Speed limit enforcement

Last updated

Gatso speed camera Gatso Meter speed camera in Canberra.jpg
Gatso speed camera

Speed limit enforcement is the effort made by appropriately empowered authorities to improve driver compliance with speed limits. Methods used include roadside speed traps set up and operated by the police and automated roadside 'speed camera' systems, which may incorporate the use of an automatic number plate recognition system. Traditionally, police officers used stopwatches to measure the time taken for a vehicle to cover a known distance. More recently, radar guns and automated in-vehicle systems have come into use.


A worldwide review of studies found that speed cameras led to a reduction of "11% to 44% for fatal and serious injury crashes". [1] The UK Department for Transport estimated that cameras had led to a 22% reduction in personal injury collisions and 42% fewer people being killed or seriously injured at camera sites. The British Medical Journal recently reported that speed cameras were effective at reducing accidents and injuries in their vicinity and recommended wider deployment. An LSE study in 2017 found that "adding another 1,000 cameras to British roads could save up to 190 lives annually, reduce up to 1,130 collisions and mitigate 330 serious injuries." [2]


Traffic calming was built into the 1865 Locomotive Act in the UK, which set a speed limit of 2 miles per hour (3.2 km/h) in towns and 4 miles per hour (6.4 km/h) out of town, by requiring a man with a red flag to walk 60 yards (55 m) ahead of qualifying powered vehicles. The distance ahead of the pedestrian crew member was reduced to 20 yards (18 m) in 1878 and the vehicles were required to stop on the sight of a horse. [3] The speed limit was effectively redundant as vehicle speeds could not exceed the speed at which a person could walk.

By 1895 some drivers of early lightweight steam-powered autocars assumed that these would be legally classed as a horseless carriage and would therefore be exempt from the need for a preceding pedestrian. A test case was brought by motoring pioneer John Henry Knight, who was subsequently convicted of using a locomotive without a licence. [4] The Locomotives on Highways Act 1896 lifted some of the restrictions introduced by the 1865 Act, notably raising the speed limit for "light locomotives" under 3 tonnes to 14 miles per hour (23 km/h). The speed limit was lifted again by the Motor Car Act 1903 to 20 miles per hour (32 km/h).

A Royal Commission on motorcars in the UK reported in 1907 and raised concerns about the manner in which speed traps were being used to raise revenue in rural areas rather than being used to protect lives in towns. In parliamentary debates at the time it was observed that "Policemen are not stationed in the villages where there are people about who might be in danger, but are hidden in hedges or ditches by the side of the most open roads in the country" and were "manifestly absurd as a protection to the public, and they are used in many counties merely as a means of extracting money from the passing traveller in a way which reminds one of the highwaymen of the Middle Ages". [5] [6]

In 1905 The Automobile Association was formed to help motorists avoid police speed traps. [7] Chief Justice, Lord Alverston brought a test court case in 1910 ('Betts -v- Stevens') against an Automobile Association patrolman and a potentially speeding motorist—the judge ruled that where a patrolman signals to a speeding driver to slow down and thereby avoid a speed trap, that person would have committed the offence of "obstructing an officer in the course of his duty" under the Prevention of Crimes Amendment Act 1885. [8] [9] Subsequently, the organisation developed a coded warning system which was used until the 1960s whereby a patrolman would always salute the driver of a passing car that displayed a visible AA badge unless there was a speed trap nearby, on the understanding that their officers could not be prosecuted for failing to salute. [10]

Gatsometer BV, founded in 1958 by rally driver Maurice Gatsonides, produced the 'Gatsometer' which was described as "a revolutionary speed-measuring device". [11] Developed initially for improving his race times,[ citation needed ] it was later marketed as police speed enforcement tool. [11] Gatsometer claim to have developed the first radar for use with road traffic in 1971, but this claim is undermined by evidence that radar detectors were already for sale in 1967. [11] Gatsometer BV produced the world's first mobile speed traffic camera in 1982. [11] [12]

VASCAR was in use in North Carolina, New York and Indiana by February 1968. [13]


Police officers in Bavaria checking speed with a tripod-mounted LIDAR speed gun. Polizei laser messung.jpg
Police officers in Bavaria checking speed with a tripod-mounted LIDAR speed gun.

Speed limits were originally enforced by manually timing or "clocking" vehicles travelling through "speed traps" defined between two fixed landmarks along a roadway that were a known distance apart; the vehicle's average speed was then determined by dividing the distance travelled by the time taken to travel it. Setting up a speed trap that could provide legally satisfactory evidence was usually time-consuming and error-prone, as it relied on its human operators.[ citation needed ]

Average speed measurement

VASCAR is a device that semi-automates the timing and average speed calculation of the original manually operated "speed trap". An observer on the ground, in a vehicle or in the air simply presses a button as a vehicle passes two landmarks that are a known distance apart, typically several hundred metres.

Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) systems that use a form of optical character recognition read the vehicle's licence or registration plate. A computer system reads vehicle registration plates at two or more fixed points along a road, usually hundreds of meters or even kilometers apart, then uses the known distance between them to calculate a vehicle's average speed. From the mean value theorem, we know that the vehicle's speed must equal its average speed at some time between the measurements. If the average speed exceeds the speed limit, then a penalty is automatically issued. [14]

Police in some countries like France have been known to prosecute drivers for speeding, using an average speed calculated from timestamps on toll road tickets. [15]

Speed enforcement using average speed measurement is expressly prohibited in California. [16]

Instantaneous speed measurement

Automatic traffic speed measurement in Denmark Din Fart (2012, ubt).jpg
Automatic traffic speed measurement in Denmark
Traffic Speed Interceptor - Vehicles with speed camera used by Bangalore Police, India Traffic Speed Interceptor - Vehicles with speed camera used by Bangalore Police, India.jpg
Traffic Speed Interceptor - Vehicles with speed camera used by Bangalore Police, India

Instantaneous speed cameras measure the speed at a single point. These may either be a semi-permanent fixture or be established on a temporary basis. A variety of technologies can be used:


Officers in some jurisdictions may also use pacing, particularly where a more convenient radar speed measuring device is not available—a police vehicle's speed is matched to that of a target vehicle, and the calibrated speedometer of the patrol car used to infer the other vehicle's speed. [19]


In recent years many jurisdictions began using cameras to record violators. These devices detect vehicles that are exceeding the speed limit and take photos of these vehicles' license plates. A ticket is then mailed out to the registered owner.[ citation needed ]


Some jurisdictions such as Australia and Ohio, allow prosecutions based on a subjective speed assessment by a police officer. [20] [21] In the future there is the potential to track speed limit compliance via GPS black boxes for recidivist speeders identified in the Australian National Road Safety Strategy 2011 - 2020 section on Intelligent speed adaptation.


