Brookesia

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Brookesia
Brookesia.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Iguania
Family: Chamaeleonidae
Subfamily: Brookesiinae
Genus: Brookesia
Gray, 1864
Type species
Chamaeleo superciliaris
Kuhl, 1820
Diversity
31 species

Brookesia is a genus of chameleons, endemic to Madagascar, that range from small to very small in size, and are known collectively as leaf chameleons (though this name also commonly is used for species in the genera Rieppeleon and Rhampholeon ). Brookesia includes species considered to be the world's smallest chameleons, and are also among the smallest reptiles. Members of the genus Brookesia are largely brown and most are essentially terrestrial.

Contents

A significant percentage of the species in the genus were only identified to science within the last three decades, and a number of species that still have not received a scientific name are known to exist. Most inhabit very small ranges in areas that are difficult to access, and due to their small size and secretive nature, they have been relatively poorly studied compared to their larger relatives.

Brookesia are abundant in low-disturbance riparian zones [1] and low-disturbance rainforests. Brookesia are scarce in high-disturbance forests [2] recovering from burning.

Etymology

The generic name Brookesia is in honor of British naturalist Joshua Brookes. [3]

Conservation status

Most Brookesia are on CITES Appendix II, the only exception being B. perarmata on Appendix I (a species also listed as endangered and a newly discovered Brookesia nana listed as Critically Endangered [4] by IUCN). Consequently, a special permit is required to import any of the below species from their native Madagascar, and typically no permit is issued for B. perarmata.

Species

Brookesia desperata female, stress-coloured, with two recently laid eggs. Stress-coloured Brookesia desperata female with two recently laid eggs.png
Brookesia desperata female, stress-coloured, with two recently laid eggs.
Brookesia nana (male), the world's smallest known reptile species Brookesia nana Fig4A.jpg
Brookesia nana (male), the world's smallest known reptile species
Males (left) and females (right) of four Brookesia species described in 2012, all belonging to the B. minima species group: A-B B. tristis, C-D B. confidens, E-F B. micra, G-H B. desperata Brookesia species male female (Journal.pone.0031314.g010).png
Males (left) and females (right) of four Brookesia species described in 2012, all belonging to the B. minima species group: A-B B. tristis , C-D B. confidens , E-F B. micra , G-H B. desperata

The genus Brookesia contains the following 31 species which are recognized as being valid. [6]

Nota bene : A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was originally described in a genus other than Brookesia.

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Paroedura</i> Genus of lizards

Paroedura is a genus of geckos, endemic to Madagascar and the Comoros. These geckos are typically terrestrial, though the young of most species can climb until they are too heavy for their feet to support.

<i>Uroplatus</i> Genus of lizards

Uroplatus is a genus of geckos, commonly referred to as leaf-tail geckos or flat-tailed geckos, which are endemic to Madagascar and its coastal islands, such as Nosy Be. They are nocturnal, insectivorous lizards found exclusively in primary and secondary forest.

<i>Calumma</i> Genus of lizards

Calumma is a genus of chameleons endemic and restricted to Madagascar. The species formerly named Calumma tigris was transferred to the genus Archaius by Townsend et al. When they found that it is more closely related to Rieppeleon than to Calumma. The oldest fossil of the genus is known from the Early Miocene of Kenya, showing that the genus originated in Africa.

<i>Brookesia peyrierasi</i> Species of lizard

Brookesia peyrierasi is a species of diminutive chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to north-eastern Madagascar. It is known commonly as Peyrieras's pygmy chameleon, named after the herpetologist André Peyriéras.

Mount dAmbre leaf chameleon Species of reptile

The Mount d'Ambre leaf chameleon is a diminutive chameleon from far northern Madagascar.

<i>Brookesia ebenaui</i> Species of lizard

Brookesia ebenaui is a chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species, which is endemic to Madagascar, can rapidly change color among various earth hues.

<i>Brookesia betschi</i> Species of lizard

Brookesia betschi, commonly known as Blanc's leaf chameleon or the Marojejy leaf chameleon, is a species of chameleon endemic to Madagascar. It was described by Édouard-Raoul Brygoo, Charles Pierre Blanc and Charles Antoine Domergue in 1974.

Naturelle leaf chameleon Species of lizard

The naturelle leaf chameleon is a species of chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to Madagascar. It was rated as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature on its Red List of Threatened Species. The species was described by Édouard-Raoul Brygoo, Charles Pierre Blanc, and Charles Domergue in 1970.

