Chameleon

Last updated

Chameleons
Temporal range: Middle Paleocene-Holocene Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Iguania
Clade: Acrodonta
Family:Chamaeleonidae
Rafinesque, 1815
Genera
Cameleonidae Repartition Map.png

Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with over 160 species described as of June 2015. [1] These species come in a range of colors, and many species have the ability to change color.

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family".

Clade A group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants

A clade, also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

Old World Collectively Africa, Europe, and Asia

The term "Old World" is used commonly in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe, regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania. It is used in the context of, and contrasts with, the New World.

Contents

Chameleons are distinguished by their feet; their very extensive, highly modified, rapidly extrudable tongues; their swaying gait; [2] and crests or horns on their brow and snout. Most species, the larger ones in particular, also have a prehensile tail. Chameleons' eyes are independently mobile, but in aiming at a prey item, they focus forward in coordination, affording the animal stereoscopic vision.

Prehensility

Prehensility is the quality of an appendage or organ that has adapted for grasping or holding. The word is derived from the Latin term prehendere, meaning "to grasp".

Chameleons are adapted for climbing and visual hunting. They live in warm habitats that range from rain forest to desert conditions, with various species occurring in Africa, Madagascar, southern Europe, and across southern Asia as far as Sri Lanka. They also have been introduced to Hawaii, California, and Florida, and often are kept as household pets.

Desert Area of land where little precipitation occurs

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location.

Madagascar island nation off the coast of Southeast Africa, in the Indian Ocean

Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.

Sri Lanka Island country in South Asia

Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo.

Etymology

Mughal era painting of a chameleon by Ustad Mansur. Ustad Mansur Chameleon.jpg
Mughal era painting of a chameleon by Ustad Mansur.

The English word chameleon ( /kəˈmliən/ kuh-MEEL-yun) is a simplified spelling of Latin chamaeleōn, [3] a borrowing of the Greek χαμαιλέων (khamailéōn), [4] a compound of χαμαί (khamaí) "on the ground" [5] and λέων (léōn) "lion". [6] [7] [8] A group of chameleons is referred to by the collective noun "camp".

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Greek language language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

(video) Chameleon in Malawi, 2018.

Classification

The family Chamaeleonidae was divided into two subfamilies, Brookesiinae and Chamaeleoninae, by Klaver and Böhme in 1986. [9] Under this classification, Brookesiinae included the genera Brookesia and Rhampholeon , as well as the genera later split off from them ( Palleon and Rieppeleon ), while Chamaeleoninae included the genera Bradypodion , Calumma , Chamaeleo , Furcifer and Trioceros , as well as the genera later split off from them ( Archaius , Nadzikambia and Kinyongia ). Since that time, however, the validity of this subfamily designation has been the subject of much debate, [10] although most phylogenetic studies support the notion that the pygmy chameleons of the subfamily Brookesiinae are not a monophyletic group. [11] [12] [13] [14]

Brookesiinae subfamily of reptiles

The Family Chamaeleonidae was divided into two subfamilies, Brookesiinae and Chamaeleoninae, by Klaver and Böhme in 1986. Under this classification, Brookesiinae included the genera Brookesia and Rhampholeon, as well as the genera later split off from them. The Brookesiinae are small, often brown in colour, and occur in central Africa and Madagascar. They have terrestrial habits, or may be found in the lower levels of shrubs. Since its erection in 1986, however, the validity of this subfamily designation has been the subject of much debate, although most phylogenetic studies support the notion that the pygmy chameleons of the subfamily Brookesiinae are not a monophyletic group. While some authorities have previously preferred to use the subfamilial classification on the basis of the absence of evidence principal, these authorities later abandoned this subfamilial division, no longer recognizing any subfamilies with the family Chamaeleonidae. In 2015, however, Glaw reworked the subfamilial division by placing only the genera Brookesia and Palleon within the Brookesiinae subfamily, with all other genera being placed in Chamaeleoninae.

Chamaeleoninae subfamily of reptiles

Chamaeleoninae is the nominotypical subfamily of chameleons. The Family Chamaeleonidae was divided into two subfamilies, Brookesiinae and Chamaeleoninae, by Klaver and Böhme in 1986. Since its erection in 1986, however, the validity of this subfamily designation has been the subject of much debate, although most phylogenetic studies support the notion that the pygmy chameleons of the subfamily Brookesiinae are not a monophyletic group. While some authorities have previously preferred to use the subfamilial classification on the basis of the absence of evidence principal, these authorities later abandoned this subfamilial division, no longer recognizing any subfamilies with the family Chamaeleonidae. In 2015, however, Glaw reworked the subfamilial division by placing only the genera Brookesia and Palleon within the Brookesiinae subfamily, with all other genera being placed in Chamaeleoninae.