Speed cameras

Evidence gathering

UK fixed speed camera with road calibration markings Gatso.camera.arp.jpg
UK fixed speed camera with road calibration markings

While digital cameras can be used as the primary means of speed detection when combined with automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) average-speed camera systems, their use is more commonly restricted to evidence gathering where speeding offences are detected by various other types of sensors such as Doppler radar, piezo strips, infrared or laser devices.[ citation needed ]

Photographs are typically time-stamped by a high resolution timing device so that a vehicle's speed can be checked manually after the fact if necessary using the secondary method of calculating its speed between a series of calibrated lines painted on the road surface.[ citation needed ]

The change from analogue "wet film" to digital technology has revolutionised speed cameras, particularly their maintenance and the back-office processing required to issue penalty notices. Images from digital cameras can be uploaded in seconds to a remote office over a network link, while optical character recognition software can automate the "reading" of vehicle registration numbers. [38]

Types of camera include Gatso, Truvelo Combi and D-cam.

Avoidance and evasion

Passive RADAR and LIDAR detector Radar Detector. canada. Escort Passport 8500 x50 blue 3635.jpg
Passive RADAR and LIDAR detector

Some drivers use passive radar detectors or LIDAR detectors to detect police radar or LIDAR signals, with the intention of avoiding or evading prosecution by slowing down before entering an enforcement zone. The legal standing of these type of devices varies by jurisdiction. For example, they are legal in most of the United States, but not in most of Canada. [39] Active devices might also be used—in this instance, radar or LIDAR signals are typically jammed with counter emissions. These devices are more frequently illegal than passive devices.

Drivers may flash their lights to approaching drivers to warn them of a speed trap. The legal standing of this action also varies by jurisdiction. In the United States, it is common for motorists with Citizen's Band (CB) radios to report the location of speed traps over the CB radio to other motorists. [40]

In 2006, the UK Automobile Association controversially published a road map that included the location for thousands of speed cameras—the first time such information was available in printed form, [41] although more accurate and frequently updated GPS-based information was freely available for some time before that.

Mobile applications such as Njection, Trapster, and Waze provide mobile information to drivers on speed traps and traffic conditions. These applications rely on users to keep the databases current. [42] In addition to mobile applications that might be considered evasion-centric, there are other similar mobile applications that are classified as Intelligent speed adaptation technologies that are considered too compliance centric and in Australia both National and State Road Safety Strategies encourage the adoption of such technologies.

In Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands, the location of speed traps are announced using the Highway location marker at regular intervals on major radio stations. Conversely, announcing the exact location of a speed trap is illegal in France.


Groups such as the National Motorists Association define speed trap more narrowly as a place where "traffic enforcement is focused on extracting revenue from drivers instead of improving safety". [43] When highway speed limits drop suddenly just as they enter a municipality which collects large amounts of revenue from traffic tickets, a safety hazard can be introduced, and efforts have been made in the U.S. to ban this practice. [44] Some police forces have even been forced to disband as a result of overzealous enforcement. [45] However, a meta-analysis of studies finds automated ticketing machines that enforce speed limits may have reduced the number of traffic injuries and deaths. [46]


Kevin Richardson proposed the idea of rewarding drivers travelling at or below the posted limit with a cash lottery, funded by the fines on speeding drivers. This was demonstrated in Stockholm, Sweden, in November 2010. [47]


Speed limits may not be enforced for speeds close to the legal limit. In the United States, speeding enforcement tolerance is usually up to the discretion of the arresting officer. Some states (such as Pennsylvania and Florida) have official tolerances. [48]

As older vehicle construction regulations allowed a speedometer accuracy of +/- 10%, in the United Kingdom ACPO guidelines recommend a tolerance level of the speed limit "×10% +2 mph" (e.g., a maximum tolerance in a 30 mph (50 km/h) zone of 30 + (30 × 10% = 3) + 2 = 35 mph). [49]

In Germany, at least a 3 km/h tolerance (3% of measured speed when speeding over 100 km/h) in favor of the offender is always deducted. This tolerance can increase up to 20% depending on the method of measurement. [50] Fines for speeding depend on how high above the speed limit the measured speed is and where the offense occurred. Speeding in built-up areas invariably carries higher fines than outside city limits. While fines for minor offenses tend to be moderate, speeds in excess of 20 km/h (12 mph) above the limit in built-up areas result in distinctly higher fines and points on the driver's license, and, depending on the speed at which the offender was clocked, may lead to a driving ban of at least one month. [51]

The state of Victoria in Australia allows for only a 3 km/h (1.9 mph) tolerance for mobile speed cameras and 2 km/h (1.2 mph) for fixed cameras on the basis that, although the increased risk is lower, there are very many more drivers involved, which creates a substantial risk across the road network. [52] [53] An alternative view is that police devices are accurate to 1 km/h, and that a 2–3 km/h tolerance is the minimum margin that police require to defeat any challenge in court regarding the accuracy of their speed measurement equipment. [54] Speed tolerance in New South Wales was an election issue in 2011, following a move by the budget committee of the previous Labor state government to abolish the 3 km/h margin in order to increase revenue. [52]

In Mexico, the maximum speed limit is 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph) on urban freeways on other urban roads. However, fines are only given when speeding above 90 kilometres per hour (56 mph), thus giving a 10 kilometres per hour (6.2 mph) tolerance. The Mexican highway patrol (Mexico City) and traffic law enforcement officers (Guadalajara) may enforce speed laws only when a car is speeding above reasonable speeds in regard of the amount of traffic. Maximum speed for all Mexican highways is 110 kilometres per hour (68 mph). Speeding fines are given to those going 130 kilometres per hour (81 mph) and up to 220 kilometres per hour (140 mph). Police may however place a squad car as a pace car so drivers behind cannot exceed 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph); this is common during Summer and Winter holiday season.[ citation needed ]