<i>Furcifer tuzetae</i> Species of lizard

Furcifer tuzetae is a species of chameleon that is endemic to Madagascar. It is only known from its type locality, Andrenalamivola near Befandriana Sud. It was described by Édouard-Raoul Brygoo, Robert M. Bourgat and Charles Antoine Domergue in 1972. The International Union for Conservation of Nature have rated this species as "data deficient".

<i>Brookesia bonsi</i> Species of lizard

Brookesia bonsi is a species of chameleons, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to Madagascar, and was initially described by Guy A. Ramanantsoa in 1980. The International Union for Conservation of Nature ranked this species as Critically Endangered.

Brookesia brygooi, commonly known as the leaf chameleon or Brygoo's chameleon, is a species of chameleon, a lizard in the family Chameleonidae. The species, which is endemic to Madagascar, was first described in 1995 by Raxworthy and Nussbaum and named in compliment to French herpetologist Édouard-Raoul Brygoo.

The toothed leaf chameleon, Brookesia dentata, is a species of chameleons endemic to northwestern Madagascar. It was first described by Mocquard in 1900: 345, and has been described numerous times since then, most recently by Townsend et al. in 2009. It is affected by the collection of charcoal, forest fires, and the grazing of cattle.

<i>Brookesia griveaudi</i> Species of lizard

Brookesia griveaudi, commonly known as the Marojejy leaf chameleon, is a species of chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to northeastern Madagascar. It was described as a species new to science by Brygoo, Blanc, and Domergue in 1974. It is listed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Brookesia therezieni, also known as the Perinet leaf chameleon, is a species of lizards in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to eastern Madagascar. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classed the species as Least Concern. B. therezieni was initially described as a species new to science by Édouard-Raoul Brygoo and Charles Antoine Domergue in 1970.

<i>Brookesia thieli</i> Species of lizard

Brookesia thieli, commonly also known as Domergue's leaf chameleon or Thiel's pygmy chameleon, is a species of lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to eastern Madagascar, with a type locality of Ambodimanga, Andapa. It was first described in 1969 by Édouard-Raoul Brygoo and Charles Antoine Domergue, and it was ranked by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "least concern". B. thieli is thought to be found over an area of 43,865 km2 (16,936 sq mi) at 875–1,200 m (2,871–3,937 ft) above sea level.

<i>Palleon nasus</i> Species of lizard

Palleon nasus, commonly known as the elongate leaf chameleon, is a species of chameleon endemic to Madagascar. It was initially described by Boulenger in 1887. The species contains two subspecies, P. n. nasus and P. n. pauliani. It grows no more than 9 cm.

Brookesia valerieae is a species of chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to Madagascar. It was first described by Raxworthy in 1991. The IUCN have classed this species as endangered, and it is affected by slash-and-burn agriculture. It is not a protected species.

Iaraka River leaf chameleon Species of lizard

The Iaraka River leaf chameleon, also commonly known as the mossy pygmy leaf chameleon, is a species of chameleon, a lizard in the family Chamaeleonidae. The species is endemic to Madagascar.

<i>Madascincus</i> Genus of lizards

Madascincus is a genus of skinks, lizards in the family Scincidae. The genus is endemic to Madagascar. Some taxonomic authorities place the group in the genus Amphiglossus.

References

  1. Jenkins, Richard K.B.; Brady, Lee D.; Bisoa, Michel; Rabearivony, Jeanneney; Griffiths, Richard A. (2003). "Forest disturbance and river proximity influence chameleon abundance in Madagascar". Biological Conservation. 109 (3): 407–415. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00166-0.
  2. Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Nussbaum, Ronald A. (1994). "A Rainforest Survey of Amphibians, Reptiles and Small Mammals at Montagne D'Ambre, Madagascar". Biological Conservation. 69: 65–73. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(94)90329-8. hdl: 2027.42/31871 .
  3. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michel (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN   978-1-4214-0135-5. (Genus Brookesia, p. 40).
  4. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-55945948?xtor=AL-72-%5Bpartner%5D-%5Bbbc.news.twitter%5D-%5Bheadline%5D-%5Bnews%5D-%5Bbizdev%5D-%5Bisapi%5D&at_custom1=%5Bpost+type%5D&at_custom4=2FA86BDC-67A9-11EB-BEA1-4EFA4744363C&at_custom2=twitter&at_campaign=64&at_medium=custom7&at_custom3=%40BBCWorld&fbclid=IwAR2dLSB0RtCrkaRF-R3KXW70twe38WI5WFLMxPuP8OhE9WGun-_qSfY2N_c
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Glaw F; Köhler J; Townsend TM; Vences M (2012). "Rivaling the World's Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar". PLOS ONE. 7 (2): e31314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031314. PMC   3279364 . PMID   22348069.
  6. Genus Brookesia at The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org

Further reading