<i>Brookesia</i> genus of reptiles

Brookesia is a genus of chameleons, endemic to Madagascar, that range from small to very small in size, and are known collectively as leaf chameleons. Brookesia includes species considered to be the world's smallest chameleons, and are also among the smallest reptiles. Members of the genus Brookesia are largely brown and most are essentially terrestrial.

While some authorities have previously preferred to use this subfamilial classification on the basis of the absence of evidence principle, [10] these authorities later abandoned this subfamilial division, no longer recognizing any subfamilies with the family Chamaeleonidae. [15]

In 2015, however, Glaw reworked the subfamilial division by placing only the genera Brookesia and Palleon within the Brookesiinae subfamily, with all other genera being placed in Chamaeleoninae. [1]

Chameleon found in Mysore, Southern Part of India Chameleon, Mysore.jpg
Chameleon found in Mysore, Southern Part of India

Change of color

This common chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) turned black. Chamaeleo chamaeleon Frightened thus black.JPG
This common chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) turned black.
Namaqua chameleon in threat display, Namib-Naukluft National Park, turned black and opened its mouth, when an attempt was made to move it off a busy road. Chamaeleo namaquensis (Namib-Naukluft, 2011).jpg
Namaqua chameleon in threat display, Namib-Naukluft National Park, turned black and opened its mouth, when an attempt was made to move it off a busy road.

Some chameleon species are able to change their skin colouration. Different chameleon species are able to vary their colouration and pattern through combinations of pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown, light blue, yellow, turquoise, and purple. [16] Chameleon skin has a superficial layer which contains pigments, and under the layer are cells with guanine crystals. Chameleons change colour by changing the space between the guanine crystals, which changes the wavelength of light reflected off the crystals which changes the colour of the skin.

Colour change in chameleons has functions in camouflage, but most commonly in social signaling and in reactions to temperature and other conditions. The relative importance of these functions varies with the circumstances, as well as the species. Colour change signals a chameleon's physiological condition and intentions to other chameleons. [17] [18] Chameleons tend to show brighter colours when displaying aggression to other chameleons, [19] and darker colours when they submit or "give up". [20] Some species, particularly those of Madagascar and some African genera in rainforest habitats, have blue fluorescence in their skull tubercles, deriving from bones and possibly serving a signaling role. [21]

Some species, such as Smith's dwarf chameleon, adjust their colours for camouflage in accordance with the vision of the specific predator species (bird or snake) by which they are being threatened. [22]

The desert-dwelling Namaqua chameleon also uses colour change as an aid to thermoregulation, becoming black in the cooler morning to absorb heat more efficiently, then a lighter grey colour to reflect light during the heat of the day. It may show both colors at the same time, neatly separated left from right by the spine.[ citation needed ]

Mechanism of color change

For a long time it was thought that chameleons change colour by dispersion of pigment-containing organelles within their skin. However, research conducted in 2014 on panther chameleons has shown that pigment movement only represents part of the mechanism. [23]

Chameleons have two superimposed layers within their skin that control their colour and thermoregulation. The top layer contains a lattice of guanine nanocrystals, and by exciting this lattice the spacing between the nanocrystals can be manipulated, which in turn affects which wavelengths of light are reflected and which are absorbed. Exciting the lattice increases the distance between the nanocrystals, and the skin reflects longer wavelengths of light. Thus, in a relaxed state the crystals reflect blue and green, but in an excited state the longer wavelengths such as yellow, orange, green, and red are reflected. [24]

The skin of a chameleon also contains some yellow pigments, which combined with the blue reflected by a relaxed crystal lattice results in the characteristic green color which is common of many chameleons in their relaxed state.

Evolution

Male of long-nosed chameleon (Calumma gallus) at Vohimana reserve, Madagascar. Male Long-nosed Chameleon (Calumma gallus), Vohimana reserve, Madagascar.jpg
Male of long-nosed chameleon (Calumma gallus) at Vohimana reserve, Madagascar.

The oldest described chameleon is Anqingosaurus brevicephalus from the Middle Paleocene (about 58.7–61.7 mya) of China. [25]

Other chameleon fossils include Chamaeleo caroliquarti from the Lower Miocene (about 13–23 mya) of the Czech Republic and Germany, and Chamaeleo intermedius from the Upper Miocene (about 5–13 mya) of Kenya. [25]

The chameleons are probably far older than that, perhaps sharing a common ancestor with iguanids and agamids more than 100 mya (agamids being more closely related). Since fossils have been found in Africa, Europe and Asia, chameleons were certainly once more widespread than they are today.

