histoire abrégée des traités de paix entre les puissances de l'Europe, depuis la Paix de Westphalie, Tome I, Méline, Cans & Compagnie, Bruxelles, 1857, p. 550. (French)
  12. Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1998, p. 367.
  13. Tulard, Fayard, Fierro 1998, p. 369.
  14. Ministère de l'Intérieur: Police nationale, République française, Histoire, section La Révolution française (1789-1799), (French)
  15. Traité de Réunion de la République de Genève à la France, 26 April 1798. (In French)
  16. Thiers, Adolphe, Histoire de la Révolution française, 1839 (Ninth edition), Volume 10, Chapter XIII, Project Gutenberg digital edition
  17. Tulard, Fayard and Fierro, p. 410.

Bibliography

online

In French