Red light camera

Last updated
A red-light camera in use in Beaverton, Oregon Redlightcamera.jpg
A red-light camera in use in Beaverton, Oregon

A red light camera (short for red light running camera [1] ) is a type of traffic enforcement camera that photographs a vehicle that has entered an intersection after the traffic signal controlling the intersection has turned red. [2] By automatically photographing vehicles that run red lights, the photo is evidence that assists authorities in their enforcement of traffic laws. [3] [4] Generally the camera is triggered when a vehicle enters the intersection (passes the stop-bar) after the traffic signal has turned red.

Contents

Typically, a law enforcement official will review the photographic evidence and determine whether a violation occurred. A citation is then usually mailed to the owner of the vehicle found to be in violation of the law. [5] These cameras are used worldwide, in China, in European countries, and in countries including: Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, the United Kingdom, Singapore and the United States. [6] [7] More than 75 countries worldwide use red light cameras. [8]

If a proper identification of the driver cannot be made, instead of a ticket, some police departments send out a notice of violation to the owner of the vehicle, requesting identifying information so that a ticket may be issued later.

According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, red-light running is a frequent cause of crashes, with 6,000 people killed between 1992 and 1998, 850 each year in the United States alone, while 1.4 million were injured. In Australia, 15% to 21% of the crashes at signalized intersections were related to red light running during 1994–1998. [9]

There is debate and ongoing research about the use of red light cameras. Authorities cite public safety as the primary reason that the cameras are installed, [10] [11] [12] while opponents contend their use is more for financial gain. [13] [14] There have been concerns that red light cameras scare drivers (who want to avoid a ticket) into more sudden stops, [15] [16] which may increase the risk of rear-end collisions. The elevated incentive to stop may mitigate side collisions. Some traffic signals have an all red duration, allowing a grace period of a few seconds before the cross-direction turns green. Some studies have confirmed more rear-end collisions where red light cameras have been used, while side collisions decreased, but the overall collision rate has been mixed. In some areas, the length of the yellow phase has been increased to provide a longer warning to accompany the red-light-running-camera. There is also concern that the international standard formula used for setting the length of the yellow phase ignores the laws of physics, which may cause drivers to inadvertently run the red phase. [17]

History

Red light cameras were first developed in the Netherlands by Gatso. [18] Worldwide, red light cameras have been in use since the 1960s, and were used for traffic enforcement in Israel as early as 1969. [3] The first red light camera system was introduced in 1965, using tubes stretched across the road to detect the violation and subsequently trigger the camera. One of the first developers of these red light camera systems was Gatsometer BV. [18]

The cameras first received serious attention in the United States in the 1980s following a highly publicized crash in 1982, involving a red-light runner who collided with an 18-month-old girl in a stroller (or "push-chair") in New York City. Subsequently, a community group worked with the city's Department of Transportation to research automated law-enforcement systems to identify and ticket drivers who run red lights. New York's red-light camera program went into effect in 1993. [19] From the 1980s onward, red light camera usage expanded worldwide, and one of the early camera system developers, Poltech International, supplied Australia, Britain, South Africa, Taiwan, the Netherlands and Hong Kong. [20] American Traffic Systems (subsequently American Traffic Solutions) (ATS) and Redflex Traffic Systems emerged as the primary suppliers of red light camera systems in the US, [21] while Jenoptik became the leading provider of red light cameras worldwide. [22]

Initially, all red light camera systems used film, which was delivered to local law enforcement departments for review and approval. [23] [24] The first digital camera system was introduced in Canberra in December 2000, [20] and digital cameras have increasingly replaced the older film cameras in other locations since then. [24]

Operation

Red light cameras are typically installed in protective metal boxes attached to poles [25] at intersections, [10] which are often specifically chosen due to high numbers of crashes and/or red-light-running violations. [24] In some case, cameras are built into traffic lights. Red light camera systems typically employ a sensor that detects the presence of a vehicle past the stop bar, and, in some cases, measures the speed of a vehicle at the time it ran the red light. The sensors may be single or dual inductive loops, piezoelectric strips, laser, radar or optical video analyses. Using the speed measured, the system predicts if a particular vehicle will not be able to stop before entering the intersection. In some instances the system takes two or more photographs. [26] The first photo shows the vehicle just before it enters the intersection, with the light showing red, and the second photo, taken a second or two later, shows the vehicle when it is in the intersection. [27]

Details that may be recorded by the camera system (and later presented to the vehicle owner) include: the date and time, the location, the vehicle speed, the amount of time elapsed since the light turned red, and the amount of time elapsed since the light turned yellow and the vehicle passed into the intersection. The event is captured as a series of photographs or a video clip, or both, depending on the technology used, which shows the vehicle before it enters the intersection on a red light signal and its progress through the intersection. [10] The data and images, whether digital or developed from film, are sent to the relevant law enforcement agency. There, the information is typically reviewed by a law enforcement official or police department clerk, [28] who determines if a violation occurred and, if so, approves issuing a citation to the vehicle owner, [10] who may challenge the citation. [5]

Studies have shown that 38% of violations occur within 0.25 seconds of the light turning red and 79% within one second. A few red light camera systems allow a grace period of up to half a second for drivers who pass through the intersection just as the light turns red. [2] Ohio and Georgia introduced a statute requiring that one second be added to the standard yellow time of any intersection that has a red light camera, which has led to an 80% reduction in tickets since its introduction. New Jersey has the strictest yellow timing provisions in the country as a result of concerns that cameras would be used to generate revenue; they have a statute specifying that the yellow time for an intersection that has a red light camera must be based on the speed at which 85% of the road's traffic moves rather than be based on the road's actual speed limit.

Usage

Red light camera usage is widespread in a number of countries worldwide. [6] [29] Netherlands-based Gatso presented red light cameras to the market in 1965, [18] and red light cameras were used for traffic enforcement in Israel as early as 1969. [3] In the early 1970s, red light cameras were used for traffic enforcement in at least one jurisdiction in Europe. [3] Australia began to use them on a wide scale in the 1980s. [7] [30] As of July 21,2010, expansion of red light camera usage in Australia is ongoing. [31] In some areas of Australia, where the red light cameras are used, there is an online system to check the photograph taken of your vehicle if you receive a ticket. [32] Singapore also began use of red light cameras in the 1980s, [7] and installed the first camera systems during five years, starting in August 1986. [4] In Canada, by 1998, red light cameras were in use in British Columbia and due to be implemented in Manitoba. [6] In Alberta, red light cameras were installed in 1999 in Edmonton [33] and in 2001 in Calgary. [34] The UK first installed cameras in the 1990s, [7] with the earliest locations including eight rail crossings in Scotland where there was greatest demand for enforcement of traffic signals due to fatalities. [11]

China

A set of pictures taken by a red light camera in Luannan County, China, the black car in the pictures ran the red light Pictures taken by red light camera.jpg
A set of pictures taken by a red light camera in Luannan County, China, the black car in the pictures ran the red light

Red light camera usage is extensive in mainland China. As of 2007, approximately 700 intersections in Shenzhen were monitored for red light violations, speeding, or both. [35]

