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The Green Cross Code is a brand created by the National Road Safety Committee (now the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, RoSPA) to raise awareness of pedestrian road safety in the United Kingdom. The multimedia Green Cross Code campaign began in 1970 and continues today.
The Green Cross Code replaced the earlier Kerb Drill (below) pedestrian safety campaign; the Kerb Drill's military style ("Halt! Quick march!") was deemed confusing to children by safety authorities.
Prior to the introduction of the Green Cross campaign, a series of puppet animation public information films, featuring Tufty Fluffytail (narrated by Bernard Cribbins) were in regular broadcast rotation across the UK. Tufty Fluffytail, a childlike red squirrel character, was created in 1953 by Elsie Mills to introduce clear and simple safety messages to children. The success of the character led to the creation in 1961 of the Tufty Club for children under five years of age. Under its auspices more than 30,000 Tufty books about road safety were issued to parents. At its peak there were nearly 25,000 branches of the Tufty Club throughout the UK, and by the early 1970s an estimated two million children were members. The movement continued into the 1980s.
The Green Cross Code itself is a short step-by-step procedure designed to enable pedestrians to cross streets safely. While the Code has undergone several changes over the years, the basic tenets ("Stop, Look, Listen, Think" or "Stop Look Listen Live".) have remained more or less the same. The 2018 version of the Green Cross Code reads as follows:
- THINK! First find the safest place to cross
- STOP! Stand on the pavement near the kerb
- USE YOUR EYES AND EARS! Look all around for traffic and listen
- WAIT UNTIL IT IS SAFE TO CROSS! If traffic is coming, let it pass
- LOOK AND LISTEN! When it is safe, go straight across the road – do not run
- ARRIVE ALIVE! Keep looking and listening
|Green Cross Man|
The Green Cross Man is a costumed superhero character created in England in mid-1970 as an aid to teaching young children the Green Cross Code, and for promoting general road safety via television adverts. British actor David Prowse, who went on to portray Darth Vader in the film Star Wars (1977), played the character in a series of Public Information Films sponsored by the British Government's Central Office of Information for the Department of the Environment. The original adverts were broadcast on British television from 1975 to 1990.
In the adverts the "Green Cross Man" has the power to teleport from his monitoring station at "Green Cross Control" to any location where children are in need of pedestrian safety instruction. He accomplishes this by use of a wristwatch-like "dematerialiser" device. On these missions he is sometimes accompanied by a robot companion. His signature exclamation of surprise or disbelief is "Green Crosses!" and his slogan is "I won't be there when you cross the road, so always use the Green Cross Code." The first two adverts in the series had David Prowse's voice dubbed by another actor due to his pronounced Bristol accent.In the third advert he appeared using his own voice.
In 2014 the Green Cross Code Man series was revived, with David Prowse playing the character in his 80th year, in two adverts produced for Road Safety Week in the United Kingdom.The new campaign was targeted at young adults alerting them to the danger of pedestrian accidents caused by distraction from using smartphones, and wearing headphones to listen to music whilst crossing roads.
In 1976, actor Jon Pertwee, the Third Doctor (1970 to 1974) on the television series Doctor Who , appeared in a PIF for the Green Cross Code introducing the mnemonic "SPLINK", which stood for:
The film was later updated to cartoon form, voiced by Derek Griffiths.
In 1983, the television adverts employed a "Green Cross Code" rap based on the hit "The Message" by Grandmaster Flash. The original lyrics of "Don't push me cos I'm close to the edge" were replaced with "Don't step out when you're close to the edge." The advert was re-released for its 10th anniversary in 1993 with slightly different lyrics.
Other UK celebrities who have appeared in "Green Cross Code" PSAs include Joe Bugner, vocalist Les Gray of the Mud pop group, Kevin Keegan, and Alvin Stardust. These adverts used the banner "Be Smart...Be Safe."
The Kerb Drill is a procedure for pedestrians to cross streets safely, developed by Jocelyn Arthur Adair Pickard (1885–1962), a former Royal Engineer who became Director-General of RoSPA.As it originated in the UK, it is the opposite direction from countries that drive on the right-hand side of the road. The Kerb Drill encourages pedestrians to look before they cross:
At the kerb halt!
Eyes right again.
If the road is clear,
Quick march—walk straight across.
The repeated look to the right is to check again for a car in the closest lane. In countries that drive on the right-hand side of the road, the Kerb Drill would be:
Stop at the kerb. Look left, look right, look left again. If the road is clear, quickly cross.
Traffic on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel.
An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more transport flows meet or cross. Intersections may be classified by number of road segments, traffic controls or lane design.
