Regions included in all forms
Regions generally included
Countries that still have a small part of their territory in the Southern Cone
|Area||5,712,034 kilometres (3,549,293 mi)|
|Population||135,707,204 (July 2010 est.)|
|Density||27.45/km2 (71.1/sq mi)|
|Countries||3, 4, or 5|
|Languages||Spanish, Portuguese and Guarani|
|Largest urban agglomerations||1. |
The Southern Cone (Spanish : Cono Sur, Portuguese : Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. In terms of social, economic and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Southern Brazil and the state of São Paulo in Brazil. In its broadest definition, taking into account common history and geography, it also includes Paraguay.
High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, low fertility rates, significant participation in the global markets and the emerging economy [ citation needed ] of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America.
The climates are mostly temperate, but include humid subtropical, Mediterranean, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold, desert and semi-arid temperate regions. Except for northern regions of Argentina (thermal equator in January), the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama desert, the region rarely suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents mostly cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is what brings low temperatures in the winter. The Atacama is the driest place on Earth.
One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree, which can be found in Brazil, Chile and Argentina. The only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia , once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law. The prairies region of central Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas.
Central Chile has Mediterranean vegetation and climate, grading southward into oceanic climate. The Atacama, Patagonian and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands, croplands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile. Apart from the desert diagonal, the north-south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute, for most of its part in the southern cone, the Argentina–Chile border. In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
|Buenos Aires||30.1 °C (86.2 °F)|
20.1 °C (68.2 °F)
|22.9 °C (73.2 °F)|
13.8 °C (56.8 °F)
|15.4 °C (59.7 °F)|
7.4 °C (45.3 °F)
|22.6 °C (72.7 °F)|
13.3 °C (55.9 °F)
|Santiago de Chile||30.1 °C (86.2 °F)|
13.4 °C (56.1 °F)
|22.3 °C (72.1 °F)|
6.5 °C (43.7 °F)
|14.3 °C (57.7 °F)|
1.6 °C (34.9 °F)
|22.8 °C (73.0 °F)|
8.4 °C (47.1 °F)
|Porto Alegre||30.2 °C (86.4 °F)|
20.5 °C (68.9 °F)
|25.2 °C (77.4 °F)|
16.3 °C (61.3 °F)
|19.4 °C (66.9 °F)|
10.7 °C (51.3 °F)
|24.4 °C (75.9 °F)|
15.0 °C (59.0 °F)
|Asunción||33.5 °C (92.3 °F)|
22.8 °C (73.0 °F)
|28.4 °C (83.1 °F)|
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
|23.1 °C (73.6 °F)|
13.1 °C (55.6 °F)
|29.2 °C (84.6 °F)|
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
|Montevideo||28.1 °C (82.6 °F)|
18.0 °C (64.4 °F)
|21.7 °C (71.1 °F)|
12.9 °C (55.2 °F)
|14.6 °C (58.3 °F)|
6.9 °C (44.4 °F)
|20.3 °C (68.5 °F)|
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
|Valparaiso||21.4 °C (70.5 °F)|
13.5 °C (56.3 °F)
|18.3 °C (64.9 °F)|
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
|14.3 °C (57.7 °F)|
9.2 °C (48.6 °F)
|17.0 °C (62.6 °F)|
10.5 °C (50.9 °F)
|Córdoba||31.1 °C (88.0 °F)|
18.1 °C (64.6 °F)
|24.9 °C (76.8 °F)|
12.3 °C (54.1 °F)
|18.5 °C (65.3 °F)|
5.5 °C (41.9 °F)
|26.1 °C (79.0 °F)|
12.6 °C (54.7 °F)
|Mar del Plata||26.3 °C (79.3 °F)|
14.3 °C (57.7 °F)
|20.5 °C (68.9 °F)|
9.1 °C (48.4 °F)
|13.1 °C (55.6 °F)|
3.8 °C (38.8 °F)
|18.5 °C (65.3 °F)|
7.6 °C (45.7 °F)
|Concepción||22.8 °C (73.0 °F)|
10.9 °C (51.6 °F)
|18.3 °C (64.9 °F)|
8.1 °C (46.6 °F)
|13.2 °C (55.8 °F)|
5.8 °C (42.4 °F)
|17.2 °C (63.0 °F)|
7.4 °C (45.3 °F)
|Neuquén||32.0 °C (89.6 °F)|
16.2 °C (61.2 °F)
|22.0 °C (71.6 °F)|
7.0 °C (44.6 °F)
|12.2 °C (54.0 °F)|
0.0 °C (32.0 °F)
|23.4 °C (74.1 °F)|
8.2 °C (46.8 °F)
|Bariloche||21.4 °C (70.5 °F)|
6.5 °C (43.7 °F)
|14.8 °C (58.6 °F)|
1.8 °C (35.2 °F)
|6.4 °C (43.5 °F)|
−1.3 °C (29.7 °F)
|13.9 °C (57.0 °F)|
1.3 °C (34.3 °F)
|Ushuaia||13.9 °C (57.0 °F)|
5.4 °C (41.7 °F)
|9.6 °C (49.3 °F)|
2.3 °C (36.1 °F)
|4.2 °C (39.6 °F)|
−1.7 °C (28.9 °F)
|10.5 °C (50.9 °F)|
2.3 °C (36.1 °F)
Besides sharing languages and colonial heritage, the residents of the states of the Southern Cone are avid players and fans of football, with top-notch teams competing in the sport. Argentina and Uruguay have both won the FIFA World Cup twice; they are the only national teams along with Brazil outside Europe to have won the cup. Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Brazil have all hosted the World Cup. Additionally, national teams from the region have won several Olympic medals in football. Also, football clubs from the Southern Cone countries have won large numbers of club competitions in South-American competitions, Pan-American competitions, and world-FIFA Club World Cup-level competitions.