China also has red light camera with facial recognition. Red light offender, either pedestrian or motorbikers, are captured by a 7 megapixel camera. Within 20 minutes, a facial recognition system identifies personal information including family name, ID number and address which are displayed in the street on an advertising screen. This information can also be published on social media. [36]

According to the owner, in less than four months, in Lianhua intersection in Shenzhen, jaywalking were reduced from 1000 each day to 80. [36]

Hong Kong

Hong Kong introduced red light cameras in 1993. [37]

In Hong Kong, where red light cameras are installed, signs are erected to warn drivers that cameras are present, with the aim of educating drivers to stop for signals. [38] The number of red light cameras in Hong Kong doubled in May 2004, and digital red light cameras were introduced at intersections identified by the police and transport department as having the most violations and greatest risk. The digital cameras were introduced to further deter red-light running. As added assistance to drivers, some of the camera posts were painted orange so that drivers could see them more easily. [24] By 2006, Hong Kong had 96 red light cameras in operation. [39] By 2016 this number had risen to 195. [40]

In Hong-Kong, penalty for the failure to comply with traffic signals is a HK$5,000 fine and three months' jail for a first offense. Penalty for other offenses are a HK$10,000 penalty and six-month term. [37]

In Hong-Kong, red light cameras helped reduce violation jumping by 43 to 55%. [37]

France

Red light camera experiment in Gif-sur-Yvette Feu rouge avec radar avenue du General Leclerc a Gif-sur-Yvette le 1er avril 2013 - 1.jpg
Red light camera experiment in Gif-sur-Yvette

In France, red light camera start to be used in 2009. Camera catch the driver which fail to stop on red light, but not the one who fail to stop on orange/yellow light. Penalty for such a failure is 135 euros, [41] and a removal of 4 points on the French driving licence. [42]

New multipurpose camera might, such as the Mesta Fusion 2 have several simultaneous capacity in a single device, such as red light camera, Level crossing red light camera and speed camera. [43] In a near future the might be able to also catch other infractions such as phone usage, failure to wear the seat belt wearing, or failure to maintain safe distance between vehicle. [43]

Some insurance companies recommend to comply with regulation to avoid the fine. This implies a speed decrease when approaching a red light, considering it can switch to orange and then to red, avoiding acceleration when light is orange, using the brake (which turn on braking light) to communicate to followers the braking action, and keep the car before the red light stop line. [42]

In the south east quarter of France, red light cameras (MESTA 3000) are provided by Safran; their availability rate is 95%, taking into account road works and acts of vandalism. This availability is considered better than the one observed in Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Germany according to a French National Assembly report. [44]

Germany

The first red light camera in Germany was operated on November 1960 the 15th at Francfort-sur-le-Main, with black and white photos.

Red light violation cost a 90€ fine, and one point removal is registered on the driving license. If red light violation occurs while the light is red for more than one second, the fine is 200€ with two points, and driving license is suspended for one month. The fine can also be 320€ in case of immediate danger, or 360€ in case of crash. [45]

The fine for the stop line violation is only 10€.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom the authorities often refer to red-light cameras, along with speed cameras, as safety cameras. [46] They were first used in the early 1990s, [47] with initial deployment by the Department for Environment, Transport and the Regions. All costs were paid by the local authority in which the individual camera was placed, and revenues accrued from fines were paid to the Treasury Consolidated Fund. [47] In 1998 the government handed the powers of collection to local road-safety partnerships, [48] comprising "... local authorities, Magistrates' Courts, the Highways Agency and the police." [48]

In a report, published in December 2005, there were a total of 612 red light cameras in England alone, of which 225 were in London. [49]

In the UK, failure to stop for a red light gives an £100 fine and adds 3 points on the driving license. Some police forces might also register motorists caught running a red light to educational courses. [50]

United States

Source: IIHS [51]

Red light camera in Chicago, Il. Red Light Camera.jpg
Red light camera in Chicago, Il.

Since the early 1990s, red light cameras have been used in the United States [7] in 26 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. [52] Within some states, the cameras may only be permitted in certain areas. For example, in New York State, the Vehicle and Traffic Law permits red light cameras only within cities with a population above 1 million (i.e. New York City), Rochester, Buffalo, Yonkers, and Nassau and Suffolk Counties. [53] In Florida, a state law went into effect on 1 July 2010, which allows all municipalities in the state to use red light cameras on all state-owned rights-of-way and fine drivers who run red lights, [12] with the aim of enforcing safe driving, according to then-Governor Charlie Crist. [54] The name given to the state law is the Mark Wandall Traffic Safety Act, named for a man who was killed in 2003 by a motorist who ran a red light. [13] In addition to allowing the use of cameras, the law also standardizes driver fines. [55] Major cities throughout the US that use red light cameras include Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Baton Rouge, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Los Angeles, Memphis, New Orleans, New York City, Newark, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Raleigh, San Francisco, Seattle, Toledo, and Washington, D.C. [52] Albuquerque has cameras, but in October 2011 local voters approved a ballot measure advising the city council to cease authorizing the red light camera program. The City of Albuquerque ended its red light program on 31 December 2011. [56]

In March 2017, the city of Chicago changed the period of time between when the light turns red and when the red-light camera is triggered (and a ticket issued) from 0.1 seconds to 0.3 seconds. The "grace period" in Chicago is now in line with other major American cities like New York City and Philadelphia. [57]

Suppliers of red-light cameras in the US include: Affiliated Computer Services (ACS) State and Local Solutions, a Xerox company, of Dallas, Texas; [58] American Traffic Solutions of Scottsdale, Arizona, 1/3 owned by Goldman Sachs; [59] [60] Brekford International Corp., of Hanover, Maryland; [61] CMA Consulting Services, Inc. of Latham, New York; [62] Gatso USA of Beverly, Massachusetts; [63] iTraffic Safety LLC of Ridgeland, South Carolina; [64] NovoaGlobal Inc., of Orlando, Florida; Optotraffic, of Lanham, Maryland; [65] Redflex Traffic Systems of Phoenix, Arizona, with its parent company in Australia; [66] RedSpeed-Illinois LLC, of Lombard, Illinois, whose parent company is in Worcestershire, England; [67] and SafeSpeed LLC, of Chicago, Illinois. [67]

Some states have chosen to prohibit the use of red light cameras. These include Arkansas, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, Texas (phasing out fully by 2021), and West Virginia. [68] [69] [70]

In February 2012, the red light camera ordinance in the city of St. Louis was officially declared void by St. Louis Circuit Court Judge Mark Neill. [71] On 9 August 2012, the Cary, North Carolina town council voted to end their program. [72] In February 2013, the San Diego mayor helped remove a red light camera to keep the campaign promise he made during the November 2012 election to eliminate these systems. [73] New Jersey had to renew the Red Light law by the state legislature in early 2015 and did not do this, making the use of red light cameras illegal in the state afterwards.

In the United States, fines are not standardized and vary to a great degree, from $50 in New York City [74] to approximately $500 in California. [75] The cost in California can increase to approximately $600 if the motorist elects to attend traffic school in order to avoid having a demerit point added to his or her driving record.

