Graduated driver licensing

Last updated

Graduated driver licensing systems (GDLS) are designed to provide new drivers of motor vehicles with driving experience and skills gradually over time in low-risk environments. There are typically three steps or stages through which new drivers pass. They begin by acquiring a learner's permit, progress to a restricted, probationary or provisional license, followed by receipt of a full driver's license. [1] Graduated drivers' licensing generally restricts nighttime, expressway, and unsupervised driving during initial stages, but lifts these restrictions with time and further testing of the individual, eventually concluding with the individual attaining a full driver's license.



Acquiring a learner's permit typically requires a minimum age and passing vision and knowledge (written) tests. These tests usually assess the participant's knowledge of road signs and how to deal with hypothetical situations (e.g. junctions) while on the road. Parental or guardian permission may be required if below a specified age. Those who hold a learner's permit must generally drive under the supervision of a licensed driver that meets the requirements of a supervisor, not be affected by alcohol or other drugs, and there may be restrictions imposed on maximum speed that a learner driver can drive, the types of road that can be driven, and even on the use of mobile phones (cell phones). There may also be limits imposed on the number of passengers in the vehicle, and learner drivers may be required to be free of moving violations and at-fault accidents or crashes for a minimum period of time before moving to the next stage. In many jurisdictions a learner driver is required to display an L sign clearly on the vehicle to indicate to other road users that training and supervised driving is being undertaken. Learner drivers may also be required to complete a logbook of their driving experience, which must be certified or countersigned by a supervising driver or driver trainer. [2]

The transition for a learner license to an intermediate, provisional or probationary license typically requires a minimum age and usually requires the learner driver to pass an on-road driving test, although in some jurisdictions there may be alternative licensing paths offered involving a continuous process of competency based training and assessment under the guidance and instruction of an accredited driver trainer.

Those who receive an intermediate, provisional or probationary license may drive without supervision, although driving at certain times (typically after midnight until around sunrise) and driving with passengers in the vehicle may require the presence of a supervising driver who is fully licensed. Drivers typically must remain free of moving violations and at-fault accidents for a specified period of time. In some places, drivers with these licenses must have no alcohol or other drugs in their blood while they are driving, and may be restricted to certain maximum speeds and from using mobile phones. In some jurisdictions, an intermediate, provisional or probationary driver is required to display a P sign on the outside of the vehicle to indicate to other road users and police of their license status (and hence of restrictions that may apply).

Receipt of a full drivers license typically requires a specific minimum age, a minimum time period of driving experience, and may require the passing of a final road test of driving skills or the passing of a hazard perception test.

The first graduated driver licensing systems involving a learner licensing phase, an intermediate, provisional or probationary licensing phase, and full licensing were developed in Australia in the 1960s,[ citation needed ] but the advocacy of graduated driver licensing in North America is associated with Professor Patricia Waller, of the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center and later the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, commencing in the 1970s.[ citation needed ]

North American graduated driver licensing systems emerged in the late 1980s and 1990s (and were heavily influenced by a revamped graduated licensing system introduced in New Zealand in the 1980s, itself based on Waller's writings),[ citation needed ] and have now been adopted in almost all US and Canadian jurisdictions. These systems place particular emphases on passenger restrictions and night time driving curfews for young drivers.

In contrast, the approach of European graduated driver licensing systems places much greater emphasis on the training experiences of learner drivers prior to solo driving, with a lesser focus on license restrictions at the intermediate, provisional or probationary licensing phase.[ citation needed ] Young drivers in European graduated driver licensing systems are typically older, as minimum licensing ages are older than most other countries. As well, most learner driver experience is obtained through professional driving instructors rather than through ad hoc supervision.[ citation needed ]

The Australian approaches to graduated driver licensing reflect and extend the thinking underpinning the North American and European approaches,[ citation needed ] combining restrictions on young drivers with intensive training requirements but also adding significant enforcement (zero tolerance with regard to speeding, driving while impaired by alcohol or other drugs, and the use of mobile telephones by young drivers) and penalty components (particularly the suspension of a drivers license for offenses, the impounding of motor vehicles, and opportunities to attend traffic offender intervention programs as part of the penalty process).[ citation needed ] As in Europe, minimum licensing ages in Australian graduated driver licensing systems are older than in the North American graduated driver licensing systems, and most learner drivers in Australia also receive driver training from professional driving instructors as well as practice under informal driving supervision.[ citation needed ] Critical features of the Australian graduated driver licensing systems are the mandatory display of L and P plates on the front and back of vehicles driven by learner drivers and provisionally licensed drivers, and the compulsory carriage of a drivers license which facilitates police identification of young drivers and their vehicles.[ citation needed ]

Graduated licensing and insurance

The automobile insurance industry generally supports graduated licensing. However, some youth rights advocates have accused insurance companies of charging premiums to new and young drivers in GDL jurisdictions that are not substantially less than premiums in non-GDL jurisdictions, even though graduated licensing supposedly reduces the risk of accidents. This issue is generally restricted to jurisdictions with private auto insurance. Most state-run automobile insurance schemes do not discriminate on account of age or driving experience.


