Gekkonidae

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Gekkonidae
Tokay.jpg
Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), the largest species of Gekkonidae
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Superfamily: Gekkonoidea
Family: Gekkonidae
Gray, 1825
Subfamilies

Gekkonidae (the common geckos) is the largest family of geckos, containing over 950 described species in 64 genera. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Members of the Gekkonidae comprise many of the most widespread gecko species, including house geckos ( Hemidactylus ), tokay geckos ( Gekko ), day geckos ( Phelsuma ), mourning geckos ( Lepidodactylus ) and dtellas ( Gehyra ). Gekkonid geckos occur globally and are particularly species-rich in tropical areas.

Contents

Hemidactylus geckos are one of the most species-rich and widely distributed of all reptile genera. [7]

Evolution

They evolved probably in the Lower Cretaceous and some 100 million years ago they were already well adapted for a scansorial lifestyle. [8] [9] [10] Some members of the Gekkonidae family have evolved adhesive toe pads that allow them to adhere to and climb vertical surfaces. [11] [12]

Habitat

Many genera of the Gekkonidae family are capable of widespread geographical habitation. However, such species prefer arid regions of warmer temperature and higher precipitation. [13] [14] [15]

Genera

Gekkonidae contains the following genera:

Phylogeny

Pyron, et al. (2013) [16] presents the following classification of Gekkonidae genera, based on molecular phylogenetics.

Gekkonidae 

Lepidodactylus , Pseudogekko , Luperosaurus , Gekko , Dixonius , Heteronotia , Nactus , Hemiphyllodactylus , Gehyra

Alsophylax , Tropiocolotes , Cnemaspis , Mediodactylus , Pseudoceramodactylus , Tropiocolotes , Stenodactylus , Bunopus , Crossobamon , Agamura , Cyrtopodion , Cyrtodactylus , Hemidactylus

Perochirus , Urocotyledon , Ebenavia , Paroedura , Ailuronyx , Calodactylodes , Ptenopus , Narudasia , Cnemaspis , Uroplatus , Paragehyra , Christinus , Afrogecko , Cryptactites , Matoatoa , Afroedura , Geckolepis , Homopholis , Blaesodactylus , Goggia , Rhoptropus , Elasmodactylus , Chondrodactylus , Colopus , Pachydactylus , Cnemaspis , Rhoptropella , Lygodactylus , Phelsuma

Related Research Articles

Gecko Lizard belonging to the infraorder Gekkota

Geckos are small, mostly carnivorous lizards that have a wide distribution, found on every continent except Antarctica. Belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, geckos are found in warm climates throughout the world. They range from 1.6 to 60 cm.

<i>Afrogecko</i> Genus of lizards

Afrogecko is a genus of small leaf-toed geckos, lizards in the family Gekkonidae. The genus is endemic to southern Africa. The genus was revised in 2014 by Heinicke et al.

<i>Aristelliger</i> Genus of geckos

Aristelliger is a genus of Caribbean geckos in the family Sphaerodactylidae, commonly known as croaking geckos or Caribbean geckos. The nine named species in the genus are native to various islands in the West Indies, though the species A. georgeensis is also found on mainland Belize. Aristelliger species are nocturnal and mostly arboreal, occupying palm tree trunks and other vertical surfaces. They are among the largest neotropical geckos, with A. lar reaching up to 135 mm in snout-vent-length. They are primarily insectivorous, feeding on a variety of arthropods. Cannibalism of eggs and hatchlings has been reported in A. cochranae. A. lar is omnivorous, and may be an important seed disperser for fruits of the plant Marcgravia. Many species of Aristelliger are accustomed to living among human structures, though several are threatened by urban and agricultural development or invasive species.

<i>Hemidactylus</i> Genus of common geckos

Hemidactylus is a genus of the common gecko family, Gekkonidae. It has 176 described species, newfound ones being described every few years. These geckos are found in all the tropical regions of the world, extending into the subtropical parts of Africa and Europe. They excel in colonizing oceanic islands by rafting on flotsam, and are for example found across most of Polynesia. In some archipelagoes, cryptic species complexes are found. Geckos like to live in and out of houses. They have been introduced to Australia.

<i>Pachydactylus</i> Genus of lizards

Pachydactylus is a genus of insectivorous geckos, lizards in the family Gekkonidae. The genus is endemic to Africa, and member species are commonly known as thick-toed geckos. The genus also displays rich speciation, having 57 distinct species identified when compared to other closely related gecko genera like Rhoptropus, most of which have emerged since 35Ma. It has been suggested that the reason for this rich speciation not from adaptive radiation nor nonadaptive radiation, but that the genus represents a clade somewhere between the two drivers of speciation. P. bibronii geckos have been used by NASA as animal models for experimentation.

<i>Coleodactylus</i> Genus of lizards

Coleodactylus is a genus of South American geckos.