Although nearly half of all chameleon species today live in Madagascar, this offers no basis for speculation that chameleons might originate from there. [26] In fact, it has recently been shown that chameleons most likely originated in mainland Africa. [14] It appears there were two distinct oceanic migrations from the mainland to Madagascar. The diverse speciation of chameleons has been theorized to have directly reflected the increase in open habitats (savannah, grassland, and heathland) that accompanied the Oligocene period. Monophyly of the family is supported by several studies. [27]

Daza et al. (2016) described a small (10,6 mm in snout-vent length), probably neonatal lizard preserved in the Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian boundary) amber from Myanmar. The authors noted that the lizard has "short and wide skull, large orbits, elongated and robust lingual process, frontal with parallel margins, incipient prefrontal boss, reduced vomers, absent retroarticular process, low presacral vertebral count (between 15 and 17) and extremely short, curled tail"; the authors considered these traits to be indicative of the lizard's affiliation with Chamaeleonidae. The phylogenetic analysis conducted by the authors indicated that the lizard was a stem-chamaeleonid. [28]

While the exact evolutionary history of color change in chameleons is still unknown, there is one aspect of the evolutionary history of chameleon color change that has already been conclusively studied: the effects of signal efficacy. Signal efficacy, or how well the signal can be seen against its background, has been shown to correlate directly to spectral qualities of chameleon displays. [29] Dwarf chameleons, the chameleon of study, occupy a wide variety of habitats from forests to grasslands to shrubbery. It was demonstrated that chameleons in brighter areas tended to present brighter signals, but chameleons in darker areas tended to present relatively more contrasting signals to their backgrounds. This finding suggests that signal efficacy (and thus habitat) has affected the evolution of chameleon signaling. Stuart-Fox et al. note that it makes sense that selection for crypsis is not seen to be as important as selection for signal efficacy, because the signals are only shown briefly; chameleons are most always in muted, cryptic colors. [29]

Description

Malagasy giant chameleon, Ambalavao, Madagascar Cameleon Madagascar 02.jpg
Malagasy giant chameleon, Ambalavao, Madagascar
Cape dwarf chameleon in the act of defecation: the typical action by which it avoids fouling its own branch incidentally displays the difference between the arrangement of its fore and hind toes. Cape Dwarf Chameleon Bradypodion pumilum 2012 02 02 1696s.JPG
Cape dwarf chameleon in the act of defecation: the typical action by which it avoids fouling its own branch incidentally displays the difference between the arrangement of its fore and hind toes.
Nearly all species of chameleon have prehensile tails, but they most often grip with the tail when they cannot use all four feet at once, such as when passing from one twig to another. Chameleon in Berenty Madagascar 0001.JPG
Nearly all species of chameleon have prehensile tails, but they most often grip with the tail when they cannot use all four feet at once, such as when passing from one twig to another.

Chameleons vary greatly in size and body structure, with maximum total lengths varying from 15 mm (0.59 in) in male Brookesia micra (one of the world's smallest reptiles) to 68.5 cm (27.0 in) in the male Furcifer oustaleti . [30] Many have head or facial ornamentation, such as nasal protrusions, or horn-like projections in the case of Trioceros jacksonii, or large crests on top of their heads, like Chamaeleo calyptratus . Many species are sexually dimorphic, and males are typically much more ornamented than the female chameleons.

Typical sizes of species of chameleon commonly kept in captivity or as pets are:

Scientific nameCommon nameLength (male)Length (female)ColorLifespan (years)
Chamaeleo calyptratus Veiled chameleon 35–60 cm25–33 cmGreen and light colorsabout 5
Trioceros jacksonii Jackson's chameleon 23–33 cm25–33 cmGreen and light colors5–10
Furcifer pardalis Panther chameleon 38–53 cm23–33 cmDarker colorsabout 5 (2–3 for birthing females)
Rieppeleon brevicaudatus Bearded pygmy chameleon 5–8 cm5–8 cmBrown, beige, greenabout 3–5
Rhampholeon spectrum Spectral pygmy chameleon 8–10 cm5–10 cmTan and gray3–5
Rhampholeon temporalis Usambara pitted pygmy chameleon 6–10 cm5–9 cmGray and brown5–11