A zebra crossing is a type of pedestrian crossing used in certain places around the world. Its distinguishing characteristic is that it gives priority to pedestrians; once someone has indicated their intent to cross by waiting by the crossing, motorists are obliged to stop. These were introduced to the UK in the 1930s as a road safety measure and were marked by a pair of striped poles, each supporting a flashing orange light, known as Belisha Beacons. In the 1940s road markings were added to the crossing design: These were alternating dark and light stripes on the road surface. These stripes, resembling the coat of a zebra, give rise to the common
A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a place designated for pedestrians to cross a road, street or avenue. The term "pedestrian crossing" is also used in some international treaties that pertain to road traffic and road signs, such as the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic and the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals.
A pelican crossing is the UK and Irish name for a type of pedestrian crossing, which features a pair of poles each with a standard set of traffic lights facing oncoming traffic, a push button and two illuminated, coloured pictograms facing the pedestrian from across the road. These are a red, stationary person to indicate that it is not safe to cross, and a green, walking person to indicate that it is safe to do so. Pelican crossings also provide non-visual indication that it is safe to cross, such as a beep, vibrating button or tactile rotating cone in order to assist visually impaired pedestrians.
Traffic lights, traffic signals, stoplights or robots are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.
Traffic calming uses physical design and other measures to improve safety for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists. It has become a tool to combat speeding and other unsafe behaviours of drivers in the neighbourhoods. It aims to encourage safer, more responsible driving and potentially reduce traffic flow. Urban planners and traffic engineers have many strategies for traffic calming, including narrowed roads and speed humps. Such measures are common in Australia and Europe, but less so in North America. Traffic calming is a calque of the German word Verkehrsberuhigung – the term's first published use in English was in 1985 by Carmen Hass-Klau.
A puffin crossing is a type of pedestrian crossing in use in the United Kingdom.
The Highway Code is a set of information, advice, guides and mandatory rules for road users in the United Kingdom. Its objective is to promote road safety. The Highway Code applies to all road users including pedestrians, horse riders and cyclists, as well as motorcyclists and drivers. It gives information on road signs, road markings, vehicle markings, and road safety. There are annexes on vehicle maintenance, licence requirements, documentation, penalties, and vehicle security.
Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured. Typical road users include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, vehicle passengers, horse riders, and passengers of on-road public transport.
Jaywalking occurs when a pedestrian walks in or crosses a roadway that has traffic, other than at a suitable crossing point, or otherwise in disregard of traffic rules. The term originated with jay-drivers, people who drove horse-drawn carriages and automobiles on the wrong side of the road, before taking its current meaning.
Public information films (PIFs) are a series of government-commissioned short films, shown during television advertising breaks in the United Kingdom. The US equivalent is the public service announcement (PSA). Public information films were common place in the 1950s till the 2000s however became obsolete with the closure of the COI.
An advanced stop line (ASL), also called advanced stop box or bike box, are road markings at signalised road junctions allowing certain types of vehicle a head start when the traffic signal changes from red to green. Advanced stop lines are implemented widely in the Netherlands, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and other European countries but was first conceptualized by transportation planner Michael Lynch for the city of Portland, Oregon in response to numerous bike crashes at intersections.
A crossing guard, lollipop man/lady, crosswalk attendant, or school road patrol is a traffic management personnel who is normally stationed on busy roadways to aid pedestrians. Often associated with elementary school children, crossing guards stop the flow of traffic so pedestrians may cross an intersection. Crossing guards are known by a variety of names, the most widely used in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Australia being "lollipop lady/man", a reference to the large signs used that resemble lollipops. The verb is lollipopping, which can also be used for road works.
A junction is where two or more roads meet.
The use of traffic lights to control the movement of traffic differs regionally and internationally in certain respects. This article describes some of these non-universal features. Note that the color phase commonly known as "yellow" is often referred to, especially in official usage, as "amber"; for consistency this article uses "yellow" throughout.
Stop, Look and Listen or Stop, Look, Listen may refer to:
An all-way stop – also known as a four-way stop – is a traffic management system which requires vehicles on all the approaches to a road intersection to stop at the intersection before proceeding through it. Designed for use at low traffic-volume locations, the arrangement is common in the United States, Canada, South Africa, Liberia, and Mexico, as well as in a number of, usually rural, locations in Australia where visibility on the junction approaches is particularly poor. The stop signs at such intersections may be supplemented with additional plates stating the number of approaches.
A traffic guard, traffic controller, flagman, or flagger is a person who directs traffic through a construction site or other temporary traffic control zone past an area using gestures, signs or flags. The person directing traffic is responsible for maintaining the safety and efficiency of traffic, as well as the safety of road workers, while allowing construction, accident recovery or other tasks to proceed. Traffic guards are commonly used to control traffic when two way roads are reduced to one lane, and traffic must alternate. Their duties are to direct traffic to safer areas where construction or traffic incidents are taking place. In addition they have to moderate the traffic density to not cause traffic jams. They guide motorists to follow the traffic laws; but may not be able to enforce the law. Most traffic guards are seen as construction workers; but in some nations, they dress or perform as security guards and police officers.
Yellow lines are road markings used in various territories.