South Africa

In South Africa, a time-based graduated licensing system is used. To attain a full driving license, an individual must first attain a 'Learner's license'. The individual must be 16 to obtain a motor cycle learner's licence; 17 years old to be able to attain a learner's license to operate a 'light motor vehicle', and 18 years old to be able to attain a learner's license to operate a heavy duty motor vehicle. Once the learner's license is issued, the individual has two years to attain their full license. The K53 system is the correct standard. The K53 manuals may be located on the Arrive Alive website. It is recommended that learner drivers secure the assistance of a qualified, professional driving instructor.

There are three different categories of learner licenses:[ citation needed ]


Hong Kong

Hong Kong uses a graduated licensing system regardless of the driver's age. A new license of private cars(No.1), mini vans(No.2) and motorcycles(No.3) uses provisional license system called Probationary Driving Licence. While the others have extra requirements upon licensing.

However, drivers already having No.2 licenses for at least 3 years, with no less than two years of non-provisional driving license may be exempted from the probation or No.1 license (but not vice versa).

Driver on probation must comply with a 12-month minimum restricted period. They must comply the following rule while driving on the respected vehicles

Probation period will be extended for 6 months if mild driving regulations are violated, and the probation license voided for severe violation or 2 mild violation. This rule also applies while driving on vehicles not on probation.

For the licenses other than 1,2,3, the applicant must comply all of the requirements below upon application, which are:



In Germany there are two elements of the graduated driver licensing:

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, one may apply for a provisional driver's licence from the age of 15 years 9 months, provided one is a legal resident of Great Britain. In Northern Ireland, legal residents can apply for their provisional from 16 years and 10 months. There is no requirement to sit a theory test before applying for a licence. Residents in Northern Ireland must apply through a separate system. Those holding a provisional driver's licence are permitted to learn to drive a car from age 17, and 16 for a moped or light quad bike. [5]

Holders of a provisional licence must be supervised by someone who is over 21 and has held their licence for over 3 years. Provisional licence holders in Northern Ireland must not exceed 45 mph. When a provisional licence holder is driving a car, they must display a red 'L' plate on the front and back of the car (or a 'D' plate in Wales). Learner drivers of cars (but not motorcycles) may drive on motorways in Great Britain only. [6]

To progress to holding a full licence, a driver must pass a multiple choice theory test on the Highway Code and a video Hazard Perception Test. [7] Once they have passed these tests, the driver must take and pass a practical test. [8] There is no minimum hours requirement for learning to drive, nor a minimum time to hold a licence. Once a learner has passed their driving test, there is currently no probationary period. [9]

An optional scheme called Pass Plus is available in Great Britain for new drivers which is aimed at improving general driving skills. This requires driving in a range of conditions and on a variety of roads. It is not a legal requirement, but it can reduce insurance premiums for new drivers. Pass Plus is not available in Northern Ireland. [10]


In Sweden, one may apply for a provisional driver's license for personal automobiles from the age of 16 years, providing one has obtained and provided a report on one's medical status, filled out by oneself, and completed and provided an optical exam to the governing body of Transportstyrelsen. While one doesn't need to sit through a theoretical test to qualify, one must sit through a lecture at a licensed driver's school. If and when both the Student and supervisor are licensed, the student may drive on public roads with both the supervisor and student having proof of them being licensed with them, and the car having a sign in the back saying "Övningskör" meaning roughly practice driving, a green one if you're driving privately most often with one's parent or guardian, or a red sign if the student is driving with an instructor from a licensed driver's school.

While driving the student must be accomplished by another fully licensed driver, who must be 24 years or older, must have had completed an introductions course that is good for personal automobiles within the last 5 years, their student must also have completed this course, and they must have had a fully fledged driver's license for at least 5 years within the last 10 years. [11]

North America


In Canada, each province is responsible for the transportation laws. Most provinces not listed have a system that resembles one of the following graduated licensing programs.


In Alberta, the GDL program is first employed when an individual acquires at Class 7 Learner's License and lasts a minimum of 3 years if the individual obtains their class 7 when 15 instead of 14 and earns a class 5 non-GDL license at the age of 18. The point of the GDL program is to impose certain restrictions on new drivers and to have them earn enough road experience before becoming fully licensed.