The feet of chameleons are highly adapted to arboreal locomotion, and species such as Chamaeleo namaquensis that have secondarily adopted a terrestrial habit have retained the same foot morphology with little modification. On each foot, the five clearly distinguished toes are grouped into two fascicles. The toes in each fascicle are bound into a flattened group of either two or three, giving each foot a tongs-like appearance. On the front feet, the outer, lateral, group contains two toes, whereas the inner, medial, group contains three. On the rear feet, this arrangement is reversed, the medial group containing two toes, and the lateral group three. These specialized feet allow chameleons to grip tightly onto narrow or rough branches. Furthermore, each toe is equipped with a sharp claw to afford a grip on surfaces such as bark when climbing. It is common to refer to the feet of chameleons as didactyl or zygodactyl, though neither term is fully satisfactory, both being used in describing totally different feet, such as the zygodactyl feet of parrots or didactyl feet of sloths or ostriches, none of which is significantly like chameleon feet. Although "zygodactyl" is reasonably descriptive of chameleon foot anatomy, their foot structure does not resemble that of parrots, to which the term was first applied. As for didactyly, chameleons visibly have five toes on each foot, not two.

Some chameleons have a crest of small spikes extending along the spine from the proximal part of the tail to the neck; both the extent and size of the spikes varies between species and individuals. These spikes help break up the definitive outline of the chameleon, which aids it when trying to blend into a background.

Senses

Chameleons have the most distinctive eyes of any reptile. The upper and lower eyelids are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil to see through. Each eye can pivot and focus independently, allowing the chameleon to observe two different objects simultaneously. This gives them a full 360-degree arc of vision around their bodies. Prey is located using monocular depth perception, not stereopsis. [31] Chameleons have very good eyesight for reptiles, letting them see small insects from a 5–10 meter distance.[ citation needed ] In fact, chameleons have the highest magnification (per size) of any vertebrate. [32]

Like snakes, chameleons do not have an outer or a middle ear, so there is neither an ear opening nor an eardrum. However, chameleons are not deaf: they can detect sound frequencies in the range of 200–600 Hz. [33]

Chameleons can see in both visible and ultraviolet light. [34] Chameleons exposed to ultraviolet light show increased social behavior and activity levels, are more inclined to bask and feed, and are also more likely to reproduce, as it has a positive effect on the pineal gland.

Feeding

Tongue structure (the end of the tongue is cup-like) Chameleon gab fbi.png
Tongue structure (the end of the tongue is cup-like)
Chameleon's tongue striking at food Chameleons Tongue.GIF
Chameleon's tongue striking at food

All chameleons are primarily insectivores that feed by ballistically projecting their long tongues from their mouths to capture prey located some distance away. [35] While the chameleons' tongues are typically thought to be one and a half to two times the length of their bodies (their length excluding the tail), smaller chameleons (both smaller species and smaller individuals of the same species) have recently been found to have proportionately larger tongue apparatuses than their larger counterparts. [36] Thus, smaller chameleons are able to project their tongues greater distances than the larger chameleons that are the subject of most studies and tongue length estimates, and can project their tongues more than twice their body length. [37]

The chameleon tongue apparatus consists of highly modified hyoid bones, tongue muscles, and collagenous elements. [38] [39] [36] [40] The hyoid bone has an elongated, parallel-sided projection, called the entoglossal process, over which a tubular muscle, the accelerator muscle, sits. [36] [40] [38] [39] The accelerator muscle contracts around the entoglossal process and is responsible for creating the work to power tongue projection, both directly and through the loading of collagenous elements located between the entoglossal process and the accelerator muscle. [35] [36] [38] [39] The tongue retractor muscle, the hyoglossus, connects the hyoid and accelerator muscle, and is responsible for drawing the tongue back into the mouth following tongue projection. [35] [36] [40] [38]

Tongue projection occurs at extremely high performance, reaching the prey in as little as 0.07 seconds, [38] [39] [41] having been launched at accelerations exceeding 41 g. [41] The power with which the tongue is launched, known to exceed 3000 W kg−1, exceeds that which muscle is able to produce, indicating the presence of an elastic power amplifier to power tongue projection. [39] The recoil of elastic elements in the tongue apparatus is thus responsible for large percentages of the overall tongue projection performance.