The asado barbecue is a culinary tradition typical of the Southern Cone. The asado developed from the horsemen and cattle culture of the region, more specifically from the gauchos of Argentina, Uruguay and Southern Brazil (and Southern Chile) and the huasos of Chile. In the Southern Cone, horsemen are considered icons of national identity; they are featured in the epic poem Martín Fierro . Mate is popular throughout the Southern Cone.
In this area, there was extensive European immigration during the 19th- and 20th-centuries, who, with their descendants, have strongly influenced the culture, social life and politics of these countries.
In a social survey, residents rated their countries as 'good places for gay or lesbian people to live;' the following percentages said 'yes' in Uruguay (69%), Argentina (58%) and Chile (52%). By contrast, fewer people in the following countries agreed: Bolivia (24%), Ecuador (31%) and Peru (32%).
The overwhelming majority, including those of recent immigrant background, speak Spanish (in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay) or Portuguese in the case of Southern Brazil. The Spanish-speaking countries of the Southern Cone are divided into two main dialects:
These dialects share common traits, such as a number of Lunfardo and Quechua words.
Other minor languages and dialects include Portuñol, a hybrid between Rioplatense and Brazilian Portuguese that is spoken in Uruguay on the border with Brazil.
Some Native American groups, especially in rural areas, continue to speak autochthonous languages, including Mapudungun (also known as Mapuche), Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani. The first is primarily spoken in Araucanía and adjacent areas of Patagonia, in southern Argentina and Chile. Guarani is an official language of Paraguay, the most widely spoken language in that country, and in 2010, the city of Tacuru, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, adopted Guarani as the official language, besides Portuguese. It is also a co-official language in the northeastern Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones.
English is spoken in the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory, and by descendants of British settlers in Argentina and Chile. Welsh is spoken by descendants of immigrants in the Patagonia region of Argentina.
Italian (mostly its Northern dialects, such as Venetian), is spoken in rural communities across Argentina and São Paulo where immigrants had settled. German in some dialects is mostly spoken in Southern Chile and Southern Brazil. German dialects are the second most spoken mother tongue in Brazil.Polish, Dutch and Ukrainian are also spoken in Southern Brazil. Dutch is spoken in Chile as well, Ukrainian is used in Argentina as well. Croatian and other Slavic languages are also spoken in the southernmost areas of Chilean Patagonia, reflecting patterns of immigration and settlement.
Yiddish can be heard mainly in Buenos Aires, Argentina and São Paulo, Brazil.
In Brazil, Japanese is mostly common in the states of São Paulo and Paraná.
The majority of residents are Roman Catholic, but there are Jewish and Protestants as well (mostly in Argentina and Chile). Religions include Islam, Anglicanism, Lutheranism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Buddhism, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Daoism. Jewish communities have thrived in cities of Argentina and Uruguay.
While the Southern Cone has been conservative in some aspects of religion, it has had a tradition of social reform and "liberation theology" has been followed by many in the Catholic Church. Uruguay, where agnosticism and atheism is common, has a policy of strong separation of church and state; it is one of the most secular countries in the Americas.Uruguay, Argentina and Chile, in that order, have the least religious residents in South America, according to their responses about the significance of religion in their lives. According to a Gallup poll, 51% of Uruguayans, 56% of Argentines, and 60% of Chileans think of religion 'as something important in their lives,' contrasting with the higher values given by the residents of countries such as Brazil (87%), Bolivia (89%) and Paraguay (92%).
| Country or |
| Area |
| Population |
| Population density |
|HDI (2017)||Capital or most important city|
Brazil being a country of continental dimensions, it presents great internal regional differences.
