Boarding house

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One of the last remaining textile mill boarding houses in Lowell, Massachusetts, on right; part of the Lowell National Historical Park Boott Boardinghouse Store.jpg
One of the last remaining textile mill boarding houses in Lowell, Massachusetts, on right; part of the Lowell National Historical Park

A boarding house is a house (frequently a family home) in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, and sometimes for extended periods of weeks, months, and years. The common parts of the house are maintained, and some services, such as laundry and cleaning, may be supplied. They normally provide "room and board," that is, at least some meals as well as accommodation.


Lodgers legally only obtain a licence to use their rooms, and not exclusive possession, so the landlord retains the right of access. [1]


Early-20th-century dinner in a miners' boarding house in northern Canada Miners boarding house.jpg
Early-20th-century dinner in a miners' boarding house in northern Canada

Formerly boarders would typically share washing, breakfast and dining facilities; in recent years it has become common for each room to have its own washing and toilet facilities. Such boarding houses were often found in English seaside towns (for tourists) and college towns (for students). It was common for there to be one or two elderly long-term residents. "The phrase "boardinghouse reach" [referring to a diner reaching far across a dining table] comes from an important variant of hotel life. In boardinghouses, tenants rent rooms and the proprietor provides family-style breakfasts and evening dinners in a common dining room. Traditionally, the food was put on the table, and everyone scrambled for the best dishes. Those with a long, fast reach ate best." [2]

Boarders can often arrange to stay bed-and-breakfast (bed and breakfast only), half-board (bed, breakfast and dinner only) or full-board (bed, breakfast, lunch and dinner). Especially for families on holiday with children, boarding (particularly on a full-board basis) was an inexpensive alternative and certainly much cheaper than staying in all but the cheapest hotels.


Maroochydore Boarding House, Queensland, circa 1917 StateLibQld 1 258605 Maroochydore Boarding House, ca. 1917.jpg
Maroochydore Boarding House, Queensland, circa 1917

Boarding houses were common in most US cities throughout the 19th century and until the 1950s. [3] In Boston in the 1830s, when the landlords and their boarders were added up, between one-third and one-half of the city's entire population lived in a boarding house. [3] Boarding houses ran from large, purpose-built buildings down to "genteel ladies" who rented a room or two as a way of earning a little extra money. [3] Large houses were converted to boarding houses as wealthy families moved to more fashionable neighborhoods. [3] The boarders in the 19th century ran the gamut as well, from well-off businessmen to poor laborers, and from single people to families. [3] In the 19th century, between 1/3 to 1/2 of urban dwellers rented a room to boarders or were boarders themselves. [4] In New York in 1869, the cost of living in a boarding house ranged from $2.50 to $40 a week. [3] [lower-alpha 1] Some boarding houses attracted people with particular occupations or preferences, such as vegetarian meals. [3]

The boarding house reinforced some social changes: it made it feasible for people to move to a large city, and away from their families. [3] This distance from relatives brought social anxieties and complaints that the residents of boarding houses were not respectable. [3] Boarding out gave people the opportunity to meet other residents, so they promoted some social mixing. [3] This had advantages, such as learning new ideas and new people's stories, and also disadvantages, such as occasionally meeting disreputable or dangerous people. Most boarders were men, but women found that they had limited options: a co-ed boarding house might mean meeting objectionable men, but an all-female boarding house might be – or at least be suspected of being – a brothel. [3]

Boarding houses attracted criticism: in "1916, Walter Krumwilde, a Protestant minister, saw the rooming house or boardinghouse system [as] "spreading its web like a spider, stretching out its arms like an octopus to catch the unwary soul." [2] Attempts to reduce boarding house availability had a gendered impact, as boarding houses were typically operated or managed by women "matrons"; closing boarding houses reduced this opportunity for women to make a living from operating these houses. [6]

Later, groups such as the Young Women's Christian Association provided heavily supervised boarding houses for young women. [3] Boarding houses were viewed as "brick-and-mortar chastity belts" for young unmarried women, which protected them from the vices in the city. [4] The Jeanne d'Arc Residence in Chelsea, which was operated by an order of nuns, aimed to provide a dwelling space for young French seamstresses and nannies. [4] Married women who boarded with their families in boarding houses were accused of being too lazy to do all of the washing, cooking, and cleaning necessary to keep house or to raise children properly. [3] While there is an association between boarding houses and women renters, men also rented, notably the poet-authors Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe. [4]