Notice of traffic violation

In many California police departments, when a positive identification cannot be made, the registered owner of the vehicle will be mailed a notice of traffic violation instead of a real ticket. Also known as "snitch tickets," these notices are used to request identifying information about the driver of the vehicle during the alleged violation. Because these notices have not been filed at court, they carry no legal weight and the registered owner is under no obligation to respond. In California, a genuine ticket will bear the name and address of the local branch of the Superior Court and direct the recipient to contact that court. In contrast, a notice of traffic violation generated by the police will omit court information, using statements like "This is not a notice to appear" and "Do not forward this information to the Court." [76] [77] [78] [79]

In September 2014, a bill was proposed in New Jersey to disallow the state Motor Vehicle Commission from sharing license plate and driver information needed to cite New Jersey drivers accused of committing infractions in another state. [80]

Decrease since 2012 in the USA

While the number of red light cameras decreased from 533 in 2012 to 421 in 2018, people killed in red-light crashes increased from 696 in 2012 to 811 in 2016, reflecting a 17% increase. [81]

The reasons for the red light camera discontinuation were reduction in camera citations, difficulty sustaining the financial viability of the program and intense community opposition. [51]

In the USA, surveys indicate the public support for red light camera enforcement; however, the support is decreasing if programs are not adequate, or if perception is focused on revenue rather than on saving lives. To be successful, a red light camera should focus on safety and transparency, as well as be located in a problematic intersection which needs to be assessed by communities (for instance, for road design and signal timing). It could also take into account public input with stakeholders such as law enforcement, victim advocates, school officials and residents to plan a program. [51]

Singapore

In 2014 Singapore started to use German Jenoptik red light cameras, with an 11-megapixel resolution. 240 streets have red light cameras in Singapore. [82]

New South Wales

In New South Wales red light cameras were introduced in 2009. [83]

In New South Wales there are 191 cameras at 171 intersection. These camera can check both the red light and the speed [83]

During the period of observations were:

Studies and politics

A report in 2003 by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program examined studies from the previous 30 years in Australia, the UK, Singapore, and the US, and concluded that red light cameras "improve the overall safety of intersections where they are used." [7] While the report states that evidence is not conclusive (partly due to flaws in the studies), the majority of studies show a reduction in angle crashes, a smaller increase in rear-end crashes, with some evidence of a "spillover" effect of reduced red light running to other intersections within a jurisdiction. [7] These findings are similar to a 2005 meta analysis, which compared the results of 10 controlled before-after studies of red light cameras in the US, Australia, and Singapore. The analysis stated that the studies showed a reduction in crashes (up to almost 30%) in which there were injuries; however, evidence was less conclusive for a reduction in total collisions. [84] Studies of red light cameras worldwide show a reduction of crashes involving injury by about 25% to 30%, taking into account increases in rear-end crashes, according to testimony from a meeting of the Virginia House of Delegates Militia, Police, and Public Safety Committee in 2003. [85] These findings are supported by a review of more than 45 international studies carried out in 2010, which found that red light cameras reduce red light violation rates, crashes resulting from red light running, and usually reduce right-angle collisions. [34]

Amongst the many researched safety benefits of installing RLCs, few studies have examined drivers' behavior change in relation to red-light cameras showing that at these intersections drivers tended to react quicker to a yellow light change when stopping. [15] [86] The consequence of this change could be the slight decline in the intersection capacity. [16] In terms of location-specific studies, in Singapore a study from 2003 found that there was "a substantial drop" in red light violations at intersections with red light cameras. In particular the study found that drivers were encouraged to stop more readily in areas with red light cameras in use. [4] A report from civic administrators in Saskatchewan in 2001, when considering red light camera use, referred to studies in the Netherlands and Australia that found a 40% decrease in red light violations and 32% decrease in right-angle crashes where red light cameras were installed. [87] Following the introduction of red light cameras in Western Australia, the number of serious right-angle crashes decreased by 40%, according to an article from the Canberra Times. [20] In an article from the Xinhua General News Service, the Hong Kong transport department reported that in 2006 the monthly average number of crashes due to red light violations fell 25% and the number of people injured in these crashes decreased by 30%, following an increase in the number of red light cameras in use. [39]

North America

Red light camera in Ontario, Canada TraffipaxRedLightCamera.jpg
Red light camera in Ontario, Canada

In the U.S. and Canada, a number of studies have examined whether red light cameras produce a safety benefit. A 2005 study by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) suggests red light cameras reduce dangerous right-angle crashes. [88] The FHWA study has been criticized as containing critical methodological and analytical flaws and failing to explain an increase in fatalities associated with red light camera use: [89]

(...)the authors spotlight the statistical difficulties of including the cost of fatalities, while ignoring the practical implications of such events (...) assuming that each angle injury crash had a societal cost of $64,468, when in fact the cost was $82,816 before camera use and $100,176 after camera use(...) [90]

Not all studies have been favorable to the use of red light cameras. A 2004 study of 17,271 crashes from North Carolina A & T University showed that the presence of red light cameras increased the overall number of crashes by 40%. [91] This research received no peer review and is considered flawed by the IIHS. [92] A 2005 Virginia Department of Transportation study of the long-term effects of camera enforcement in the state found a decrease in the number of right-angle crashes with injuries, but an increase in rear-end crashes and an overall increase in the number of crashes causing injuries. [93] In 2007, the department issued an updated report which showed that the overall number of crashes at intersections with red light cameras increased. This report concluded that the decision to install red light cameras should be made on an intersection-by-intersection basis as some intersections saw decreases in crashes and injuries that justified the use of red light cameras, while others saw increases in crashes, indicating that the cameras were not suitable in that location. [94] This study, too, is considered flawed by the IIHS. [95] Aurora, Colorado experienced mixed results with red light cameras; after starting camera enforcement at 4 intersections, crashes decreased by 60% at one, increased 100% at two, and increased 175% at the fourth. [96] According to the IIHS, most studies suggest the increase in rear-end collisions decreases once drivers have become accustomed to the new dynamics of the intersection. [2] Some locations experience a decrease in rear-end collisions at intersections with red light cameras over time, for instance, in Los Angeles such collisions fell 4.7% from 2008 to 2009. [97] However, a 2010 analysis by the Los Angeles City Controller found L.A.'s red light cameras hadn't demonstrated an improvement in safety, [98] specifically that of the 32 intersections equipped with cameras, 12 saw more crashes than before the cameras were installed, 4 had the same number, and 16 had fewer crashes; also that factors other than the cameras may have been responsible for the reduced crashes at the 16 intersections. [99] And in Winnipeg, Manitoba, crashes were found to have significantly increased in the years following the deployment of red light cameras. [100] In 2010, Arizona completed a study of their statewide 76 photo enforcement cameras [101] and decided they would not renew the program in 2011; lower revenue than expected, mixed public acceptance and mixed accident data were cited. [102]

Nevertheless, the FHWA has concluded that the cameras yielded a positive overall cost benefit due to the reduction in more expensive right-angle injury collisions. [88] [103] Other studies have found a greater crash reduction. For example, a 2005 study of the Raleigh, North Carolina, red light camera program conducted by the Institute for Transportation Research and Education at North Carolina State University found right-angle crashes dropped by 42%, rear-end crashes dropped by 25% and total crashes dropped by 17%. [104] In 2010, the IIHS looked at results of a number of studies and found that red light cameras reduce total collisions and particularly reduce the type of crashes that are especially likely to cause injuries. [105] A 2011 IIHS report concluded that the rate of fatal collisions involving red-light running in cities with a population of 200,000 or greater was 24% lower with cameras than it would have been without cameras. [106]