While its 4 southernmost states (Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and São Paulo) share the same characteristics with Argentina, Chile and Uruguay: high standard of living, subtropical and temperate climate, high levels of industrialization and strong European ethnic component due to immigration, the other states are more similar to the other South American countries in these issues.
For this reason, Brazil is included in some meanings when speaking in Southern Cone, but excluded in others. When the definition is not limited to entire countries, the states of the South Region and the state of São Paulo are generally included.
| Country or |
| Area |
| Population |
| Population density |
|HDI (2014)||Capital or most important city|
Due to the geographical proximity, common history, geography and political cycles, Paraguay is usually included in what is meant by Southern Cone. However, it contrasts strongly with other countries given the high level of poverty, low standard of living and low level of industrialization, and is therefore sometimes excluded from the definition.
The population of Argentina, Chile and Uruguay is 40, 16.8 and 3.6 million respectively. Buenos Aires is the largest metropolitan area at 13.1 million and Santiago, Chile has 6.4 million. Uruguay's capital and largest city, Montevideo, has 1.8 million, and it receives many visitors on ferry boats across the Río de la Plata from Buenos Aires, 50 km (31 mi) away.
The population of the Southern Cone has been strongly influenced by waves of immigration from Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. People of European descent, make up 79% of the total population of Argentina, 88% of total population of Uruguay and 53% of total population of Chile.Mestizos make up 15.8% of the population and are a majority in Paraguay. Native Americans make up 3% of the population, mulattoes (people of European and African ancestry) mostly in Uruguay (0.2%), and Asians (1.0%), mostly in Argentina, the remaining 1.2%.
Since interethnic marriages are widespread in Latin America, complex ethnic classifications emerged, including more than a dozen of "racial" categories created in 18th century Hispanic America, with notorious examples being castizo, morisco and cambujo. In Brazil, about 190 "racial" categories were detected by the Census of 1976.
Blacks made up 25% of the population of Buenos Aires in 1810, 1822 and 1838. In 1887, the government decided to cease asking Argentine citizens about their race. According to Laura López, it was a way to "hide" the Black population, not only from the Census, but also from the public opinion.Chile does not ask its citizens about race, but a study from the University of Chile concluded that Whites make 60% of the Chilean population, while the CIA World Factbook described 88.4% of the population as white and mestizo.
A study conducted on 218 individuals in 2010 by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach, has established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed by 79% from different European ethnicities (mainly Spanish and Italian ethnicities), 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups, in which 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous.An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found the composition of the Argentine population to be 78,50% European, 17,30% Native American, and 4,20% Sub-Saharan African (SSA).
A DNA study from 2009, published in the American Journal of Human Biology, showed the genetical composition of Uruguay to be mainly European, but with Native American (which varies from 1% to 20% in different parts of the country) and also SSA (7% to 15% in different parts of the country).
An autosomal DNA study from 2014 found out Chile to be 44.34% (± 3.9%) Native American, 51.85% (± 5.44%) European and 3.81% (± 0.45%) African.
In the case of Chile,"The use of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome" test results show the following: The European component is predominant (91.0%, versus 9.0% of the aboriginal one) in the Chilean upper class,the middle classes, 66.8%-62.3% European component and 37.7%-33.2 of mixed aboriginal and lower classes at 55%-52.9% European component and 47.1%-45% mix of Aboriginal.
Similar to the rest of Latin America, the genetic ancestry of the population of the Southern Cone reflects the history of the continent: the Iberian colonizers were mostly men who arrived without women. In consequence, they had children with the local Indigenous or enslaved African women. A European immigration to this part of the World in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (massive in Argentina, Uruguay, Southern Chile, and south and southeastern Brazil, modest in elsewhere in Brazil, Central Chile and Paraguay)brought more European and northern Middle Eastern components to the local population – mainly Spaniards in Chile, Italians and Spaniards in Argentina and Uruguay, Italians in São Paulo, Italians, Germans and Poles in southern Brazil. European immigration was encouraged by local governments, among other reasons, to "whiten" the local population, which reflected the scientific racism that considered the Amerindian and African elements "inferior", while the European element was seen as "superior". As a consequence, the White phenotype came to dominate these areas that received larger numbers of European immigrants. But the predominantly non-white majority before the mass European immigration did not disappear, of course, but was largely assimilated into the white population.