Speed limit policy can affect enforcement. According to a 1994 report by the AASHTO, "experience has shown that speed limits set arbitrarily below the reasonable and prudent speed perceived by the public are difficult to enforce, produce noncompliance, encourage disrespect for the law, create unnecessary antagonism toward law enforcement officers, and divert traffic to lesser routes". [55]

A study of over 1000 drivers caught speeding in the U.S. and in Canada examined factors that predicted fines issued by police officers. In both countries, drivers were stopped for speeding on average 26 km/h (16 mph) over the speed limit and received fines of approximately US$144. As expected, drivers traveling at higher speeds over the limit received higher fines. What drivers said to the police also affected the amount of the fine. 46% percent of drivers in the study reported offering an excuse (e.g. "I didn't realize the speed I was driving"), which was the most common type of verbal response. Excuses, justifications, and denials did not reduce the amount of the fine. Almost 30% of drivers expressed remorse (e.g., "I'm sorry") and received a considerable reduction in fines. Offers of remorse were most effective at higher speeds over the limit. For example, American speeders who offered remorse for traveling at higher speeds over the limit (21 mph) received fines that were US$49 lower than drivers who were speeding the same amount, but did not offer an apology. Although this research indicated that apologies can be related to lower fines for speeding, most drivers who offered remorse were still punished to some degree. To maintain a relatively normal sample of speeders, a small percentage of drivers who reported extreme speeds (80 km/h (50 mph) or more over the limit) or very severe fines (US$500 or more) were excluded. [56]

Law enforcement approaches

Local conditions, law and police practices mean that the tactics adopted to catch speeding motorists vary considerably. In some regions, police may adopt a more subtle approach, concealing themselves and their equipment as much as possible; other jurisdictions require highly visible policing, with cameras painted yellow, and camera operators not permitted to use approaches such as attaching the camera to what may appear to be a broken-down vehicle when enforcing speed limits.

Authorities are not able to monitor every vehicle on every road—limited resources generally mean that enforcement needs to be targeted. A New Zealand study concluded that actual enforcement as well as the perceived chance of being caught both contributed to changes in drivers' behaviour. [57]

Jurisdictional reciprocity

Many jurisdictions operate traffic violations reciprocity where non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that penalties such as demerit points and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, inter-provincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule 'one license, one record.'

Extrajudicial enforcement

In 2001, Acme-Rent-a-Car in Connecticut controversially tried to use a contractual clause in the rental agreement to issue speeding fines to any of its customers that exceeded speed limits as detected by GPS tracking units its cars. The company actions were challenged and defeated in court. [58] [59]

Photo-enforcement employee deaths

Doug Georgianni, 51, was shot as he operated a photo radar van on a Phoenix freeway and later died at a hospital. [60]

Reprisal attacks on equipment

Retribution attacks on photo enforcement equipment have become commonplace throughout the world. [61] [62] [63]

Regional issues


New South Wales

In August 2005, in Sydney, Australia a speed camera photograph was challenged on the basis that an MD5 cryptographic hash function used to protect the digital photograph from tampering was not robust enough to guarantee that it had not been altered. Magistrate Lawrence Lawson demanded that the Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA) produce an expert witness who could prove the photographs were tamper-proof, but the RTA was unable to provide such evidence. The defendant was acquitted and awarded court costs. [64]

In June 2011, the New South Wales (NSW) government was reported to have raised A$350 million over the previous five years from speed cameras. [65] The Roads Minister accused the previous Labor government of using speed cameras to raise revenue; [65] the Auditor-General was therefore tasked with investigating all 141 fixed speed cameras in use throughout the state. [65] Following the release of the report, 38 speed cameras, located primarily on highways, were switched off after the Auditor-General determined that they had no significant road safety benefit. The report found the majority of fixed speed cameras had a proven road safety benefit. The report also concluded that it was "too early" to conclude if mobile speed cameras affected road safety, although early results indicated drivers might be speeding less. To address public concerns, the RTA would now monitor the effectiveness of individual fixed speed cameras annually. [66] [67]

South Australia

It is predicted that the South Australia (SA) government will raise A$138 million in the 2011–12 year from speed limit enforcement activities. They raised A$114 million in 2010–11. [68] The SA government are resisting moves by their opposition to commission an inquiry into whether speed cameras are being used effectively and efficiently: to improve road safety, to raise revenue, or both. [68]


Gatso Mobile Speed Camera, used in Victoria, Australia. The camera is mounted on the passenger side dash, whilst the black box on the front is the radar unit. Mobile speed camera.jpg
Gatso Mobile Speed Camera, used in Victoria, Australia. The camera is mounted on the passenger side dash, whilst the black box on the front is the radar unit.

In 2004, in a Poltech fixed speed camera on Melbourne's Western Ring Road recorded a four-cylinder Datsun 120Y sedan travelling at 158 km/h, but testing found this vehicle only capable of 117 km/h. [69] A Victorian state government inquiry found that maintenance and accuracy checks had not been done regularly. [70]

Victoria achieved record low road tolls in both 2008 and 2009. [71] [72] Newspaper reports credited a co-ordinated and well-funded campaign that focused on higher risk young drivers, more aggressive policing, increased police activity, drink driving, and in 2009, a 50% increase in the use of mobile speed cameras. [71] [72]

After a growing number of complaints about incorrect and inappropriate fines, Victoria's Auditor-General plans to investigate whether speed cameras are being used primarily to raise revenue for the state government rather than to improve road safety. [73]

In June 2011, in Victoria, the road toll for the year so far was reported to be "significantly higher""[ clarification needed ] than it was for the same period of the previous year. [74]

The Victoria government forecasts that a revenue of A$245 million will be raised from fines levied on drivers breaking Victorian road rules, a large proportion being from speed limit enforcement, in 2011. [75]


Speed limit enforcement cameras were a substantial election issue in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia, and were abolished by Premiers Mike Harris in 1995 and Gordon Campbell in 2001.