In the decades after the 1880s, urban reformers began working on modernizing cities; their efforts to create "uniformity within areas, less mixture of social classes, maximum privacy for each family, much lower density for many activities, buildings set back from the street, and a permanently built order" all meant that housing for single people had to be cut back or eliminated. [2] By the early 1930s, urban reformers were typically using codes and zoning to enforce "uniform and protected single-use residential district[s] of private houses", the reformers' preferred housing type. [2] In 1936, the FHA Property Standards defined a dwelling as "any structure used principally for residential purposes", noting that "commercial rooming houses and tourist homes, sanitariums, tourist cabins, clubs, or fraternities would not be considered dwellings" as they did not have the "private kitchen and a private bath" that reformers viewed as essential in a "proper home". [2] As a result, boarding houses became less common in the early 20th century. Another factor that reduced boarding house numbers was that improved mass transit options made it feasible for more city residents to live in the suburbs and work in the city. [3]

By the 1930s, boarding houses were becoming less common in most of the United States. [3] In the 1930s and 1940s, "rooming or boarding houses had been taken for granted as respectable places for students, single workers, immigrants, and newlyweds to live when they left home or came to the city". [7] However, with the housing boom in the 1950s, middle class newcomers could increasingly afford their own homes or apartments, which meant that rooming and boarding houses were beginning to be used more often by post-secondary "students, the working poor, or the unemployed". [8] By the 1960s, rooming and boarding houses were deteriorating, as official city policies tended to ignore them.

Similar concepts

Old Boarding House Recovery Engagement Center, Bloomington, Indiana, US Rogers Street North 221, Old Boarding House-Recovery Engagement Center, Bloomington West Side HD.jpg
Old Boarding House Recovery Engagement Center, Bloomington, Indiana, US

The common lodging-house or flophouse usually offered a space to sleep, but little else. When used for temporary purposes, this arrangement was similar to a hostel. Flophouse beds may offer dormitory-style space for as little as one night at a time.

A lodging house, also known in the United States as a rooming house, may or may not offer meals.

Single room occupancy (SRO) buildings rent individual rooms to residents, and have a shared bathroom; some may have a shared kitchen space for residents to cook their own meals. [3]

Dormitory accommodations for post-secondary students are similar to a boarding houses when they include cafeterias. [3]

In the 2010s, microapartments with one or two rooms rented plus access to shared common spaces in the building, are very similar to boarding houses. [3] WeWork, a company mostly known for its shared coworking rental spaces, is also offering shared housing arrangements in which renters get a private bedroom but share a kitchen, living room, and other common areas.

Bed and breakfast accommodation (B&B), which exists in many countries in the world (e.g. the UK, the United States, Canada, and Australia), is a specialized form of boarding house in which the guests or boarders normally stay only on a bed-and-breakfast basis, and where long-stay residence is rare.

However, some B&B accommodation is made available on a long-term basis to UK local authorities who are legally obliged to house persons and families for whom they have no social housing available.[ clarification needed ] Some such boarding houses allow large groups with low incomes to share overcrowded rooms, or otherwise exploit people with problems rendering them vulnerable, such as those with irregular immigration status. Such a boarding-house may well cease to be attractive to short-term lodgers, and the residents may remain in unsatisfactory accommodation for long periods. Much old seaside accommodation is so used, since cheap flights have reduced demand for their original seasonal holiday use.

Apart from the worldwide spread of the concept of the B&B, there are equivalents of the British boarding houses elsewhere in the world. For example, in Japan, minshuku are an almost exact equivalent although the normal arrangement would be the equivalent of the English half-board. In Hawaii, where the cost of living is high and incomes barely keep pace,[ citation needed ] it is common to take in lodgers (who are boarders in English terminology) that share the burden of the overall rent or mortgage payable.