One consequence of the incorporation of an elastic recoil mechanism to the tongue projection mechanism is relative thermal insensitivity of tongue projection relative to tongue retraction, which is powered by muscle contraction alone, and is heavily thermally sensitive. [41] [42] While other ectothermic animals become sluggish as their body temperatures decline, due to a reduction in the contractile velocity of their muscles, chameleons are able to project their tongues at high performance even at low body temperatures. [41] [42] The thermal sensitivity of tongue retraction in chameleons, however, is not a problem, as chameleons have a very effective mechanism of holding onto their prey once the tongue has come into contact with it, including surface phenomena, such as wet adhesion and interlocking, and suction. [43] The thermal insensitivity of tongue projection thus enables chameleons to feed effectively on cold mornings prior to being able to behaviorally elevate their body temperatures through thermoregulation, when other sympatric lizards species are still inactive, likely temporarily expanding their thermal niche as a result. [41]

Bones

Certain species of chameleons have bones that glow when under ultraviolet light, also known as biogenic fluorescence. [44] Some 31 different species of Calumma chameleons, all native to Madagascar, displayed this fluorescence in CT scans. [45] The bones emitted a bright blue glow and could even shine through the chameleon's four layers of skin. [45] The face was found to have a different glow, appearing as dots otherwise known as tubercles on facial bones. [44] The glow results from proteins, pigments, chitin, and other materials that make up a chameleon's skeleton, [44] possibly giving chameleons a secondary signaling system that does not interfere with their color-changing ability, and may have evolved from sexual selection. [44]

Distribution and habitat

Brookesia minima, Lokobe Strict Reserve. The 30 species of chameleons in the genus Brookesia are tiny, usually brown-colored and mainly terrestrial. Minute leaf chameleon (Brookesia minima) Lokobe.jpg
Brookesia minima, Lokobe Strict Reserve. The 30 species of chameleons in the genus Brookesia are tiny, usually brown-colored and mainly terrestrial.

Chameleons primarily live in the mainland of sub-Saharan Africa and on the island of Madagascar, although a few species live in northern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East, southern India, Sri Lanka, and several smaller islands in the western Indian Ocean. There are introduced, feral populations of veiled and Jackson's chameleons in Hawaii, and isolated pockets of feral Jackson's chameleons have been reported in California and Florida.

Chameleons inhabit all kinds of tropical and mountain rain forests, savannas, and sometimes deserts and steppes. The typical chameleons from the subfamily Chamaeleoninae are arboreal, usually living in trees or bushes, although a few (notably the Namaqua chameleon) are partially or largely terrestrial. Most species from the subfamily Brookesiinae, which includes the genera Brookesia , Rieppeleon , and Rhampholeon , live low in vegetation or on the ground among leaf litter. Many species of chameleons are threatened by extinction. Declining chameleon numbers are due to habitat loss. [46]

Reproduction

West Usambara two-horned chameleon (Kinyongia multituberculata) in the Usambara mountains, Tanzania Chameleon - Tanzania - Usambara Mountains.jpg
West Usambara two-horned chameleon (Kinyongia multituberculata) in the Usambara mountains, Tanzania
Chamaeleo chamaeleon found in Hebron, Palestine. Chameleon Hebron, Palestine.jpg
Chamaeleo chamaeleon found in Hebron, Palestine.

Chameleons are mostly oviparous, with some being ovoviviparous.

The oviparous species lay eggs three to six weeks after copulation. The female will dig a hole — from 10–30 cm (4–12 in), deep depending on the species — and deposit her eggs. Clutch sizes vary greatly with species. Small Brookesia species may only lay two to four eggs, while large veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) have been known to lay clutches of 20–200 (veiled chameleons) and 10–40 (panther chameleons) eggs. Clutch sizes can also vary greatly among the same species. Eggs generally hatch after four to 12 months, again depending on species. The eggs of Parson's chameleon (Calumma parsonii), a species which is rare in captivity, are believed to take more than 100 years to hatch. [47]

The ovoviviparous species, such as the Jackson's chameleon (Trioceros jacksonii) have a five- to seven-month gestation period. Each young chameleon is born within the sticky transparent membrane of its yolk sac. The mother presses each egg onto a branch, where it sticks. The membrane bursts and the newly hatched chameleon frees itself and climbs away to hunt for itself and hide from predators. The female can have up to 30 live young from one gestation. [48]

Diet

Chameleons generally eat insects, but larger species, such as the common chameleon, may also take other lizards and young birds. [49] :5 The range of diets can be seen from the following examples:

Parasites

Chameleons are parasitized by nematode worms, including threadworms (Filarioidea). Threadworms can be transmitted by biting insects such as ticks and mosquitoes. Other roundworms are transmitted through food contaminated with roundworm eggs; the larvae burrow through the wall of the intestine into the bloodstream. [52]

Chameleons are subject to several protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium which causes malaria, Trypanosoma which causes sleeping sickness, and Leishmania which causes leishmaniasis. [53]

Chameleons are subject to parasitism by coccidia, [53] including species of the genera Choleoeimeria , Eimeria , and Isospora . [54]

Related Research Articles

<i>Calumma</i> genus of reptiles

Calumma is a genus of chameleons endemic and restricted to Madagascar. The species formerly named Calumma tigris was transferred to the genus Archaius by Townsend et al. when they found that it is more closely related to Rieppeleon than to Calumma.