Opinions

United States

A 2009 Public Opinion Strategies poll which asked, "Do you support or oppose the use of red-light cameras to detect red-light runners and enforce traffic laws in your state's most dangerous intersections?" found 69% support and 29% oppose. [107] A 2012 telephone survey of District of Columbia residents published in the journal Traffic Injury Prevention found that 87% favored red light cameras. [108]

The National Motorists Association opposes red light cameras on the grounds that the use of these devices raises legal issues and violates the privacy of citizens. They also argue that the use of red light cameras does not increase safety. [14] In the US, AAA Auto Club South argued against the passage of a Florida state law to allow red light cameras, stating that use of red light cameras was primarily for raising money for the state and local government coffers and would not increase road safety. [13] [109] Worse, there are allegations of corruption in shortening the amber to increase the number of tickets. [110] The construction of speed breakers or road bumps were conventional methods of forcing motorists to lower speeds, but were dropped at locales in favor of cameras due to lobbying efforts.

Canada and Europe

In Norway, Spain, and the Netherlands, a postal survey in 2003 showed acceptance of the use of red light cameras for traffic enforcement. [4] For some groups, the enforcement of traffic laws is considered the main reason for using the red light cameras. For example, a report from civic administrators in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada in 2001 described the cameras as "simply an enforcement tool used to penalize motorists that fail to stop for red traffic signals." [87]

United States

As of December 2016 Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, West Virginia, and Wisconsin have enacted various prohibitions on red light, speed or other photo enforcement camera uses. [111] [112] Texas banned the use of red cameras in 2019. [113] Restrictions or conditions exist in additional states; the New Mexico Department of Transportation, for example, has asserted the right to restrict or prohibit red light cameras on state highways. [114] While red light cameras may not be prohibited in other regions, they may have some restrictions on their use. In some jurisdictions, the law says that the camera needs to obtain a photo of the driver's face in order for the citation issued for running the red light to be valid. This is the case in California and Colorado [68] where the red light cameras are set up to take a series of photographs, including one of the driver's face. [115] In California, state law assesses a demerit point against a driver who runs a red light, [116] and the need to identify the actual violator has led to the creation of a unique investigatory tool, the fake "ticket." [76] [77] [78] [79] Groups opposing the use of red light cameras have argued that where the cameras are not set up to identify the vehicle driver, owner liability issues are raised. It is perceived by some that the owner of the vehicle is unfairly penalized by being considered liable for red-light violations although they may not have been the driver at the time of the offense. [6] [117] In most jurisdictions the liability for red light violations is a civil offense, rather than a criminal citation, issued upon the vehicle owner—similar to a parking ticket. [118] The issue of owner liability has been addressed in the US courts, with a ruling in the District of Columbia Court of Appeals in 2007, which agreed with a lower court when it found that the presumption of liability of the owners of vehicles issued citations does not violate due process rights. [119] This ruling was supported by a 2009 7th US Circuit Court of Appeals ruling in which it was held that issuing citations to vehicle owners (or lessees) is constitutional. The court stated that it also encourages drivers to be cautious in lending their vehicles to others. [120]

The argument that red light cameras violate the privacy of citizens, [14] has also been addressed in the US courts. According to a 2009 ruling by the 7th US Circuit Court of Appeals, "no one has a fundamental right to run a red light or avoid being seen by a camera on a public street." [121] In addition, cameras only take photographs or video when a vehicle has run a red light and, in most states, the camera does not photograph the driver or the occupants of the vehicle. [2] It is also argued that such cameras violate the Sixth Amendment's Confrontation Clause and the right to be assumed innocent until proven guilty. [122]

In most areas, red light enforcement cameras are installed and maintained by private firms. [123] [124] [125] Lawsuits have been raised challenging private companies' rights to hand out citations, such as a December 2008 lawsuit challenging the city of Dallas' red light camera program, which was dismissed in March 2009. [126] In most cases, citations are issued by law enforcement officers using the evidence provided by the companies. [125]

There have been many instances where cities in the US have been found to have too-short yellow-light intervals at some intersections where red light cameras have been installed. In Tennessee, 176 drivers were refunded for fines paid after it was discovered that the length of the yellow was too short for that location, and motorists were caught running the light in the first second of the red phase. [127] In California, a combined total of 7,603 tickets were refunded or dismissed by the cities of Bakersfield, Costa Mesa, East LA, San Carlos, and Union City, because of too-short yellows. [128] Although national guidelines addressing the length of traffic signals are available, [129] traffic signal phase times are determined by the government employees of the city, county or state for that signalized location. [130] [131] While some states set jurisdiction-wide constant durations for yellow-light intervals, a new standard is taking hold. States are required to adopt the 2009 National Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) as their legal state standard for traffic-control devices since 2011. [129] These standards require engineering practices to be used to set yellow-light-timing durations at individual intersections and or corridors. [132] For guidance to state authorities, MUTCD states yellow lights should have a minimum duration of 3 seconds and a maximum duration of 6 seconds. [133] The deadline for compliance is 2014. [132] In the US, if any part of a driver's vehicle has already passed into the intersection when the signal turns red, a violation is not generated. A ticket is only issued if the vehicle enters the intersection while the light is red. [10] [134]

In 2014, a bill was introduced in the United States House of Representatives attempting to prohibit red light cameras on federally funded highways and in the District of Columbia. [135]

Italy

In 2010, it was revealed that the municipality of Segrate, Italy, two nearby traffic lights had been synchronized such that drivers were coerced to either break the speed limit or pass during the red light. This was investigated as a deliberate fraud to increase the income from tickets. It took months before the machines were eventually dismantled by the Guardia di Finanza. [136]

Alternatives

A red light camera is not the only countermeasure against red-light running. Others include increasing the visibility distance and conspicuity of the traffic light so it is more likely to attract the driver's attention in time for him or her to stop, [137] [138] re-timing lights so drivers will encounter fewer red ones, [137] [139] increasing the duration of the yellow light between the green and the red, [140] [141] adding a "clearance" phase to the intersection's traffic signals, during which all directions have a red light. [138] It has been posited that the regulatory minimum yellow duration has been decreased over the years, that this is a cause of the increase in red-light running, and that the latter countermeasures amount to a reversion to earlier, longer regulated yellow-light durations. [142]

See also

Related Research Articles

Traffic Road users travelling by foot or vehicle

Traffic on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel.

Speed limit Maximum or minimum legal speed of vehicles

Speed limits are used in most countries to set the legal maximum, middle or minimum speed at which vehicles may travel on a given stretch of road. Speed limits are generally indicated on a traffic sign reflecting the maximum, middle or minimum permitted expressed as kilometres per hour (km/h) and/or miles per hour (mph). Speed limits are commonly set by the legislative bodies of national or provincial governments and enforced by national or regional police and judicial authorities. Speed limits may also be variable, or in some places nonexistent, such as on most of the Autobahn in Germany.