<i>Cyrtodactylus</i> Genus of lizards

Cyrtodactylus is a diverse genus of Asian geckos, commonly known as bent-toed geckos, bow-fingered geckos, and forest geckos. The genus has at least 300 described species as of 2020, which makes it the largest of all gecko genera.

<i>Matoatoa</i> Genus of lizards

Matoatoa is a small genus of geckos, lizards in the family Gekkonidae. The genus is endemic to Madagascar.

Gargoyle gecko Species of lizard

The gargoyle gecko, knob-headed giant gecko, New Caledonia bumpy gecko, or New Caledonian bumpy gecko is a species of gecko found only on the southern end of the island of New Caledonia. Its habitat is threatened by deforestation on the island. This species of gecko is the smallest of the six recognized species in its genus where they often reach about 125 mm in size. This gecko, along with several other Rhacodactylus species are being considered for protective measures by CITES, which would put restrictions on their exportation. This gecko was first described by Bavay in 1869.

Crested gecko Species of lizard

The crested gecko or eyelash gecko is a species of gecko native to southern New Caledonia. In 1866, the crested gecko was described by a French zoologist named Alphonse Guichenot. This species was thought extinct until it was rediscovered in 1994 during an expedition led by Robert Seipp. Along with several other New Caledonian gecko species, it is being considered for protected status by the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna.

<i>Hemidactylus prashadi</i> Species of lizard

Hemidactylus prashadi, also known commonly as the Bombay leaf-toed gecko or Prashad's gecko, is a species of lizard in the family Gekkonidae. The species is endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

Eublepharidae Family of lizards

The Eublepharidae are a family of geckos (Gekkota) consisting of 43 described species in six genera. They occur in Asia, Africa and North America. Eublepharid geckos lack adhesive toepads and, unlike other geckos, have movable eyelids, thus commonly called eyelid geckos. Leopard geckos and African fat-tailed geckos are popular pet lizards.

<i>Lepidodactylus lugubris</i> Species of lizard

Lepidodactylus lugubris, known as the mourning gecko or common smooth-scaled gecko, is a species of lizard, a gecko of the family Gekkonidae.

Phyllodactylidae Family of geckos

The Phyllodactylidae are a family of geckos (Gekkota) consisting of over 150 species in 10 genera, distributed throughout the New World, North Africa, Europe and the Middle East. The family was first delineated based on a molecular phylogenetic analysis in 2008, and all members possess a unique single codon deletion in the phosducin (PDC) gene. The phyllodactylid genus Bogertia has been recently synonymized with Phyllopezus.

Carphodactylidae Family of lizards

The Carphodactylidae, informally known as the southern padless geckos, are a family of geckos, lizards in the infraorder Gekkota. The family consists of 32 described species in 7 genera, all of which are endemic to Australia. They belong to the superfamily Pygopodoidea, an ancient group of east Gondwanan geckos now only found in Australasia. Despite their well-developed limbs, molecular phylogenies have demonstrated that Carphodactylidae is the sister group to Pygopodidae, a highly specialized family of legless lizards.

Sphaerodactylidae Family of geckos

The Sphaerodactylidae are a family of geckos (Gekkota) distributed in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean, as well as in Southern Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and into Central Asia. The family contains 12 genera and over 200 species.

Brazilian pygmy gecko Species of lizard

The Brazilian pygmy gecko is a species of South American lizard in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The species is monotypic in the genus Chatogekko. It grows to a maximum total length of only 24 millimetres (0.94 in). It is found in leaf litter on the forest floor, and preys on springtails and mites. The species is oviparous.

Diplodactylidae Family of lizards

The Diplodactylidae are a family in the suborder Gekkota (geckos), with over 150 species in 25 genera. These geckos occur in Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia. Diplodactylids are the most ecologically diverse and widespread family of geckos in both Australia and New Caledonia, and are the only family of geckos found in New Zealand. Three diplodactylid genera have recently been split into multiple new genera

Reeves's tokay gecko is a species of lizard in the family Gekkonidae. The species is endemic to Asia.

Pygopodoidea Superfamily of lizards

Pygopodoidea is a gecko superfamily and the only taxon in the gekkotan subclade Pygopodomorpha. The clade includes three Australasian families: Diplodactylidae, Carphodactylidae, and Pygopodidae. Traditional gekkotan systematics had considered Diplodactylidae and Carphodactylidae as subfamilies of the family Gekkonidae, but recent molecular work have placed Pygopodidae within Gekkonidae making it paraphyletic. These analyses have shown support of Pygopodidae and Carphodactylidae being sister taxa, with Diplodactylidae occupying a basal position in Pygopodoidea.