In February 2006, Edmonton, Alberta, erupted in scandal when it was alleged that two police officers accepted bribes from private contractors who received lucrative contracts to provide speed limit enforcement cameras. The officers and contractor involved now face criminal charges that remain before the courts. [76]

In September 2012, Edmonton police chief Rod Knecht proposed that "excessive speeders" should have their vehicles seized and impounded, after a rash of high speeding drivers were charged, many driving 50 - 100km/hr over the speed limit. [77]

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom uses a variety of methods to enforce its road speed limits including average and instantaneous speed cameras, however eight counties are to switch off or remove cameras and a further two counties are considering such action. [78] [79] [80] [81]

There has also been debate as to whether the use of such cameras in order to force a driver to confess to the crime of speeding is in violation of European basic human rights; however, in 2007 the European Court of Human Rights, in O’Halloran and Francis v United Kingdom, found there was no breach of article 6 of the Human Rights Act 1998 in requiring the keepers of cars caught speeding on camera to provide the name of the driver, or to be subject to criminal penalty of an equivalent degree of severity if they failed to do so. [82]

The number of designated traffic officers fell from 15–20% of Police force strength in 1966 to seven per cent of force strength in 1998, and between 1999 and 2004 by 21%. [83] It is an item of debate whether the reduction in traffic accidents per 100 million miles driven over this time [84] has been due to robotic enforcement. In the seven-month period following speed cameras in Oxfordshire being switched off in August 2010, fatalities increased from 12 to 18, a figure not out of line with the variation in fatalities over a ten-year period. [85] Plans had been made to switch the cameras back on by November 2010, on the basis of increased speeds at camera sites, [86] which occurred in April 2011. [87] Oxfordshire had followed the lead of Swindon, which encountered a decline in casualties, serious injuries, and fatalities. [81]

A 2017 Freedom of Information request found that 52% of speed cameras in the UK were switched on. The report showed that four out of the 45 police forces in the UK had no working speed cameras and that West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, Greater Manchester, Kent and Cheshire police forces had a quarter or less active cameras. The report found that City of London, Metropolitan Police/TfL, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, Suffolk and Northern Ireland police forces said that all of their cameras are active. The reason for this has been a cut in funding and many cameras, most notably many Gatso and Truvelo Combi speed cameras, still used older film technologies rather than newer digital technologies. [88] [89] [90]

United States

In the U.S. state of Ohio, the issue of whether a city has jurisdiction under the Ohio Constitution to issue citations based on speed cameras was heard by the Ohio Supreme Court on 18 September 2007, in the case of Kelly Mendenhall et al. v. The City of Akron et al. [91] [92] The court ruled in favor of Kelly Mendenhall.

Patagonia, Arizona, has been cited on the National Motorists Association's speedtrap.org website [93] as having one of the nation's most active speed traps. City police regularly conceal their patrol cars behind trees along Arizona Highway 82 where motorists enter the city's outskirts. The legal speed limit drops in a short space from 55 mph to 30 mph, leading to some drivers who are not alert to be caught. The minimum fine for exceeding the posted speed limit even by 1 mph is $146.

Initially, Illinois used photo enforcement for construction zones only. There was legislation on the books to expand that throughout the state. However, Chicago has expanded its red light camera program and is planning to put speed cameras in school zones. Some suburbs (e.g. Alsip) already have cameras at various intersections.

Speed camera in Mount Rainier, Maryland demonstrating speed violation, photo 1.jpg
Speed camera in Mount Rainier, Maryland demonstrating speed violation, photo 2.jpg
Two images from a speed enforcement camera in Mount Rainier, Maryland, documenting a vehicle alleged to be traveling 50 mph in a 25 mph zone.

Some U.S. states that formerly allowed red-light enforcement cameras but not speed limit enforcement cameras ('photo radar'), have now approved, or are considering, the implementation of speed limit enforcement cameras. The Maryland legislature approved such a program in January 2006. In 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2009 the California legislature considered, but did not pass, bills to implement speed limit enforcement cameras. [94] Tennessee legislators are also considering expanding their speed limit enforcement cameras after successes in Chattanooga such as generating $158,811 in revenue in the first three months. [95] [96]

A 2007 study of speed cameras on the Arizona State Route 101 in Scottsdale found a 50% reduction in the total crash frequency, with injuries falling by 40% however rear-end collisions increased by 55%. [97]

As of late 2008, cameras were placed along all Phoenix area freeways capturing drivers doing speeds greater than 11 mph over the posted speed limit. Over 100 new cameras were expected to be up and running by 2009. [98] [99]

As of 2009, speed cameras existed in 48 communities in the United States, including in Arizona, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, Tennessee, Washington, and Washington, D.C. [100]

In 2017, the National Safety Council graded states on road safety measures such as automated enforcement of speeding or red light cameras, interstate speed limits, and lower speed limits in school zones. [101]

In the United States, it is common for all installation, operation, and verification procedures to be carried out by private companies that in some States receive payment based on the number of infringements they issue, and often under no testing regime whatsoever, [102] however these units are required by law to take at least two pictures of each vehicle. [103]

Opposition groups have formed in some locations where automated traffic enforcement has been used. In the US city of Scottsdale Arizona, an activist group CameraFraud was formed and staged sign-wave protests and petition drives to oppose the use of speed limit enforcement cameras ('photo radar'). [104] [105] [106] In the 2008 elections in nearby Pinal County, Paul Babeau won an election for sheriff after making a campaign promise to eliminate speed cameras. [107]

It has been announced that Arizona will not renew its contract with Redflex, the company that operates the cameras. [108] However, many towns in Arizona (e.g. Chandler, Mesa, Scottsdale, Paradise Valley, Superior) still have red light and/or speed cameras. Photo enforcement is illegal in the town of Gilbert, Arizona. Tempe, Arizona has removed all of their red light cameras. Baker, Louisiana still contracts with Redflex. [109] This association is the subject of legislative action. [110]

Speed Traps

Some jurisdictions in the United States have been found to be fining motorists for the purposes of generating revenue, rather than ensuring safe driving. In the American South, some towns have altered their borders to extend their jurisdiction along the highway several miles out of town, allowing their police forces to set speed traps well away from the actual town. In 2017 Damascus, Arkansas was investigated and prosecuted by state authorities for breaking state law by generating more than 30% of town revenue through traffic citations. In 2014, Waldo, Florida had its police department disbanded after the police were found to be issuing speeding tickets based on a quota system.

