Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

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Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

  • Armenian: Անդրկովկասի Խորհրդային Սոցիալիստական Դաշնային (Ֆեդերատիվ) Հանրապետություն
  • Azerbaijani: Zaqafqaziya Sosialist Federativ Sovet Respublikası
  • Georgian :ამიერკავკასიის საბჭოთა ფედერაციული სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა
  • Russian: Закавказская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Республика
1922–1936
Emblem of the Transcaucasian SFSR (1930-1936).svg
Emblem (1923–1936)
Soviet Union - Transcaucasia.svg
Location of the Transcaucasian SFSR within the Soviet Union
Capital Tiflis
Common languages Georgian
Azerbaijani
Armenian
Russian
Government Federal Soviet socialist republic
History 
 Established
12 March 1922
 Disestablished
5 December 1936
Area
1922186,100 km2 (71,900 sq mi)
Currency Transcaucasian ruble, Soviet ruble
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of SSRA.svg Armenian SSR
Flag of Azerbaijan SSR (1921-1922).svg Azerbaijan SSR
Flag of Georgian SSR (1921-1922).svg Georgian SSR
Armenian SSR Flag of Armenian SSR (1937-1940).svg
Azerbaijan SSR Flag of Azerbaijan SSR (1937-1940).svg
Georgian SSR Flag of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (1922-1937).svg
Today part ofFlag of Armenia.svg  Armenia
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia

The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936. It comprised Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. As they were separated from Russia by the Caucasus Mountains, they were known traditionally as the Transcaucasian Republics. Created ostensibly to consolidate the economic situation of the region, the TSFSR was also useful in consolidating Bolshevik control over the states. It was one of the four republics to sign the treaty establishing the Soviet Union in 1922.

Republics of the Soviet Union top-level political division of the Soviet Union

The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Union Republics were the ethnically based proto-states of the Soviet Union. For most of its history, the USSR was a highly centralized state; the decentralization reforms during the era of Perestroika ("Restructuring") and Glasnost ("Openness") conducted by Mikhail Gorbachev are cited as one of the factors which led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic union republic of the Soviet Union

Armenia, officially the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922 located in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. It was established in December 1920, when the Soviets took over control of the short-lived First Republic of Armenia and lasted until 1991. It is sometimes called the Second Republic of Armenia, following the First Republic of Armenia's demise.

Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic Union republic of the Soviet Union

Azerbaijan, officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991. Created on 28 April 1920 when Soviet Russia brought pro-Soviet figures to power in the region, the first two years of the Azerbaijani SSR were as an independent country until incorporation into the Transcausasian SFSR, along with the Armenian SSR and the Georgian SSR.

Contents

Names in the local languages

Armenian language Indo-European language

The Armenian language is an Indo-European language that is the only language in the Armenian branch. It is the official language of Armenia as well as the de facto Republic of Artsakh. Historically being spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands, today, Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots.

Andrkovkasi Khorhrdayin Soc‘ialistakan Dashnayin (Federativ) Hanrapetut‘yun
Azerbaijani language Turkic language

Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes also Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a term referring to two Turkic lects that are spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who live mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and Iran. Caucasian Azerbaijani and Iranian Azerbaijani have significant differences in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and sources of loanwords. ISO 639-3 groups the two lects as a "macrolanguage".

Zaqafqaziya Sosialist Federativ Sovet Respublikası
Georgian language Official language of Georgia

Georgian is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians. It is the official language of Georgia. Georgian is written in its own writing system, the Georgian script. Georgian is the literary language for all regional subgroups of Georgians, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages: Svans, Mingrelians and the Laz.

Amierk'avk'asiis Sabch'ota Pederatsiuli Sotsialist'uri Resp'ublik'a
Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Zakavkazskaya Sotsalisticheskaya Federativnaya Sovetskaya Respublika (ZSFSR)

History

The roots of a Transcaucasian condominium state trace back to the dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1918, following the October Revolution, when the provinces of the Caucasus seceded and formed their own state called the Transcaucasian Federation. Competing ethno-national interests and confrontation with the Ottoman Empire in World War I led to the dissolution of the Transcaucasian Federation only two months later, in April 1918. [1]

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

October Revolution Bolshevik uprising during the Russian Revolution of 1917

The October Revolution, officially known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and commonly referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917–23. It took place through an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917.

Caucasus An area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea

The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia. It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which has historically been considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

The three successor states: the First Republic of Armenia, the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, and the Democratic Republic of Georgia, lasted until the end of the Russian Civil War that was being fought across the mountains, when they were invaded by the Red Army and sovietized. Following the proposal by Vladimir Lenin the three now Soviet Republics, the Armenian, Azerbaijani and Georgian SSRs, were united into the Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia on 12 March 1922. On 13 December that year, the First Transcaucasian Congress of Soviets transformed this federation of states into a unified federal state and renamed it into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, though keeping formally the autonomy of its constituent republics. The congress also adopted the constitution, appointed the Central Executive Committee (the highest legislative body), and the Council of People's Commissars (the government). Mamia Orakhelashvili, a Georgian Bolshevik leader, became the first chairman of the Transcaucasian SFSR Council of People's Commissars. [2] Tbilisi was the capital of the republic.