The other conspicuous characteristic of the Southern Cone is its relatively high standard of living and quality of life. Argentina's, Chile's, and Uruguay's HDIs—(0.827), (0.847), and (0.804)—are the highest in Latin America, similar to rich countries in Eastern Europe, such as Hungary, Croatia or Romania.Uruguay, where illiteracy technically does not exist, reaches the same level in this area, even considering that it faces restrictions to its industrial and economic growth. The Southern Cone is the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America. It has high life expectancy, access to health care and education. From an economic and liberal point of view the region has been praised for its significant participation in the global markets, and its "emerging economy" profile. More troubling are high levels of income inequality.
| Failed States Index |
| Lack of Corruption |
| Economic Freedom |
| Peace |
| Democracy |
|Southern Cone||22,493||45.2||0.820 (VH)||57.7||42.4||60||1.648||7.60||7.84|
|South America||11,955||47.5||0.715 (H)||50.3||76.7||31||55.0||2.233||6.01|
|Central America||10,502||49.7||0.678 (M)||51.0||68.8||37||62.2||2.058||6.45|
Southern Cone =
South America =
Central America =
During the second half of 20th century, these countries were in some periods ruled by right-wing juntas, military nationalistic dictatorships. Around the 1970s, these regimes collaborated in Plan Cóndor against leftist opposition, including urban guerrillas.However, by the early 1980s Argentina and Uruguay restored their democracies; Chile followed suit in 1990.
Timeline of presidents
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics.
Rio Grande do Sul is a state in the southern region of Brazil. It is the fifth-most-populous state and the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo, Rivera and Artigas to the south and southwest, and the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest. The capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, and the crime rate is relatively low compared to Brazilian national average.
Hispanic America, also known as Spanish America is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaking countries of the continents of North and South America.
This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the German language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken. In addition to the German-speaking area in Europe, German-speaking minorities are present in many countries and on all six inhabited continents.
Latin Americans are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies. Latin American countries are multi-ethnic, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds. As a result, some Latin Americans do not take their nationality as an ethnicity, but identify themselves with both their nationality and their ancestral origins. Aside from the indigenous Amerindian population, all Latin Americans or their ancestors immigrated since 1492. Latin America has the largest diasporas of Spaniards, Portuguese, Black Africans, Italians, Lebanese and Japanese in the world. The region also has large German, French, and Jewish diasporas.
Rioplatense Spanish, also known as Argentine-Uruguayan Spanish is a variety of Spanish spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata Basin of Argentina and Uruguay. It is also referred to as River Plate Spanish or Argentine Spanish. Being the most prominent dialect to employ voseo in both speech and writing, many features of Rioplatense are also shared with the varieties spoken in Eastern Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. This dialect is often spoken with an intonation resembling that of the Neapolitan language of Southern Italy, but there are exceptions. The usual word employed to name the Spanish language in this region is castellano and seldom español. See names given to the Spanish language.
CLARA is an international organization whose aim is to connect Latin America's academic computer networks. It is Cooperación Latino Americana de Redes Avanzadas in Spanish and Cooperação Latino-Americana de Redes Avançadas in Portuguese.
The Río de la Plata basin, more often called the River Plate basin in scholarly writings, sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region, is the 3,170,000-square-kilometre (1,220,000 sq mi) hydrographical area in South America that drains to the Río de la Plata. It includes areas of southeastern Bolivia, southern and central Brazil, the entire country of Paraguay, most of Uruguay, and northern Argentina. Making up about one fourth of the continent's surface, it is the second largest drainage basin in South America and one of the largest in the world.
Spanish is the language that is predominantly understood and spoken as a first, or second language by nearly all of the population of the Republic of Argentina. According to the latest estimations, the population is currently greater than 45 million.
White Latin Americans, or European Latin Americans, are Latin Americans who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases Levantine, descent. Latin American countries have often encouraged mixing of different ethnic groups for procreation, and even a small amount of European ancestry could entail significant upwards social mobility.
The languages of South America can be divided into three broad groups:
Argentine Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of full, partial, or predominantly Argentine ancestry, or an Argentine-born person residing in Brazil.
Portuguese is the most spoken language of South America. It is the sole official language of Brazil and is a co-official language of several regional organizations, notably Mercosul, UNASUL, ACTO, CELAC, the Rio Group, and ALADI.
Argentines are people identified with the country of Argentina. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Argentines, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Argentine.
The Spanish diaspora consists of Spanish people and their descendants who emigrated from Spain. The diaspora is concentrated in places that were part of the Spanish Empire. Countries such as Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Chile, Colombia, Argentina, Paraguay, Cuba, Nicaragua and, to a lesser extent, Brazil, the United States, Canada and continental Europe.
Following is the list of 2007 Copa Sudamericana final stages.
The Southern Cone is a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, mostly south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Although geographically this includes part of Southern and Southeastern Brazil, in terms of political geography the Southern cone has traditionally comprised Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. In the narrowest sense, it only covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.
Argentine irredentism is the idea of Argentina's sovereignty over the British Overseas Territories of the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, along with the dispute with Chile over the Southern Patagonian Ice Field and disputes with both over the region designated as Argentine Antarctica.
Estonian Argentines are Argentine citizens of Estonian descent or Estonia-born people who emigrated to Argentina. Argentina is home to the fourth largest Estonian community in the Americas, behind the United States, Canada and Brazil.