Veiled chameleon species of reptile

The veiled chameleon is a species of chameleon native to the Arabian Peninsula in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Other common names include cone-head chameleon and Yemen chameleon.

Parsons chameleon species of reptile

The Parson's chameleon is a large species of chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to isolated pockets of humid primary forest in eastern and northern Madagascar. It is listed on CITES Appendix II, meaning that trade in this species is regulated. As with the majority of chameleon species from Madagascar, it is illegal to export Parson's chameleon from its native country.

Antsingy leaf chameleon species of reptile

The Antsingy leaf chameleon is a species of lizards in the family Chamaeleonidae. It is also referred to as Armoured leaf chameleon.

Montagne dAmbre leaf chameleon species of reptile

The Montagne d'Ambre leaf chameleon is a diminutive chameleon from far northern Madagascar.

<i>Brookesia minima</i> species of reptile

Brookesia minima, (common names of which include the dwarf chameleon, the Madagascan dwarf chameleon, the minute leaf chameleon, and the Nosy Be pygmy leaf chameleon, is a diminutive chameleon that was regarded as the smallest lizard of the Chamaeleonidae until a smaller species, B. micra, was described in 2012.

Mellers chameleon species of reptile

Trioceros melleri, with the common names Meller's chameleon and giant one-horned chameleon, is the largest species of chameleon from the African mainland.

Black-headed dwarf chameleon species of reptile

The black-headed dwarf chameleon is a lizard of the family Chamaeleonidae endemic to KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It is also known as the KwaZulu dwarf chamaeleon.

<i>Brookesia ebenaui</i> species of reptile

Brookesia ebenaui is a chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species, which is endemic to Madagascar, can rapidly change color among various earth hues.

<i>Brookesia micra</i> species of chameleon from Madagascar

Brookesia micra is a species of chameleons from the islet of Nosy Hara in Antsiranana, Madagascar. As of 14 February 2012, it is the smallest known chameleon and among the smallest reptiles. In length, adult Brookesia micra can grow up to 29 mm (1.1 in).

Naturelle leaf chameleon species of reptile

The naturelle leaf chameleon is a species of chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to Madagascar. It was rated as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature on its Red List of Threatened Species. The species was described by Édouard-Raoul Brygoo, Charles Pierre Blanc, and Charles Domergue in 1970.

Two-banded chameleon species of chameleon

Furcifer balteatus, also known as the two-banded chameleon or the rainforest chameleon, is a species of chameleon that is endemic to Madagascar. It was described by André Marie Constant Duméril and Gabriel Bibron in 1851.

<i>Brookesia bonsi</i> species of reptile

Brookesia bonsi is a species of chameleons, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to Madagascar, and was initially described by Guy A. Ramanantsoa in 1980. The International Union for Conservation of Nature ranked this species as Critically Endangered.

<i>Brookesia griveaudi</i> species of reptile

Brookesia griveaudi, commonly known as the Marojejy leaf chameleon, is a species of chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to northeastern Madagascar. It was described as a species new to science by Brygoo, Blanc, and Domergue in 1974. It is listed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Iaraka River leaf chameleon species of reptile

The Iaraka River leaf chameleon, also commonly known as the mossy pygmy leaf chameleon, is a species of chameleons, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae.

<i>Metarhizium granulomatis</i> species of fungus

Metarhizium granulomatis is a fungus in the family Clavicipitaceae associated with systemic mycosis in veiled chameleons. The genus Metarhizium is known to infect arthropods, and collectively are referred to green-spored asexual pathogenic fungi. This species grows near the roots of plants and has been reported as an agent of disease in captive veiled chameleons. The etymology of the species epithet, "granulomatis" refers to the ability of the fungus to cause granulomatous disease in susceptible reptiles.