For decades, the American Automobile Association has published lists of 'speed trap towns' that motorists should avoid, in an attempt to use an economic boycott system to force towns to change their speed enforcement patterns. Towns have successfully petitioned the AAA to have their names removed from the 'speed trap list' due to the economic pressure of motorists avoiding the towns altogether.


In France, the fixed speed cameras on motorways are announced with a sign about half to 2 km before: Pour votre sécurité, contrôles automatiques (For your safety, automatic controls) and marked in French motorway maps. [111] On non-motorway roads, sometimes there is a sign however in other locations an electronic sign showing your speed may indicate a fixed speed camera further along the road. Average speed cameras now operate in some areas.


In Switzerland, it is strictly forbidden to announce speed controls. [112] If the software of navigation equipment includes the locations of fixed speed cameras, the devices can be seized and destroyed. This also applies to mobile phones or handheld devices with the appropriate function.


In Germany, radar detectors are prohibited, however, current mobile controls are mentioned by some radio stations, which is not illegal.[ citation needed ]


In Italy, the fixed speed cameras on motorways and highways are announced with a sign no less than 250 meters before (no less than 150 meters on urban roads and no less than 80 meters on the other roads): Controllo elettronico della velocità, and marked in Italian road maps. [113] [114]


In the Netherlands, red light cameras are often combined with speed cameras in the same unit.[ citation needed ]

Spain and Portugal

In Spain and Portugal devices are used to detect drivers who drive too fast, and consequently traffic lights turn to red to stop the vehicle. [115]

See also

Related Research Articles

Speed limit Maximum legal speed of vehicles

Speed limits are used in most countries to set the legal maximum speed at which vehicles may travel on a given stretch of road. Speed limits are generally indicated on a traffic sign reflecting the maximum permitted expressed as kilometres per hour (km/h) and/or miles per hour (mph). Speed limits are commonly set by the legislative bodies of national or provincial governments and enforced by national or regional police and judicial authorities. Speed limits may also be variable, or in some places nonexistent, such as on most of the Autobahn in Germany.

Traffic enforcement camera

A traffic enforcement camera is a camera which may be mounted beside or over a road or installed in an enforcement vehicle to detect motoring offenses, including speeding, vehicles going through a red traffic light, vehicles going through a toll booth without paying, unauthorized use of a bus lane, or for recording vehicles inside a congestion charge area. It may be linked to an automated ticketing system.

Traffic calming Road design measures that raise the safety of pedestrians and motorists

Traffic calming uses physical design and other measures to improve safety for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists. It has become a tool to combat speeding and other unsafe behaviours of drivers in the neighbourhoods. It aims to encourage safer, more responsible driving and potentially reduce traffic flow. Urban planners and traffic engineers have many strategies for traffic calming, including narrowed roads and speed humps. Such measures are common in Australia and Europe, but less so in North America. Traffic calming is a calque of the German word Verkehrsberuhigung – the term's first published use in English was in 1985 by Carmen Hass-Klau.

Road traffic safety Methods and measures for reducing the risk of death and injury on roads

Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured. Typical road users include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, vehicle passengers, horse riders, and passengers of on-road public transport.

Radar speed gun

A radar speed gun is a device used to measure the speed of moving objects. It is used in law-enforcement to measure the speed of moving vehicles and is often used in professional spectator sport, for things such as the measurement of bowling speeds in cricket, speed of pitched baseballs, and speed of tennis serves.


Gatso is the brand that Gatsometer BV use on their speed cameras and red light cameras. The most commonly encountered Gatso speed cameras emit radar beams to measure the speed of a passing vehicle. If it is travelling above the preset trigger speed, one or two photographs are taken. These use a powerful flash, to show the rear of the vehicle, its registration plate, and calibration lines on the road. Newer installations used digital cameras which have limited exposure latitude compared to film, these installations use an auxiliary flash placed close to the position where a speeding vehicle would exit the radar beam and the first photograph would be taken.

Traffic ticket

A traffic ticket is a notice issued by a law enforcement official to a motorist or other road user, indicating that the user has violated traffic laws. Traffic tickets generally come in two forms, citing a moving violation, such as exceeding the speed limit, or a non-moving violation, such as a parking violation, with the ticket also being referred to as a parking citation, or parking ticket.

Red light camera

A red light camera is a type of traffic enforcement camera that photographs a vehicle that has entered an intersection after the traffic signal controlling the intersection has turned red. By automatically photographing vehicles that run red lights, the photo is evidence that assists authorities in their enforcement of traffic laws. Generally the camera is triggered when a vehicle enters the intersection after the traffic signal has turned red.

Radar detector

A radar detector is an electronic device used by motorists to detect if their speed is being monitored by police or law enforcement using a radar gun. Most radar detectors are used so the driver can reduce the car's speed before being ticketed for speeding. In general sense, only emitting technologies, like doppler RADAR, or LIDAR can be detected. Visual speed estimating techniques, like ANPR or VASCAR can not be detected in daytime, but technically vulnerable to detection at night, when IR spotlight is used. There are no reports that piezo sensors can be detected. LIDAR devices require an optical-band sensor, although many modern detectors include LIDAR sensors. Most of today's radar detectors detect signals across a variety of wavelength bands: usually X, K, and Ka. In Europe the Ku band is common as well. The past success of radar detectors was based on the fact that radio-wave beam can not be narrow-enough, so the detector usually senses stray and scattered radiation, giving the driver time to slow down. Based on a focused laser-beam, LIDAR technology does not suffer this shortcoming; however it requires precise aiming. Modern police radars incorporate formidable computing power, producing a minimum number of ultra-short pulses, reusing wide beams for multi-target measurement, which renders most detectors useless. But, mobile Internet allows GPS navigation devices to map police radar locations in real-time. These devices are also often called "radar detectors", while not necessary carrying an RF sensor.

The National Motorists Association (NMA) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit advocacy organization for motorists in North America, created in 1982. The Association advocates for traffic safety based on proven engineering standards, traffic laws fairly written and enforced, and full due process for motorists.