The republic became a founding member of the Soviet Union on 30 December along with the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, and the Byelorussian SSR. In December 1936, the Transcaucasian SFSR was dissolved and divided again among the Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani SSRs. [3]

Autonomous republics within TSFSR

Map of the Transcaucasian region during the Soviet era Soviet Caucasus map.svg
Map of the Transcaucasian region during the Soviet era

After the Red Army invasion of Georgia, Abkhazia, hitherto an autonomous province within the Democratic Republic of Georgia, was declared a Soviet Republic, the SSR of Abkhazia, in March 1921 by the Abkhaz Revolutionary committee. However the republic's relations with Georgia and Russia were not formally settled. [4] On December 16, 1921, Abkhazia signed a treaty of alliance with the Georgian SSR, which defined its status as a treaty republic (Russian: договорная республика) and established a military, political and financial union between the two Soviet republics, subordinating the SSR of Abkhazia to the Georgian SSR. Thus, through Georgia, Abkhazia joined the TSFSR and was initially on an equal footing with the other republics of the federation. [5] On February 19, 1931, Abkhazia's republican status was downgraded to that of an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Georgian SSR. [6]

The Adjar ASSR was established on July 16, 1921 within the Georgian SSR as a consequence of the Treaty of Kars. The treaty marking the end of the Caucasus Campaign in World War I provided for the division of the former Batum Oblast of the Kutais Governorate of the Russian Empire between Georgia and Turkey. According to the agreement the northern half with significant Georgian Muslim population would become part of the Soviet Georgia but granted autonomy.

Another autonomous republic was established in July 1920 in Nakhchivan, an area bordering Armenia, Turkey and Iran, which was claimed by Armenians and Azerbaijanis. After the occupation of the region by the Red Army, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was declared with "close ties" to the Azerbaijani SSR. The Treaty of Moscow and the Treaty of Kars affirmed the establishment of the autonomous republic as part of the Soviet Azerbaijan. [7]

Heads of state

Chairs of the Union Council
NameDatesParty
Nariman Narimanov March–December 1922 Communist Party of Azerbaijan
Polikarp Mdivani March–December 1922 Communist Party of Georgia
Aleksandr Myasnikyan March–December 1922 Communist Party of Armenia
Chairmen of the Presidium of the USSR CEC from TSFSR
NameDatesParty
Nariman Narimanov 1922-1925 Communist Party of Azerbaijan
Gazanfar Musabekov 1925-1938 Communist Party of Azerbaijan
Chairs of the Central Executive Committee
NamePeriodFor
Mikhail Tskhakaya (1st time)1922–1927Georgia
Samad aga Aliyev 1922–1929Azerbaijan
Sarkis Hambartsumyan 1922–1925Armenia
Sarkis Kasyan 1927–1931Armenia
Filipp Makharadze (1st time)1927–1928Georgia
Mikhail Tskhakaya (2nd time)1928–1931Georgia
Gazanfar Musabekov 1929–1931Azerbaijan
Filipp Makharadze (2nd time)1931–1935Georgia
Armenak Ananyan 1931–1935Armenia
Sultan Majid Afandiyev 1931–1936Azerbaijan
Sergo Martikyan 1935–1936Armenia
Avel Enukidze March–May 1935Georgia
Filipp Makharadze (3rd time)1935–1936Georgia

Stamps and postal history

Before 1923, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan issued each its own postage stamps. The Transcaucasian Federation began issuing its own stamps on September 15, 1923, and superseded the separate republics' issues on October 1.

The first issues consisted of some of the stamps of Russia and Armenia overprinted with a star containing the five-letter acronym of the Federation inside the points. Massive inflation having set in, this was followed by an issue of the Federation's own designs, four values of a view of oil fields, and four with a montage of Soviet symbols over mountains and oil derricks, values ranging from 40,000 to 500,000 rubles. The 40,000 rubles and 75,000 rubles were then surcharged to 700,000 rubles. On October 24, the stamps were re-issued with values from 1 to 18 gold kopecks. Starting in 1924, the Federation used stamps of the Soviet Union. [8]

Most of the stamps of the Federation are not especially rare today, with 1998 prices in the US$1–2 range, although the overprints on Armenian stamps range up to US$200.[ citation needed ] As might be expected from a short period of usage, used stamps are less common than unused and covers are not often seen.

See also

Notes

  1. Suny 1994 , pp. 191–192
  2. Suny 1994 , p. 245
  3. Закавказская федерация Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine . Большая советская энциклопедия, 3-е изд., гл. ред. А. М. Прохоров. Москва: Советская энциклопедия, 1972. Т. 9 (A. M. Prokhorov; et al., eds. (1972). "Transcaucasian Federation". Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). 9. Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia.)
  4. Saparov 2015 , pp. 50–57
  5. Hewitt 1993 , p. 271
  6. Blauvelt 2007 , p. 212
  7. Text of the Treaty of Kars
  8. https://web.archive.org/web/20171214163509/http://www.stampworldhistory.com:80/country-profiles-2/asia/transcaucasia-%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B7%D1%8C%D0%B5/ Retrieved 12 August 2018.

Bibliography

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