Traffic enforcement camera

A traffic enforcement camera is a camera which may be mounted beside or over a road or installed in an enforcement vehicle to detect motoring offenses, including speeding, vehicles going through a red traffic light, vehicles going through a toll booth without paying, unauthorized use of a bus lane, or for recording vehicles inside a congestion charge area. It may be linked to an automated ticketing system.

Traffic light Signaling device to control competing flows of traffic

Traffic lights, traffic signals, stoplights or robots are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.

Traffic calming

Traffic calming uses physical design and other measures to improve safety for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists. It has become a tool to combat speeding and other unsafe behaviours of drivers in the neighbourhoods. It aims to encourage safer, more responsible driving and potentially reduce traffic flow. Urban planners and traffic engineers have many strategies for traffic calming, including narrowed roads and speed humps. Such measures are common in Australia and Europe, but less so in North America. Traffic calming is a calque of the German word Verkehrsberuhigung – the term's first published use in English was in 1985 by Carmen Hass-Klau.

Road traffic safety Methods and measures for reducing the risk of death and injury on roads

Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured. Typical road users include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, vehicle passengers, horse riders, and passengers of on-road public transport.

Jaywalking

Jaywalking occurs when a pedestrian walks in or crosses a roadway that has traffic, other than at a suitable crossing point, or otherwise in disregard of traffic rules. The term originated with jay-drivers, people who drove horse-drawn carriages and automobiles on the wrong side of the road, before taking its current meaning.

Traffic ticket

A traffic ticket is a notice issued by a law enforcement official to a motorist or other road user, indicating that the user has violated traffic laws. Traffic tickets generally come in two forms, citing a moving violation, such as exceeding the speed limit, or a non-moving violation, such as a parking violation, with the ticket also being referred to as a parking citation, or parking ticket.

The National Motorists Association (NMA) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit advocacy organization for motorists in North America, created in 1982. The Association advocates for traffic safety based on proven engineering standards, traffic laws fairly written and enforced, and full due process for motorists.

School bus traffic stop laws

School bus stop laws are laws dictating what a motorist must do in the vicinity of a bus stop being used by a school bus or other bus, coach or minibus providing school transport.

Mobile phones and driving safety

Mobile phone use while driving is common but it is widely considered dangerous due to its potential for causing distracted driving and crashes. Due to the number of crashes that are related to conducting calls on a phone and texting while driving, some jurisdictions have made the use of calling on a phone while driving illegal. Many jurisdictions have enacted laws to ban handheld mobile phone use. Nevertheless, many jurisdictions allow use of a hands-free device. Driving while using a hands-free device is not safer than using a handheld phone to conduct calls, as concluded by case-crossover studies, epidemiological, simulation, and meta-analysis. In some cases restrictions are directed only at minors, those who are newly qualified license holders, or to drivers in school zones. In addition to voice calling, activities such as texting while driving, web browsing, playing video games, or phone use in general can also increase the risk of a crash.

Speed limits in the United States Overview of the speed limits on roads in the United States

Speed limits in the United States are set by each state or territory. States have also allowed counties and municipalities to enact typically lower limits. Highway speed limits can range from an urban low of 25 mph (40 km/h) to a rural high of 85 mph (137 km/h). Speed limits are typically posted in increments of five miles per hour (8 km/h). Some states have lower limits for trucks and at night, and occasionally there are minimum speed limits.

Transportation safety in the United States Overview of transportation safety

Transportation safety in the United States encompasses safety of transportation in the United States, including automobile crashes, airplane crashes, rail crashes, and other mass transit incidents, although the most fatalities are generated by road incidents yearly killing from 32,479 to nearly 38,680 (+19%) in the last decade. The number of deaths per passenger-mile on commercial airlines in the United States between 2000 and 2010 was about 0.2 deaths per 10 billion passenger-miles. For driving, the rate was 150 per 10 billion vehicle-miles for 2000 : 750 times higher per mile than for flying in a commercial airplane.

Seat belt laws in the United States

Most seat belt laws in the United States are left to the states and territories. However, the first seat belt law was a federal law, Title 49 of the United States Code, Chapter 301, Motor Safety Standard, which took effect on January 1, 1968, that required all vehicles to be fitted with seat belts in all designated seating positions. This law has since been modified to require three-point seat belts in outboard-seating positions, and finally three-point seat belts in all seating positions. Initially, seat belt use was voluntary. New York was the first state to pass a law which required vehicle occupants to wear seat belts, a law that came into effect on December 1, 1984. New Hampshire is the only state that has no enforceable laws for the wearing of seat belts in a vehicle.

Driving in the United States Driving in the country of the United States

Driving in the United States is a frequent occurrence, with the majority of Americans using private automobiles as their primary form of transportation to their workplace. Each state has the authority to set its own traffic laws and issue driving licenses, although these laws are largely the same and licenses from other states are respected throughout the country. Americans drive on the right side of the road. There are numerous regulations on driving behavior, including speed limits, passing regulations, and seat belt requirements. Driving while intoxicated with alcohol is illegal in all jurisdictions within the U.S.

Collision avoidance system Motorcar safety system

A collision avoidance system (CAS), also known as a pre-crash system, forward collision warning system, or collision mitigation system, is an advanced driver-assistance system designed to prevent or reduce the severity of a collision. In its basic form, a forward collision warning system monitors a vehicle's speed, the speed of the vehicle in front of it, and the distance between the vehicles, so that it can provide a warning to the driver if the vehicles get too close, potentially helping to avoid a crash. Various technologies and sensors that are used include radar (all-weather) and sometimes laser (LIDAR) and cameras to detect an imminent crash. GPS sensors can detect fixed dangers such as approaching stop signs through a location database. Pedestrian detection can also be a feature of these types of systems.

Speed limit enforcement Effort made by appropriately empowered authorities to improve driver compliance with speed limits

Speed limit enforcement is the effort made by appropriately empowered authorities to improve driver compliance with speed limits. Methods used include roadside speed traps set up and operated by the police and automated roadside 'speed camera' systems, which may incorporate the use of an automatic number plate recognition system. Traditionally, police officers used stopwatches to measure the time taken for a vehicle to cover a known distance. More recently, radar guns and automated in-vehicle systems have come into use.

Road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom Overview of the road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom

Road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom is the action taken by appropriately empowered authorities to attempt to persuade road vehicle users to comply with the speed limits in force on the UK's roads. Methods used include those for detection and prosecution of contraventions such as roadside fixed speed cameras, average speed cameras, and police-operated LIDAR speed guns or older radar speed guns. Vehicle activated signs and Community Speed Watch schemes are used to encourage compliance. Some classes of vehicles are fitted with speed limiters and intelligent speed adaptation is being trialled in some places on a voluntary basis.

Glossary of road transport terms Wikipedia glossary

Terminology related to road transport—the transport of passengers or goods on paved routes between places—is diverse, with variation between dialects of English. There may also be regional differences within a single country, and some terms differ based on the side of the road traffic drives on. This glossary is an alphabetical listing of road transport terms.