References

  1. 1 2 Glaw, F. (2015). "Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae)". Vertebrate Zoology. 65 (2): 167–246.
  2. Edmonds, Patricia (September 2015). "True colors". National Geographic : 98.
  3. chamaeleon . Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project .
  4. χαμαιλέων . Liddell, Henry George ; Scott, Robert ; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  5. χαμαί  in Liddell and Scott.
  6. λέων  in Liddell and Scott.
  7. "Chameleon". Dictionary.com.
  8. Harper, Douglas. "chameleon". Online Etymology Dictionary .
  9. Klaver, C.; Böhme, W. (1986). "Phylogeny and classification of the Chamaeleonidae (Sauria) with special reference to hemipenis morphology". Bonner Zoologische Monographien. 22: 1–64.
  10. 1 2 Tilbury, Colin (2010). Chameleons of Africa, An Atlas including the chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Frankfurt: Edition Chimaira. ISBN   978-3899734515.
  11. Townsend, T.; Larson, A. (2002). "Molecular phylogenetics and mitochondrial genomic evolution in the Chamaeleonidae (Reptilia, Squamata)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 23 (1): 22–36. doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.1076. PMID   12182400.
  12. Raxworthy, C. J.; Forstner, M. R. J.; Nussbaum, R. A. (2002). "Chameleon radiation by oceanic dispersal" (PDF). Nature. 415 (6873): 784–787. doi:10.1038/415784a. PMID   11845207.
  13. Townsend, T. M.; Tolley, K. A.; Glaw, F.; Böhme, W.; Vences, M. (2011). "Eastward from Africa: Palaeocurrent-mediated chameleon dispersal to the Seychelles islands". Biological Letters. 7 (2): 225–228. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0701. PMC   3061160 . PMID   20826471.
  14. 1 2 Tolley, K. A.; Townsend, T. M.; Vences, M. (2013). "Large-scale phylogeny of chameleons suggests African origins and Eocene diversification". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 280 (1759): 20130184. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0184. PMC   3619509 . PMID   23536596.
  15. Tilbury, Colin (2014). "Overview of the Systematics of the Chamaeleonidae". In Tolley, Krystal A.; Herrel, Anthony (eds.). The Biology of Chameleons. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 151–174. ISBN   9780520276055.
  16. Chameleons. National Geographic Explorer
  17. Stuart-Fox, D.; Moussalli, A. (2008). "Selection for Social Signalling Drives the Evolution of Chameleon Colour Change". PLoS Biology. 6 (1): e25. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060025. PMC   2214820 . PMID   18232740.
  18. Harris, Tom. "How Animal Camouflage Works". How Stuff Works. Retrieved 2006-11-13.
  19. Ligon, Russell A.; McGraw, Kevin J. (2013). "Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information". Biology Letters. 9 (6): 20130892. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0892. PMC   3871380 . PMID   24335271.
  20. Ligon, Russell A (2014). "Defeated chameleons darken dynamically during dyadic disputes to decrease danger from dominants". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 68 (6): 1007–1017. doi:10.1007/s00265-014-1713-z.
  21. David Prötzel, Martin Heß, Mark D. Scherz, Martina Schwager, Anouk van’t Padje, Frank Glaw (2017). "Widespread bone-based fluorescence in chameleons". Scientific Reports. 8 (698). Bibcode:2018NatSR...8..698P. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-19070-7.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  22. Young, Emma (2008) Chameleons fine-tune camouflage to predator's vision. New Scientist
  23. Teyssier, Jeremie; Saenko, Suzanne V.; van der Marel, Dirk; Milinkovitch, Michel C. (2015). "Photonic crystals cause active colour change in chameleons." Nature Communications (6).
  24. National Geographic (2015) The Colorful Language of Chameleons
  25. 1 2 Maisano, Jessie (27 August 2003). "Chamaeleo calyptratus, Veiled Chameleon". Digimorph. University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
  26. Tolley, Krystal; Burger, Marius (2007). Chameleons of Southern Africa. Struik. pp. 26–28. ISBN   978-1-77007-375-3.
  27. Tolley, Krystal A.; Herrel, Anthony (16 November 2013). The Biology of Chameleons. Univ of California Press. ISBN   9780520276055 . Retrieved 1 November 2017 via Google Books.
  28. Daza, Juan D.; Stanley, Edward L.; Wagner, Philipp; Bauer, Aaron M.; Grimaldi, David A. (2016). "Mid-Cretaceous amber fossils illuminate the past diversity of tropical lizards". Science Advances. 2 (3): e1501080. Bibcode:2016SciA....2E1080D. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501080. PMC   4783129 . PMID   26973870.
  29. 1 2 Stuart-Fox, D.; Moussalli, Adnan; Whiting, Martin J. (2007). "Natural Selection on Social Signals: Signal Efficacy and the Evolution of Chameleon Display Coloration". The American Naturalist. 170 (6): 916–930. doi:10.1086/522835.