In the Indian subcontinent boarders are also known as paying guests. Paying guests stay in a home and share a room with domestic facilities. Rates are nominal and monthly charges are usually inclusive of food, bed, table and a cupboard. The rent can go higher for a room in an upscale locality with facilities like single occupancy, air conditioning and high-speed wireless internet access.

In the United States, zoning has been used by neighborhoods to limit boarding houses.





Board games

See also


  1. For comparison purposes, a laborer in the construction trades in New York usually earned $1.00 to $1.50 per day around that time. [5]

Related Research Articles

Boarding school School where some or all pupils live on campus

A boarding school is an institution where children live within premises while being given formal instruction. The word "boarding" is used in the sense of "room and board", i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, and now extend across many countries, their function and ethos varies greatly. Children in boarding schools study and live during the school year with their fellow students and possibly teachers or administrators. Some boarding schools also have day students who attend the institution by day and return off-campus to their families in the evenings.

Dormitory Residential student building

A dormitory is a building primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people such as boarding school, high school, college or university students. In some countries, it can also refer to a room containing several beds accommodating people.

Bed and breakfast Small lodging establishment

A bed and breakfast is a small lodging establishment that offers overnight accommodation and breakfast. Bed and breakfasts are often private family homes and typically have between four and eleven rooms, with six being the average. In addition, a B&B usually has the hosts living in the house.

Flophouse Place with cheap lodging

A flophouse or dosshouse is considered a derogatory term for a place that offers very low cost lodging, providing space to sleep and minimal amenities.

University of Exeter Halls of Residence

In 2011 the Halls of Residence for the University of Exeter in the city of Exeter, Devon, England, have just over 5,000 student residential places, including 3,426 in self-catering purpose-built flats and houses and 1,656 in catered accommodation.

Pension (lodging) Type of guest house or boarding house

A pension is a type of guest house or boarding house. This term is typically used in Continental European countries, in areas of North Africa and the Middle East that formerly had large European expatriate populations, and in some parts of South America such as Brazil and Paraguay. Pensions can also be found in South Korea, Japan, and the Philippines.

A bedsit, bedsitter, or bed-sitting room is a form of accommodation common in some parts of the United Kingdom which consists of a single room per occupant with all occupants typically sharing a bathroom. Bedsits are included in a legal category of dwellings referred to as houses in multiple occupation (HMO).

Single room occupancy Low-cost housing format

Single room occupancy is a form of housing that is typically aimed at residents with low or minimal incomes who rent small, furnished single rooms with a bed, chair, and sometimes a small desk. SRO units are rented out as permanent residence and/or primary residence to individuals, within a multi-tenant building where tenants share a kitchen, toilets or bathrooms. SRO units range from 7 to 13 square metres. In the 2010s, some SRO units may have a small refrigerator, microwave and sink.

Common lodging-house A Victorian era term for a form of cheap accommodation

"Common lodging-house" is a Victorian era term for a form of cheap accommodation in which inhabitants are lodged together in one or more rooms in common with the rest of the lodgers, who are not members of one family, whether for eating or sleeping. The slang term flophouse is roughly the equivalent of common lodging-houses. The nearest modern equivalent is a hostel.

Room and board is a phrase describing a situation in which, in exchange for money, labor or other considerations, a person is provided with a place to live as well as meals on a comprehensive basis. It commonly occurs as a fee at higher educational institutions, such as colleges and universities; it also occurs in hotel-style accommodation for short stays.

Boston University Housing System Housing system for Boston University

The Boston University housing system is the 2nd-largest of any private university in the United States, with 76% of the undergraduate population living on campus. On-campus housing at BU is an unusually diverse melange, ranging from individual 19th-century brownstone town houses and apartment buildings acquired by the school to large-scale high-rises built in the 60s and 2000s.

Rooming house

A rooming house, also called a "multi-tenant house", is a "dwelling with multiple rooms rented out individually", in which the tenants share bathroom and kitchen facilities. Rooming houses are often used as housing for low-income people, as rooming houses are the least expensive housing for single adults. Rooming houses are usually owned and operated by private landlords. Rooming houses are better described as a "living arrangement" rather than a specially "built form" of housing; rooming houses involve people who are not related living together, often in an existing house, and sharing a kitchen, bathroom, and in some cases a living room or dining room. While there are purpose-built rooming houses, these are rare.