Traffic Electronic Control System (Turkey) Turkish vehicle camera and plate recognition system

Traffic Electronic Control System, locally known as TEDES, an acronym for "Trafik Elektronik DEnetleme Sistemi", is a monitoring and imaging system for traffic law enforcement used on some streets and highways in Turkey to ensure road safety.

References

  1. "Traffic Infraction Detectors (RLRC)". Florida Department of Transportation. Retrieved 2021-04-07.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Q&As: Red light cameras". Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. December 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Retting, Richard A.; Ferguson, Susan A.; Hakkert, A. Shalom (2003). "Effects of Red Light Cameras on Violations and Crashes: A Review of the International Literature". Traffic Injury Prevention. 4 (1): 17–23. doi: 10.1080/15389580309858 . PMID   14522657.
  4. 1 2 3 4 K M Lum; Y D Wong (March 2003). "A before-and-after study on red light camera installation". ITE Journal. Institute of Transportation Engineers. 73 (3): 28–32. ISSN   0162-8178.
  5. 1 2 "Priority, Market-Ready Technologies and Innovations, Red Light Cameras". FHWA.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-04-20. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Jason Small (18 August 1998). "Halton adds voice to call for red-light camera traps". The Hamilton Spectator. Ontario, Canada. p. N3.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 National Cooperative Highway Research Program (2003). "Impact of Red Light Camera Enforcement on Crash Experience" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  8. "Red light cameras: a Drivers.com overview of the issue". Drivers.com. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  9. Retting, Richard A.; Ferguson, Susan A.; Hakkert, A. Shalom (2003). "Effects of Red Light Cameras on Violations and Crashes: A Review of the International Literature". Traffic Injury Prevention. 4: 17–23. doi: 10.1080/15389580309858 . PMID   14522657.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 "Red Light Photo Safety Program: Frequently Asked Questions". SanDiego.gov. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  11. 1 2 Alastair Dalton (8 November 2004). "Crossings Pose the Biggest Rail Threat". The Scotsman. Scotland. p. 4.
  12. 1 2 Beth Burger (1 July 2010). "5-year crusade concludes with red light law". Bradenton Herald. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  13. 1 2 3 "Crist signs Fla. bill legalizing red light cameras". NaplesNews.com. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  14. 1 2 3 "NMA Objections To Red Light Cameras". National Motorists Association. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  15. 1 2 Fatemeh Baratian-Ghorghi; Huaguo Zhou; Isaac Wasilefsky (2015). "Impacts of Red Light Photo Enforcement Cameras on Clearance Lost Time at Signalized Intersections". Transportation Research Board. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  16. 1 2 Baratian-Ghorghi, Fatemeh; Zhou, Huaguo; Wasilefsky, Isaac (2015). "Effect of Red-Light Cameras on Capacity of Signalized Intersections". Journal of Transportation Engineering. 142: 04015035. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000804.
  17. Ceccarelli, Brian; Shovlin, Joseph. "Does the Multibillion-Dollar Red Light Camera Sector Owe Its Existence - and Profits - to Traffic Engineers' Misapplication of the Yellow Change Interval Formula?". Traffic Technology International, October/November 2013 pp. 56-62. An additional issue is that many red light cameras use compressed video, making it impossible for the ticket holder to prove they were within the "dilemma zone". A dilemma zone is the area where a driver finds it is impossible to either stop in time or proceed through the intersection before the light turns red.
  18. 1 2 3 "History". Gatso.com. Archived from the original on 2011-05-19. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  19. Row, Heath (July 1996). "Red Light District". CIO Magazine. p. 116. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  20. 1 2 3 Peter Clack (26 November 2000). "World-First Digital Camera to Nab Red Light Runners". The Canberra Times. Canberra, Australia. p. 7.
  21. Jane Larson (18 January 2008). "Non-Stop Growth". The Arizona Republic. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013.
  22. "Traffic Solutions Brochure" (PDF). Jenoptik.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 February 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  23. "Focus On Safety" (PDF). Stop Red Light Running. 2007. p. 51 and 53. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-06. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Peter Michael; Felix Lo (19 May 2004). "Red light cameras click into action; The 12 new digital devices are part of a police crackdown on dangerous driving". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. p. 3.
  25. Kriz, Karyn; Moran, Christian; Regan, Molly (Spring 2006). "An Analysis of a Red-Light Camera Program in the City of Milwaukee" (PDF). Lafollette.Wisc.edu. University of Wisconsin-Madison. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  26. "Frequently Asked Questions, No. 27". highwayrobbery.net. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  27. "Frequently Asked Questions". American Traffic Solutions, Inc. Archived from the original on 2011-11-26. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  28. "Frequently Asked Questions, No. 36". highwayrobbery.net. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  29. "Red Light Cameras FAQ". Toronto.ca. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  30. Clay Lucas (10 July 2009). "How low can we go?". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. p. 9.
  31. Matt Johnston (21 July 2010). "Dozens of new speed and red light cameras to go live in Victoria". Herald Sun. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  32. "See your red light, speed camera photo". The Daily Telegraph. Sydney, Australia. 2 September 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  33. "Intersection Safety Cameras". Edmonton Police Service. Archived from the original on 2011-03-13. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  34. 1 2 Bochner, B.; Walden, T (2010). "Effectiveness of Red Light Cameras". ITE Journal (May): 23. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  35. He, Jie; King, Mark; Watson, Barry; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Fleiter, Judy (January 2013). "Speed enforcement in China: National, provincial and city initiatives and their success". Accident Analysis & Prevention. 50: 282–8. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2012.04.017. PMID   22579218.
  36. 1 2 "China Is Using Facial Recognition To Catch Jaywalkers". Outriders. 2018-10-25.
  37. 1 2 3 "With traffic deaths on the rise, Hong Kong gets 40 new red light cameras". 2016-03-16.
  38. Brendan Delfino (27 September 1996). "Warning for red light jumpers". The South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. p. 8.
  39. 1 2 "Red light jumping accidents fall in Hong Kong". Xinhua General News Service. 23 December 2006.
  40. "New red light cameras in operation today". Hong Kong Government. 16 March 2016.
  41. "Passage à l'orange et radar feu rouge : quel risque ?". Stages Points Permis (in French).
  42. 1 2 "Infographie – Fonctionnement du radar feu rouge et risque". Mutuelle Assurance MMA (in French).
  43. 1 2 "Radars multifonctions : ils débarquent en force sur les routes en 2019". Autoplus.fr (in French). 2019-04-03.
  44. "Enforcement suppliers highlight industry best practice".
  45. "Rote Ampel überfahren". bussgeldkatalog.org (in German). 2013-10-10.
  46. Department for Transport (31 January 2007). "Point 8" (PDF). Use of Speed and Red-Light Cameras for Traffic Enforcement: Guidance on Deployment, Visibility and Signing (DfT Circular 01/2007 ed.). Department for Transport. p. 2. ISBN   978-0-11-552834-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  47. 1 2 Adrian Gains; Michael Nordstrom; Benjamin Heydecker; John Shrewsbury. (December 2005). The national safety camera programme Four-year evaluation report (PDF). PA Consulting Group and CTS at UCL (University College London). p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  48. 1 2 Adrian Gains; Michael Nordstrom; Benjamin Heydecker; John Shrewsbury. (December 2005). The national safety camera programme Four-year evaluation report (PDF). PA Consulting Group and CTS at UCL (University College London). p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  49. Adrian Gains; Michael Nordstrom; Benjamin Heydecker; John Shrewsbury. (December 2005). The national safety camera programme Four-year evaluation report (PDF). PA Consulting Group and CTS at UCL (University College London). p. 113. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  50. "Traffic light cameras: what you need to know". rac.co.uk.