  30. Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar (2nd ed.). Köln: Verlags GbR. ISBN   978-3-929449-01-3.
  31. Ott, M.; Schaeffel, F.; Kirmse, W. (1998). "Binocular vision and accommodation in prey-catching chamaeleons". Comparative Physiology A. 182 (3): 319–330. doi:10.1007/s003590050182.
  32. Ott, M., and F. Schaeffel. (1995). A negatively powered lens in the chameleon. Nature 373:692-694
  33. Le Berre and Bartlett, p. 31
  34. "Chamaeleon News, August 2004". Chameleonnews.com. Archived from the original on 22 January 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  35. 1 2 3 Higham, T. E.; Anderson, C. V. (2014), "Function and adaptation of chameleons", in Tolley, K. A.; Herrel, A. (eds.), The Biology of Chameleons, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 63–83
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 Anderson, C. V.; Sheridan, T.; Deban, S. M. (2012). "Scaling of the ballistic tongue apparatus in chameleons". Journal of Morphology. 273 (11): 1214–1226. doi:10.1002/jmor.20053. PMID   22730103.
  37. Anderson, Christopher V. (2009) Rhampholeon spinosus feeding video. chamaeleonidae.com
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 Herrel, A.; Meyers, J. J.; Nishikawa, K. C.; De Vree, F. (2001). "Morphology and histochemistry of the hyolingual apparatus in chameleons". Journal of Morphology. 249 (2): 154–170. doi:10.1002/jmor.1047. PMID   11466743.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 de Groot, J. H.; van Leeuwen, J. L. (2004). "Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon tongue". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 271 (1540): 761–770. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2637. PMC   1691657 . PMID   15209111.
  40. 1 2 3 Anderson, C. V.; Higham, T. E. (2014), "Chameleon anatomy", in Tolley, K. A.; Herrel, A. (eds.), The Biology of Chameleons, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 7–55
  41. 1 2 3 4 5 Anderson, C. V.; Deban, S. M. (2010). "Ballistic tongue projection in chameleons maintains high performance at low temperature". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (12): 5495–5499. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.5495A. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910778107. PMC   2851764 . PMID   20212130.
  42. 1 2 Anderson, C. V.; Deban, S. M. (2012). "Thermal effects on motor control and in vitro muscle dynamics of the ballistic tongue apparatus in chameleons". Journal of Experimental Biology. 215 (24): 4345–4357. doi:10.1242/jeb.078881. PMID   23125336.
  43. Herrel, A.; Meyers, J. J.; Aerts, P.; Nishikawa, K. C. (2000). "The mechanics of prey prehension in chameleons" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Biology. 203 (Pt 21): 3255–3263. PMID   11023845.
  44. 1 2 3 4 Prötzel, David; Heß, Martin; Scherz, Mark D.; Schwager, Martina; Padje, Anouk van’t; Glaw, Frank (2018-01-15). "Widespread bone-based fluorescence in chameleons". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 698. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-19070-7. ISSN   2045-2322. PMC   5768862 . PMID   29335580.
  45. 1 2 Elaina Zachos (2018-01-18). "Chameleon Bones Glow in the Dark, Even Through Skin". National Geographic. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  46. "Habitat loss and fragmentation reduce chameleon population in Tanzania". Phys.org. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  47. Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel (1994). A Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar (2nd ed.). Köln: Verlags GbR. ISBN   978-3-929449-01-3.
  48. 1 2 "African Rainforest". Jackson's Chameleon. Toronto Zoo. Archived from the original on November 11, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
  49. 1 2 3 Dever, Jennifer (December 5, 2007). "Common Chameleon" (PDF). usfca.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 3, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
  50. "Reptiles and Amphibians: Veiled Chameleon". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on 2011-12-17. Retrieved January 9, 2012.
  51. Karsten, K. B.; Ferguson G. W.; Chen T. C.; Holick M. F. (2009). "Panther chameleons, Furcifer pardalis, behaviorally regulate optimal exposure to UV depending on dietary vitamin D3 status". Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 82 (3): 218–25. doi:10.1086/597525. PMID   19335229.
  52. Le Berre and Bartlett, p. 110
  53. 1 2 Le Berre and Bartlett, p. 109
  54. Sloboda, Michal; Modrý, David (2006). "New species of Choleoeimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), with taxonomic revision of eimerian coccidia from chameleons". Folia Parasitologica. 53 (2): 91–97. doi:10.14411/fp.2006.012. PMID   16898122.

Bibliography

Further reading