A safety camera partnership is a local multi-agency partnership between local government, police authorities, Her Majesty's Courts Service, Highways England/Welsh Government, and the National Health Service within the United Kingdom. Their aim is to enforce speed limits and red traffic lights by the use of cameras.

Speed limits in the United States Overview of the speed limits on roads in the United States

Speed limits in the United States are set by each state or territory. States have also allowed counties and municipalities to enact typically lower limits. Highway speed limits can range from an urban low of 25 mph (40 km/h) to a rural high of 85 mph (137 km/h). Speed limits are typically posted in increments of five miles per hour (8 km/h). Some states have lower limits for trucks, some also have night and/or minimum speed limits.

Many countries have adopted a penalty point or demerit point system under which a person’s driving license is cancelled or suspended based on the number of points accumulated by them over a period of time because of the traffic offences or infringements committed by them in that period. The demerit points schemes of each jurisdiction varies. These demerit schemes are usually in addition to fines or other penalties which may be imposed for a particular offence or infringement, or after a prescribed number of points have been accumulated.

Transportation safety in the United States Overview of transportation safety

Transportation safety in the United States encompasses safety of transportation in the United States, including automobile crashes, airplane crashes, rail crashes, and other mass transit incidents, although the most fatalities are generated by road incidents yearly killing from 32,479 to nearly 38,680 (+19%) in the last decade. The number of deaths per passenger-mile on commercial airlines in the United States between 2000 and 2010 was about 0.2 deaths per 10 billion passenger-miles. For driving, the rate was 150 per 10 billion vehicle-miles for 2000 : 750 times higher per mile than for flying in a commercial airplane.

National Maximum Speed Law Defunct U.S. federal highway legislation

The National Maximum Speed Limit (NMSL) was a provision of the federal government of the United States 1974 Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act that effectively prohibited speed limits higher than 55 miles per hour (89 km/h). It was drafted in response to oil price spikes and supply disruptions during the 1973 oil crisis and remained the law until 1995.

Road speed limit enforcement in Australia constitutes the actions taken by the authorities to force road users to comply with the speed limits in force on Australia's roads. Speed limit enforcement equipment such as speed cameras and other technologies such as radar and LIDAR are widely used by the authorities. In some regions, aircraft equipped with VASCAR devices are also used.

Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA), also known as alerting, and intelligent authority, is any system that ensures that vehicle speed does not exceed a safe or legally enforced speed. In case of potential speeding, a human driver can be alerted, or the speed reduced automatically.

Traffic collision When a vehicle collides with another object

A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision, car accident or car crash, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building. Traffic collisions often result in injury, disability, death, and property damage as well as financial costs to both society and the individuals involved. Road transport is the most dangerous situation people deal with on a daily basis, but casualty figures from such incidents attract less media attention than other, less frequent types of tragedy.

Road speed limits in the United Kingdom Overview of road speed limits in the United Kingdom

Road speed limits in the United Kingdom are used to define the maximum legal speed for vehicles using public roads in the UK. Speed limits are one of the measures available to attempt to control traffic speeds, reduce negative environmental effects of traffic, increase fuel use efficiency and satisfy local community wishes. The speed limit in each location is indicated on a nearby traffic sign or by the presence of street lighting. Signs show speed limits in miles per hour (mph) or the national speed limit (NSL) sign may be used.

Road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom Overview of the road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom

Road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom is the action taken by appropriately empowered authorities to attempt to persuade road vehicle users to comply with the speed limits in force on the UK's roads. Methods used include those for detection and prosecution of contraventions such as roadside fixed speed cameras, average speed cameras, and police-operated LIDAR speed guns or older radar speed guns. Vehicle activated signs and Community Speed Watch schemes are used to encourage compliance. Some classes of vehicles are fitted with speed limiters and intelligent speed adaptation is being trialled in some places on a voluntary basis.