Apartment hotel

An apartment hotel or aparthotel is a serviced apartment complex that uses a hotel-style booking system. It is similar to renting an apartment, but with no fixed contracts and occupants can "check out" whenever they wish.

Multifamily residential is a classification of housing where multiple separate housing units for residential inhabitants are contained within one building or several buildings within one complex. Units can be next to each other, or stacked on top of each other. A common form is an apartment building. Many intentional communities incorporate multifamily residences, such as in cohousing projects. Sometimes units in a multifamily residential building are condominiums, where typically the units are owned individually rather than leased from a single apartment building owner.

Casa particular

Casa particular is a phrase meaning private accommodation or private homestays in Cuba, very similar to a bed and breakfast, although it can also take the form of a vacation rental. When the meaning is clear, the term is often shortened to simply casa. Today, many casas particulares are rented through online agencies, some specifically Cuban, and others that work worldwide.

<i>A Corner of the Universe</i>

A Corner of the Universe is a young adult's novel by Ann M. Martin, published in 2002. It won a Newbery Honor Award in 2003.

<i>Street v Mountford</i>

Street v Mountford[1985] UKHL 4 is an English land law case from the House of Lords. It set out principles to determine whether someone who occupied a property had a tenancy, or only a licence. This mattered for the purpose of statutory tenant rights to a reasonable rent, and had a wider significance as a lease had "proprietary" status and would bind third parties.

Microapartment Type of house

A microapartment, also known as a microflat, is a one-room, self-contained living space, usually purpose built, designed to accommodate a sitting space, sleeping space, bathroom and kitchenette with 14–32 square metres. Unlike a traditional studio flat, residents may also have access to a communal kitchen, communal bathroom/shower, patio and roof garden. The microapartments are often designed for futons, or with pull-down beds, folding desks and tables, and extra-small or hidden appliances. They differ from bedsits, the traditional British bed-sitting room, in that they are self-contained, with their own bathroom, toilet, and kitchenette.

Co-living is a residential community living model that accommodates three or more biologically unrelated people. Generally coliving is a type of intentional community that provides shared housing for people with similar values or intentions. The coliving experience may simply include group discussions in common areas or weekly meals, although will oftentimes extend to shared workspace and collective endeavors such as living more sustainably. An increasing number of people across the world are turning to coliving in order to unlock the same benefits as other communal living models, including “comfort, affordability, and a greater sense of social belonging.”

A hasukjib is a type of housing in South Korea that is commonly used by working adults but more popular among university students. Typically, hasukjib take the form of a small room with a single bed, desk and a mini fridge. There are several rooms on each floor of the building and usually has a restroom, shower and laundry room shared by the tenants. Meals are also often provided by the landlord or more commonly a landlady and included in the rent. The rent varies by the size of the rooms and quality of the facilities, but it's generally considered cheap and affordable. Hasukjib are often compared to goshiwon which is another form of housing in the country that is very similar to hasukjib.


  1. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boarding-House"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 95.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Groth, Paul. Living Downtown: The History of Residential Hotels in the United States. Chapter One – Conflicting Ideas about Hotel Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Graham, Ruth (13 January 2013). "Boardinghouses: Where the City was Born". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Hester, Jessica Leigh (22 February 2016). "A Brief History of Co-Living Spaces". City Lab. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  5. Wholesale prices, wages, and transportation. Report by Mr. Aldrich, from the Committee on Finance, March 3, 1893. Washington. 1893. p. 449. hdl:2027/uc1.c061422449.
  6. Groth, Paul. Living Downtown: The History of Residential Hotels in the United States. Chapter Eight – From Scattered Opinion to Centralized Policy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
  7. Campsie, Philippa (1994). "A Brief History of Rooming Houses in Toronto, 1972–94" (PDF). Rupert Community Residential Services. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  8. Campsie, Philippa (1994). "A Brief History of Rooming Houses in Toronto, 1972–94" (PDF). Rupert Community Residential Services. Retrieved 10 November 2018.