  51. 1 2 3 "New guidelines for automated enforcement programs emphasize safety amid rise in red-light-running crash deaths". IIHS-HLDI crash testing and highway safety. 2018-07-24.
  52. 1 2 "Communities using red light and/or speed cameras". Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  53. "NYS Assembly press release: Assembly Authorizes Red Light Cameras in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, Buffalo, Rochester and Yonkers" . Retrieved 20 September 2013.
  54. Sterling Ivey (13 May 2010). "Memorandum:Governor Crist Signs Legislation Creating the Mark Wandall Traffic Safety Act" (PDF). The Mark Wandall Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-16. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  55. Melissa Wandall (11 April 2009). "Florida's deadly intersections took my husband". The Gainesville Sun. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  56. "Albuquerque Voters Reject Red Light Cameras". thenewspaper.com. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  57. Farivar, Cyrus (2017-03-22). "Red-light camera grace period goes from 0.1 to 0.3 seconds, Chicago to lose $17M". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2017-03-23.
  58. Carl Mario Nudi (23 July 2009). "Keeping an eye on red light runners". The Bradenton Herald. Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
  59. "Frequently Asked Questions, No. 34". highwayrobbery.net. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  60. "New York Voters Express Strong Support for Red Light Cameras" (Press release). American Traffic Solutions. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  61. "Brekford Corp. Expands into Traffic Photo Enforcement Industry" (PDF) (Press release). Brekford International Corp. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  62. Joseph Spector (16 June 2008). "N.Y. red-light cameras may depend on lobbyist connections". USA Today. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
  63. "Streamwood OKs red-light cameras for intersection" (PDF). Gatso-USA.com. 18 July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  64. Paul Tharp (6 September 2010). "Ridgeland Mayor Gary W. Hodges: Photo-cop is new safety tool, not money machine". South Carolina Lawyers Weekly.
  65. David Hill (9 December 2010). "Ticketing accelerates in College Park". The Washington Post. p. T18.
  66. Scott Broden (15 January 2011). "Bids on red-light cameras rejected". The Daily News Journal. Murfreesboro, TN.
  67. 1 2 Joseph Ruzich (24 September 2009). "Camera firm with past ties to lawyer wins pact". Chicago Tribune. p. 23.
  68. 1 2 "Automated enforcement laws". Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  69. Hruska, Joel (24 March 2009). "Mississippi makes red light cameras illegal" . Retrieved 2009-04-28.
  70. "An Informal Presentation to the House Transportation Committee on Red Light Cameras, November 30, 2011" (PDF). 30 November 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
  71. "St. Louis' Red-Light Camera Ordinance Officially Declared Void". Riverfront Times. Archived from the original on 2012-04-15. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
  72. "Cary axes red-light cameras". News & Observer . 10 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
  73. "San Diego drops red-light cameras". The San Diego Union-Tribune. 1 February 2013.
  74. "Hearing on the Fiscal 2010 Executive Budget" (PDF). Council of the City of New York, Finance Dept. 13 May 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-11. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  75. "Uniform Bail and Penalty Schedule" (PDF). Judicial Council of California. July 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  76. 1 2 "Red Light Cameras in California". Highwayrobbery.net. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  77. 1 2 Goldstein, David (2011-02-13). "Are Police Tricking People Into Paying 'Snitch' Tickets?". CBS Los Angeles.
  78. 1 2 "The Right To Remain Silent". almanacnews.com. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  79. 1 2 "Something Every Consumer Should Know". HandelontheLaw.com. 27 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-12-04. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  80. "Bill A3527". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  81. "Red-Light-Running Fatalities Increase 17% in Four Years". Automotive Fleet. July 24, 2018.
  82. "5 Different Types of Traffic Cameras in Singapore". ETHOZ. 2019-04-04.
  83. 1 2 3 "Speed Camera Programs: 2017 Annual Review" (PDF). roadsafety.transport.nsw.gov.au. May 2018.
  84. A. Aeron-Thomas; S. Hess (2005). "Red light cameras for the prevention of road traffic crashes". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD003862. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003862.pub2. PMC   6492462 . PMID   15846684 . Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  85. Stephen Oesch (17 January 2003). "Statement before the Virginia House of Delegates Militia, police, and Public Safety Committee. Red Light Violations and Red Light Cameras" (PDF). Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. p. 3. Retrieved 16 December 2010. the body of evidence indicates that red light cameras are beneficial. They reduce injury crashes by about 25 to 30 percent, and that's after accounting for some small increase in rear-end crashes.
  86. Timothy Jordan Gates; Peter Tarmo Savolainen; Honey-Um Maria (2014). "Impacts of Automated Red Light Running Enforcement Cameras on Driver Behavior". Transportation Research Board. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  87. 1 2 "Camera logic failed to click". The Star Phoenix. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. 26 January 2001. p. A14.
  88. 1 2 Forrest M. Council (April 2005). "Safety Evaluation of Red Light Cameras". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  89. Langland-Orban, Barbara; Large, John T.; Pracht, Etienne E. (2011). "An Update on Red Light Camera Research: The Need for Federal Standards in the Interest of Public Safety" (PDF). Florida Public Health Review. 8: 1–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
  90. Langland-Orban, Barbara; Pracht, Etienne E.; Large, John T. (2008). "Red Light Running Cameras: Would Crashes, Injuries and Automobile Insurance Rates Increase If They Are Used in Florida?" (PDF). Florida Public Health Review. 5: 1–7.
  91. "A Detailed Investigation of Crash Risk Reduction Resulting From Red-Light Cameras in Small Urban Areas". Archived from the original on 2011-01-03. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
  92. "Highway safety topics" (PDF).
  93. Saeed Eslambolchi; Rahul Khandelwal; Kimberly M Mattingly; Kristin W Sprinkle; Patrick Wachendorf; Nicholas J. Garber; John S. Miller (2005). "An evaluation of red light camera (photo-red) enforcement programs in Virginia: a report in response to a request by Virginia's Secretary of Transportation". Virginia.gov. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  94. Elizabeth Abel Kassebaum; Saeed Eslambolchi; Santhosh K Korukonda; Nicholas J. Garber; John S. Miller (2007). "The impact of red light cameras (photo-red enforcement) on crashes in Virginia". Virginia.gov. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  95. Persaud, Bhagwant N.; Richard A. Retting; Craig Lyon; Anne T. McCartt (May 2008). "Review of "The Impact of Red Light Cameras (Photo-Red Enforcement) on Crashes in Virginia" by Nicholas J. Garber, John S. Miller, R. Elizabeth Abel, Saeed Eslambolchi, and Santhosh K. Korukonda" (PDF). Insurance Institute of Highway Safety. p. 1. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  96. Washington, April M. (26 March 2008). "Aurora may add cameras to catch red light runners". Rocky Mountain News. Archived from the original on 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
  97. "Intradepartmental correspondence." (PDF), Los Angeles Police Department, 16 February 2011, retrieved 2 June 2011