  1. 1 2 Wilson, C; Willis, Hendrikz; Le Brocque, Bellamy (2010). Wilson, Cecilia (ed.). "Speed cameras for the prevention of road traffic injuries and deaths" (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): CD004607. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004607.pub3. PMID   20927736.
  2. Science, London School of Economics and Political. "Speed cameras reduce road accidents and traffic deaths, according to new study". London School of Economics and Political Science.
  3. "MVRUS – Legislation: A summary of important legislation". UK Department of the Environment. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009.
  4. "History of Farnham" . Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  5. "Debate on the Royal Commission on Motor Cars". Hansard. 24 May 1906. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  6. "MOTOR CAR LEGISLATION". Hansard. 16 July 1907. Retrieved 17 April 2010. I regard the abolition of the speed limit as the most important recommendation of the Royal Commission... Policemen are not stationed in the villages where there are people about who might be in danger, but are hidden in hedges or ditches by the side of the most open roads in the country... I am entirely in sympathy with what the noble Earl said with regard to police traps. In my opinion they are manifestly absurd as a protection to the public, and they are used in many counties merely as a means of extracting money from the passing traveller in a way which reminds one of the highwaymen of the Middle Ages.
  7. "About us". The AA. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
  8. JA Coutts, 'Obstructing the Police' (1956) 19 MLR 411
  9. "Road Traffic – 1900– 1929". swarb.co.uk. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  10. The Daily Telegraph
  11. 1 2 3 4 "History". Gatsometer. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
  12. "Radar Speed Trap Warning Apparatus (Licence)". Hansard. 2 March 1967. Retrieved 25 April 2010. a pocket-sized instrument is being produced by Marchant House Limited of New Street, Oadby, Liecester, to be used in motor vehicles to give instant warning of a police radar speed trap ... Anyone wishing to use this type of apparatus would require a licence under the Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1949. The firm in question has recently been informed that I am not prepared to issue a licence for such purposes
  13. "The Highway: Versatile VASCAR". Time. 9 February 1968. Archived from the original on 29 October 2010.
  14. "Specs spies on speeding motorists". BBC News. 14 July 2005. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
  15. Brian Bell (2001). Insight Guide: French Riviera. Langenscheidt Publishers. p. 318. ISBN   978-1-58573-148-0.
  16. CVC 40802 Speed Traps, CVC 40801 Speed Trap Prohibition
  17. US 5521696
  18. "Police Speed Enforcement Cameras". Safer motoring. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
  19. Police Technology. Police Technology. 2004. Pearson Prentice Hall. 2004. p. 15. ISBN   978-0-13-114957-1.
  20. "Police officer's visual estimate of speed is enough for a conviction, Ohio Supreme Court rules". 2 June 2010.
  21. Alan Buckingham (17 October 2003). "Speed Traps: Saving Lives or Raising Revenue?" . Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  22. Hugh McGee (2003). NCHRP Synthesis 310. National Cooperative Highway Research Program. p. 12.
  23. "The Effectiveness of Speed Cameras" (PDF). Racfoundation.ortg. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  24. Baratian-Ghorghi, Fatemeh; Zhou, Huaguo; Wasilefsky, Isaac (2015). "Effect of Red-Light Cameras on Capacity of Signalized Intersections". Journal of Transportation Engineering. 142: 04015035. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000804.
  25. "Annex 6 TECHNOLOGY FOR ENFORCEMENT". A notable example is in the Nottingham Safety Camera Pilot where virtually complete compliance was achieved on the major ring road into the city
  26. "Permanent Casualty Reduction Scheme" (PDF). Across all Nottinghamshire SPECS installations, KSI figures have fallen by an average of 65%
  27. S M Christie; R A Lyons; F D Dunstan & S J Jones in Injury Prevention (2003). "Are mobile speed cameras effective? A controlled before and after study". Injury Prevention. 9 (4): 302–306. doi:10.1136/ip.9.4.302. PMC   1731028 . PMID   14693888. Camera sites had lower than expected numbers of injurious crashes up to 300 metres using circles and up to 500 metres using routes. Routes methods indicated a larger effect than the circles method except in the 100 metres nearest sites. A 500-metre route method was used to investigate the effect within strata of time after intervention, time of day, speed limit, and type of road user injured. The number of injurious crashes after intervention was substantially reduced
  28. Paul Pilkington & Sanjay Kinra (2005). "Effectiveness of speed cameras in preventing road traffic collisions and related casualties: systematic review". BMJ. 330 (12 February): 331–334. doi:10.1136/bmj.38324.646574.AE. PMC   548724 . PMID   15653699. Existing research consistently shows that speed cameras are an effective intervention in reducing road traffic collisions and related casualties. The level of evidence is relatively poor, however, as most studies did not have satisfactory comparison groups or adequate control for potential confounders. Controlled introduction of speed cameras with careful data collection may offer improved evidence of their effectiveness in the future.
  29. "Cameras are for cash". The Journal. 25 October 2003. Retrieved 31 March 2008.
  30. Department for Transport (2005). "The National Safety Camera Programme: Four Year Evaluation Report". Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2018.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  31. Webster, Ben (16 December 2005). "Speed camera benefits overrated". The Times. London. The main report says that fixed cameras reduce deaths and serious injuries by 50 per cent and mobile cameras by 35 per cent. It calculates that cameras prevent 1,745 deaths or serious injuries a year across Britain. But once the regression to the mean was taken into account, fixed cameras were found to reduce deaths and serious injuries by only 873, or 24 per cent for fixed and 17 per cent for mobile cameras. While still impressive, these reductions are lower than could be achieved by other road safety measures.
  32. "RAC Foundation report backs speed camera safety benefit". BBC News. 24 November 2010.
  33. "Speed camera support 'at all-time high'". Admiral. Support for speed cameras is running at an all-time high, a poll by the AA has suggested. According to the motoring organisation's survey of members in October, 75% now believe that the use of speed cameras is 'acceptable' – including 30% who believe their use is 'very acceptable'. This compares with a 69% approval rating in a poll conducted in November last year, and is the highest level reached in ten years of monitoring public sentiment for the devices, the AA says.
  34. "Town ditches fixed speed cameras". BBC News. 31 July 2009.
  35. David Barrett (7 August 2010). "Speed camera switch-off sees fewer accidents". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  36. "Tory Boy Racers | George Monbiot". Monbiot.com. 26 July 2010. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  37. Katie Bond (21 March 2012). "Town tops league for safest driving". Thisiswiltshire.co.uk. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  38. Max Cameron (10 June 2008). Development of Strategies for Best Practice in Speed Enforcement in Western Australia (PDF) (Report). Monash University Accident Research Centre. p. 6.
  39. "Radar detectors FAQ". Whistler Group. Archived from the original on 4 September 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  40. "Driver upset after ticketed for flashing headlights". CFTO-TV. 30 January 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2009. A Toronto man is upset he was ticketed for flashing his headlights to tip off oncoming drivers of a radar speed trap, especially since police admit the act is not illegal.'
  41. Bloomfield, Steve (26 June 2005). "AA causes fury by publishing its first-ever map of speed cameras". The Independent. London. Retrieved 17 April 2010. A controversial decision by the AA to publish its first map of speed traps has provoked a storm of protest from safety experts, who accuse the organisation of encouraging motorists to break the law.
  42. Sharkey, Joe (4 May 2008), "The Camera That Wears a Badge", New York Times, retrieved 7 July 2011
  43. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 August 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  44. Brad Tuttle (2 September 2013). "End of the Road for Speed Traps?". Time magazine.
  45. "Florida 'speed trap' town disbands police force". Associated Press. 2 October 2014.