References

  1. Gamble, Tony; Bauer, Aaron M.; Greenbaum, Eli; Jackman, Todd R. (21 August 2007). "Evidence for Gondwanan vicariance in an ancient clade of gecko lizards". Journal of Biogeography: 070821084123003––. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2007.01770.x.
  2. Gamble, T.; Bauer, A.M.; Greenbaum, E.; Jackman, T.R. (July 2008). "Out of the blue: A novel, trans-Atlantic clade of geckos (Gekkota, Squamata)". Zoologica Scripta. 37 (4): 355–366. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00330.x. S2CID   83706826.
  3. Gamble, T.; Bauer, A.M.; Colli, G.R.; Greenbaum, E.; Jackman, T.R.; Vitt, L.J.; Simons, A.M. (February 2011). "Coming to America: Multiple Origins of New World Geckos". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 24 (2): 231–244. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02184.x. PMC   3075428 . PMID   21126276.
  4. Gamble, Tony; Greenbaum, Eli; Jackman, Todd R.; Russell, Anthony P.; Bauer, Aaron M. (June 27, 2012). "Repeated Origin and Loss of Adhesive Toepads in Geckos". PLOS ONE. 7 (6): e39429. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...739429G. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039429 . PMC   3384654 . PMID   22761794.
  5. Han, D.; Zhou, K.; Bauer, A.M. (2004). "Phylogenetic relationships among gekkotan lizards inferred from c-mos nuclear DNA sequences and a new classification of the Gekkota". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 83 (3): 353–368. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2004.00393.x .
  6. Gamble, T.; Greenbaum, E.; Jackman, T.R.; Bauer, A.M. (August 2015). "Into the light: Diurnality has evolved multiple times in geckos". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 115 (4): 896–910. doi: 10.1111/bij.12536 .
  7. Carranza, S., and E. .. Arnold. "Systematics, Biogeography, and Evolution of Hemidactylus Geckos (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) Elucidated Using Mitochondrial DNA Sequences." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 38, no. 2, Elsevier Inc, 2006, pp. 531–45, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.07.012.
  8. Gabriela Fontanarrosa, Juan D. Daza & Virginia Abdala (2017). Cretaceous fossil gecko hand reveals a strikingly modern scansorial morphology: Qualitative and biometric analysis of an amber-preserved lizard hand. Cretaceous Research. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2017.11.003
  9. Gamble, T.; Greenbaum, E.; Jackman, T.R.; Bauer, A.M. (August 2015). "Into the light: Diurnality has evolved multiple times in geckos". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 115 (4): 896–910. doi: 10.1111/bij.12536 .
  10. Gamble, T.; Bauer, A.M.; Colli, G.R.; Greenbaum, E.; Jackman, T.R.; Vitt, L.J.; Simons, A.M. (February 2011). "Coming to America: Multiple Origins of New World Geckos". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 24 (2): 231–244. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02184.x. PMC   3075428 . PMID   21126276.
  11. Irschick, Duncan J.; Austin, Christopher C.; Petren, Ken; Fisher, Robert N.; Losos, Jonathan B.; Ellers, Olaf (September 1996). "A comparative analysis of clinging ability among pad-bearing lizards". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 59 (1): 21–35. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1996.tb01451.x .
  12. Russell, Anthony P. (1975). "A contribution to the functional analysis of the foot of the Tokay, Gekko gecko (Reptilia: Gekkonidae)". Journal of Zoology. 176 (4): 437–476. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1975.tb03215.x.
  13. Hosseinzadeh, Mahboubeh Sadat; Fois, Mauro; Zangi, Bahman; Kazemi, Seyed Mahdi (2020-12-01). "Predicting past, current and future habitat suitability and geographic distribution of the Iranian endemic species Microgecko latifi (Sauria: Gekkonidae)". Journal of Arid Environments. 183: 104283. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2020.104283 . ISSN   0140-1963.
  14. Davis, Hayden R.; Chan, Kin Onn; Das, Indraneil; Brennan, Ian G.; Karin, Benjamin R.; Jackman, Todd R.; Brown, Rafe M.; Iskandar, Djoko T.; Nashriq, Izneil; Grismer, L. Lee; Bauer, Aaron M. (2020-06-01). "Multilocus phylogeny of Bornean Bent-Toed geckos (Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) reveals hidden diversity, taxonomic disarray, and novel biogeographic patterns". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 147: 106785. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2020.106785 . ISSN   1055-7903. PMID   32135306.
  15. Nania, Dario; Flecks, Morris; Rödder, Dennis (2020-07-06). "Continuous expansion of the geographic range linked to realized niche expansion in the invasive Mourning gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris (Duméril & Bibron, 1836)". PLOS ONE. 15 (7): e0235060. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0235060 . ISSN   1932-6203. PMC   7337341 . PMID   32628687. S2CID   220386935.
  16. Pyron, R Alexander, Frank T Burbrink and John J Wiens. 2013. A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013 13:93. doi : 10.1186/1471-2148-13-93