  98. Dennis Romero. "Red Light Cameras in L.A. Could Become Extinct After City Council Declines to Save Them". L.A. Weekly.
  99. "Audit of the Photo Red Light Program" (PDF), Los Angeles Office of the City Controller, archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-08, retrieved 2011-06-29
  100. Tom Brodbeck. "Red-light cam disgrace". Winnipeg Sun.
  101. "Department of Public Safety – Photo Enforcement Program: Questions and Answers. Report 10-02" (PDF). State of Arizona, Office of the Auditor General. January 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
  102. "Release to Australian Securities Exchange: Arizona Speed Contract" (PDF). Redflex Holdings Limited. 6 May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
  103. "Safety Evaluation of Red Light Cameras" (PDF). Federal Highway Administration. April 2005. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  104. Lawrence E. Decina; Libby Thomas; Raghavan Srinivasan; Loren Staplin (September 2007). "Automated Enforcement: A Compendium of Worldwide Evaluations of Results" (PDF). nhtsa.gov. p. 33. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  105. Retting, Richard (November 2010). "Two Decades of Photo Enforcement in the United States: A Brief Summary of Experience and Lessons Learned". ITE Journal.
  106. Hu, Wen; McCartt, Anne T.; Teoh, Eric R. (February 2011). "Effects of Red Light Camera Enforcement on Fatal Crashes in Large US Cities" (PDF). Journal of Safety Research. IIHS.org. 42 (4): 277–82. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2011.06.002. PMID   22017830 . Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  107. Neil Newhouse (19 May 2009). "Poll Shows Strong National Support For 'Red Light Cameras'". TQIA Blog. Public Opinion Strategies. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  108. Cicchino, Jessica B.; Wells, Joann K.; McCartt, Anne T. (2014). "Survey about pedestrian safety and attitudes toward automated traffic enforcement in Washington, D.C". Traffic Injury Prevention. 15 (4): 414–423. doi:10.1080/15389588.2013.830212. ISSN   1538-957X. PMID   24471367. S2CID   26686028.
  109. Jones, James A. (11 May 2010). "AAA seeking veto on red light cameras". Bradenton Herald. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  110. Jaffe, Eric (14 August 2015). "Why Red Light Cameras Have Big Safety Benefits But Little Support". Citylab. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
  111. "States using red light and speed cameras". www.iihs.org. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  112. "Traffic and Red Light Camera Laws by State". Findlaw. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  113. Fedschun, Travis (2019-06-02). "Red light cameras banned in Texas". Fox News .
  114. "State Transportation Commission Bans Use of Red-light Cameras on State and Federal Highways" (PDF) (Press release). New Mexico Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-05-06.
  115. "How does it work?". DalyCity.org. Archived from the original on 2011-01-21. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  116. "Focus On Safety" (PDF). Stop Red Light Running. 2007. p. 66. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-06. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  117. "NMA Objections To Red-Light Cameras". National Motorists Association. Archived from the original on 18 July 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  118. "Focus On Safety" (PDF). Stop Red Light Running. 2007. p. 67. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-06. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  119. Agomo v. Fenty, 916181 (District of Columbia Court of Appeals1 February 2007)(""Appellants argue that the method of assessing liability preliminarily to the registered owner of the car conflicts with the statutory framework set forth in D.C.Code § 50-2302.06(a), which requires that the District prove a moving violation by clear and convincing evidence, and that this "presumption of liability" violates their due process rights. ... We hold that there exists no constitutional violation as asserted and affirm."").
  120. Idris v. City of Chicago, Illinois, 08-1363 (7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals5 January 2009)(""Fining a car's owner is rational for the same reasons:  Owners will take more care when lending their cars, and often they can pass the expense on to the real wrongdoer." "It is enough to say that photographs are at least as reliable as live testimony, that the due process clause allows administrative decisions to be made on paper (or photographic) records without regard to the hearsay rule, see Richardson v. Perales, 402 U.S. 389, 91 S.Ct. 1420, 28 L.Ed.2d 842 (1971), and that the procedures Chicago uses are functionally identical to those it uses to adjudicate parking tickets, a system sustained in Van Harken v. Chicago, 103 F.3d 1346 (7th Cir.1997). Affirmed."").
  121. Idris v. City of Chicago, Illinois, 08-1363 (7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals5 January 2009)("no one has a fundamental right to run a red light or avoid being seen by a camera on a public street.").
  122. Allott, Daniel (2019-08-18). "Red-light cameras undermine rule of law". TheHill. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  123. Jonathan Miller (6 January 2005). "With Cameras on the Corner, Your Ticket Is in the Mail". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  124. "Toss your ticket". The Washington Times. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  125. 1 2 Josh Farley (3 February 2008). "Smile, Bremerton! You're on Red Light Camera". Kitap Sun.com. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  126. "Red Light Camera Safety Program Frequently Asked Questions". Dallas City Hall. Archived from the original on 2010-11-26. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  127. Brian Lazenby (13 March 2008). "Quick light leads to refunds for 176 drivers". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Archived from the original on 2011-01-10. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  128. "Camera Towns". highwayrobbery.net. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  129. 1 2 "Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  130. "City of Lincoln Traffic Signals Frequently Asked Questions". Lincoln.ne.gov. City of Lincoln, Nebraska. Retrieved 17 January 2011. The City of Lincoln follows City policies and Nebraska State Law, which requires us to follow the national guidelines outlined in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)
  131. "Traffic Signal Coordination Handbook". Housatonic Valley Council of Elected Officials. HVCEO Transportation Planning. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  132. 1 2 "Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Compliance Dates". Federal Register. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
  133. "Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) 2009 Edition" (PDF). Federal Highway Administration. 2009. p. 489. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
  134. "Photo Enforcement Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). City of Tucson, Tucson Police Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-16. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  135. H.R. 5755
  136. "Italy: Prosecution Advances in Red Light Camera Fraud Scandal". theNewspaper.com. 3 May 2010. Retrieved 2011-03-01. Mayor Adriano Alessandrini is now accused of shortening the duration of yellow lights to boost the profits of the red light camera program. The move paid off, with 2,425,801.60 euros (US $3,206,078.01) in revenue generated from motorists who did not have adequate time to stop, according to prosecution documents.
  137. 1 2 "City of Albuquerque Red Light Camera Study Final Report". UNM.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-13.
  138. 1 2 "AAA Michigan Program Prevents Crashes, One Intersection at a Time" (PDF). motorists.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-27.
  139. "Alternatives to Red Light Cameras". Archived from the original on 2011-05-26. Retrieved 2011-06-29.
  140. "Development of Guidelines for Identifying and Treating Locations with a Red-Light-Running Problem" (PDF), tamu.edu.
  141. "Yellow Light Timing Myths". Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2011-06-29.
  142. "The Red Light Running Crisis: Is it Intentional? Part 5". TheNewspaper.com.