  46. Wilson C, Willis C, Hendrikz JK, Le Brocque R, Bellamy N; Willis; Hendrikz; Le Brocque; Bellamy (2010). "Speed cameras for the prevention of road traffic injuries and deaths". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010 (11): CD004607. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004607.pub3. PMID   20927736.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  47. Schultz, Jonathan (30 November 2010). "Speed Camera Lottery Wins VW Fun Theory Contest". The New York Times.
  48. "Title 75". The official website for the Pennsylvania General Assembly.
  49. "Speed Enforcement". cps.gov.uk. CPS. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  50. "Toleranzabzüge bei standardisierten Messverfahren zur Feststellung von Geschwindigkeitsverstößen". verkehrslexikon.de (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  51. "Geschwindigkeitsüberschreitung". bussgeldkatalog.org (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  52. 1 2 Alexandra Smith (31 March 2011). "Greater Leeway for Speeding Drivers". The Age. Australia. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  53. "Making travel safer: Victoria's speed enforcement program". Victorian Auditor General. 20 July 2006. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2009.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  54. S.P. Hardy. "Inaccurate Speedos". trafficlaw.com.au. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  55. "AASHTO Policy Resolution: The National Statutory Speed Limit". American Association of State Transport Highway Officials. 19 April 1994. Retrieved 17 September 2009.
  56. Day, M. V.; Ross, M. (2011). "The value of remorse: How drivers' responses to police predict fines for speeding". Law and Human Behavior. 35 (3): 221–234. doi:10.1007/s10979-010-9234-4. PMID   20556494. S2CID   13262186.
  57. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, European Conference of Ministers of Transport, OECD/ECMT Transport Research Centre (2006). Speed Management. OECD Publishing. p. 155. ISBN   978-92-821-0377-7.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  58. Robert Lemos (2 July 2001). "State Puts Brakes on GPS Speeding Fines". CNET. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  59. Amy D. Propen (10 June 2006). "Critical GPS: Toward a New Politics of Location" (PDF). Department of Rhetoric, University of Minnesota. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2009.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  60. Davenport, Paul (20 April 2009). "Photo-Radar Van Driver Shot to Death". MyFoxPhoenix.com. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  61. "Speed-camera van target of suspected firebomb attack". Archived from the original on 20 June 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  62. Stern, Ray (1 December 2008). "Local Photo Enforcement Vandalism is Child's Play Compared to Destruction of Speed Cameras Elsewhere – Phoenix News – Valley Fever". Blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  63. "Microsoft Word - Photo Enforcement Final Report Feb 9 2006.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  64. "NSW Speed Cameras in Doubt". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 10 August 2005. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  65. 1 2 3 "'Cash cow' speed cameras raise $350m". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. 2 June 2011. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
  66. Report finds speed cameras are an effective safety tool Media Release The Hon Duncan Gay MLC Minister for Roads and Ports 27 July 2011
  67. NSW Government switches off 38 speed cameras Caradvice 27 July 2011 (includes locations of cameras turned off)
  68. 1 2 "PARLIAMENT is facing a renewed push for a top-level inquiry into the use of speed cameras". Adelaide Now. News Limited. 27 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
  69. "Victoria's speed camera saga continues". The 7.30 Report. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  70. "Government acts on fixed speed cameras". Media Release 14 May 2004. Office of the Premier. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
  71. 1 2 Dowling, Jason (1 January 2009). "State's road toll dips to its lowest on record". The Age. Melbourne, Australia.
  72. 1 2 Sexton, Reid (27 December 2009). "Victoria's road toll at record low". The Age. Melbourne, Australia.
  73. "A-G to probe use and integrity of road cameras". The Age. Australia: Fairfax Media. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
  74. "As road toll jumps, police urge caution". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. 10 June 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
  75. "Speeding and disobedient drivers deliver a windfall for government coffers". The Herald Sun. Herald and Weekly Times. 11 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  76. Edmonton, The (19 February 2006). "Charges won't halt photo radar". Canada.com. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  77. Wittmeier, B. "Police set sights on super speeders". Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  78. "Lack of police funds could end South West speed cameras". BBC News. 22 July 2010.
  79. "Speed cameras will stay – but no more maintenance | News". This is Gloucestershire. 3 August 2010. Archived from the original on 6 August 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  80. "Town ditches fixed speed cameras". BBC News. 31 July 2009.
  81. 1 2 Barrett, David (7 August 2010). "Speed camera switch-off sees fewer accidents". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  82. "HUDOC - European Court of Human Rights". hudoc.echr.coe.int.
  83. "Section 21, traffic officer numbers reduction in the UK" (PDF). UK Parliamentary publications.
  84. "page 147 Transport statistics 2009 edition" (PDF). Department for Transport UK.
  85. at 14:24, Jane Fae 1 Apr 2011. "Oxfordshire cops switch speed cameras back on". theregister.co.uk.
  86. "Plan to return Oxfordshire's speed cameras". BBC News. 2 November 2010.
  87. "Speeding fine numbers double with cameras back on". BBC News. 5 May 2011.
  88. "Half UK speed cameras are switched off". Auto Express. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  89. "Half of Britain's speed cameras are switched off". Sky News. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  90. "Half of UK road speed cameras are switched off". BBC News. 4 November 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  91. "Woman's Lawsuit Threatens To Remove Red-Light Cameras". Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  92. "Lawsuit Over Red-Light Cameras Heads To Ohio Supreme Court". Weathernet5.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  93. "City". Speedtrap.org. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  94. "Action/Legis – Red Light Cameras & Photo Radar in California". Highwayrobbery.net. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  95. Humphrey, Tom. "Speed cameras catch police chief's interest » Knoxville News Sentinel". Knoxnews.com. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  96. "City Red Light, Speeding Cameras Bring In $158,811 In First 3 Months". The Chattanoogan.com. 14 November 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  97. "study of speed cameras" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 December 2008.
  98. [ permanent dead link ]
  99. "Drivers concerned about 100 new speed cameras in Valley". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  100. "Speed cameras on U.S. highways?". CNN. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
  101. "National Safety Council (2017). The State of Safety - A State-by-State Report. Itasca, IL. pg. 18. Accessed at www.nsc.org" (PDF).
  102. San Diego Court Ruling, 2001.
  103. US Department Of Transportation Federal Highway Administration – Traffic Enforcement Camera Regulations Archived 9 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine , 9 December th 2008.
  104. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  105. [ dead link ]
  106. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 June 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  107. [ dead link ]
  108. "No details yet for end to state's photo radar". KTAR.com. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  109. "Redflex challenges private investigators ruling – The Independent Weekly". Theind.com. 19 May 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  110. http://www.thenewspaper.com/rlc/docs/2009/la-hb480.pdf
  111. "Carte des radars fixes et automatiques en France". Linternaute.com. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  112. "Radarwarner: Bundesgericht kennt keine Gnade". 20min.ch. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  113. "Autovelox e Tutor: dove sono?". Poliziadistato.it. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
  114. "Multe nulle autovelox: quando le sanzioni vanno contestate". Quotidiano Motori. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  115. http://www.racfoundation.org/assets/rac_foundation/content/downloadables/speed_limits-box_bayliss-aug2012.pdf