British Columbia

The Graduated Licensing Program (GLP) was introduced in British Columbia in 1998 and is based on driving experience. A driver who is at least 16 years old and has never driven before must first take a knowledge test and vision screening test to attain their Class 7L (Learners) permit. Upon achieving this, they must be supervised by a full licensed driver of at least 25 years of age when driving. After a minimum of one year, they can take a practical driver's exam (road test). Upon succeeding the driver's exam, they receive their Class 7 N (Novice) licence, which allows them to drive alone, but with several restrictions. After a minimum of two years of safe driving, they may take another practical driver's exam (Class 5 road test), and upon passing, they become a full licensed Class 5 driver.

Novice drivers may even be able to take their Class 5 road test after only 18 months, if they've taken an ICBC approved graduated licensing program during the L stage and have met all other requirements (no at-fault accidents, tickets or driving prohibitions). By successfully completing this ICBC approved driving course, drivers are also eligible to receive two High School credits.

Drivers who have had experience driving outside the province must take the knowledge test and get their learner's permit, but they are allowed to upgrade their status to Novice after a minimum of one day. However, they must similarly wait a period of two years before attempting to gain their full licence. This can apply even if the applicant currently holds an unrestricted licence from another jurisdiction.


In Ontario, the graduated licensing system is a time-based process. Once an individual turns 16, he/she is eligible to acquire a class G1 licence, which is the beginning stage. This is done by passing both a knowledge test as well as a vision test. The G1 licence is required by law to be held for 12 months unless he/she takes an approved Driver's Education course, by which the waiting time is dropped to 8 months. A holder of a G1 licence may drive only with a G level (or higher) driver who has 4 years' experience, which includes time as a G2 driver. The G1 licence carries other restrictions, such as a curfew and limiting which high-speed freeways the novice driver is allowed use. The accompanying driver must maintain their blood alcohol content (BAC) under 0.05. At the end of that period, the novice driver can take a G1 exit test which tests basic driving skills. Passing this grants him/her a G2 licence which enables him/her to drive alone with a limited number of passengers in the vehicle unless certain requirements are met.

G2 licences are kept for 12 months and then he/she can take the G2 exit test, which tests highway driving as well as city driving skills. Similarly, if the G2 licence holder takes an approved Driver's Education course, the time of which he/she must wait to complete the G2 exit test is reduced to 8 months. A G2 licence holder is subject to a new set of restrictions, which are more relaxed than those for the G1 licence: The driver must maintain a BAC of zero, and if the licence holder is under 19 years of age, time-specific passenger restrictions apply. Passing the G2 exit test grants the Class G licence which is considered a full license in Ontario. This can apply even if the applicant currently holds an unrestricted licence from another jurisdiction. [ clarification needed ]

There are a few other graduated licensing systems in Ontario, including motorcycles (M1, M2, M) and since 2005, mopeds (for a non-class M license holder) (LM1, LM2).

United States

In the United States, transportation laws are the responsibility of the state governments. The federal government does, however, try to encourage graduated driver licensing through its National Priority Safety Programs fund. The National Transportation Safety Board reported in 2017 that zero dollars were expended on graduated driver licensing through this fund in 2016 (compared to more than $230 million for impaired driving campaigns). [12]

In 2011, the Safe Teen and Novice Driver Uniform Protection (STANDUP) Act (S. 528, H.R. 1515) was introduced in the US Senate on March 9 by Senator Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY) and in the US House of Representatives on April 14 by Representatives Tim Bishop (D-NY) and Randy Hultgren (R-IL). This legislation would establish minimum federal requirements for state graduated licensing laws. [13]


The State of Alabama uses an age-based graduated licensing system. A new driver over the age of 18 does not need to go through the graduated licensing process; they receive their full license after fulfilling requirements (tests and fees). A 15-year-old licensee must be accompanied by a licensed driver of 21 years of age or older. A 16-year-old licensee may be able to drive unsupervised with permission. However, between 12 am and 6 am, 16-year-olds need supervision unless performing necessary activities. According to the National Safety Council, other states follow similar types of restrictions. [14]


The State of Alaska issues to new drivers an Instruction Permit at or over the age of 14 with period of validity of 2 years with only one renewal possible. A special instruction permit may be issued to those persons enrolled in an approved high school, community college, commercial driver training course, or approved medical program. With an Instruction Permit a new driver may driver with a supervising driver if the supervising driver is 21 or over and has at least 1 year of experience in that type or class of vehicle. At the age of 16 a driver with an Instruction Permit may apply for a Provisional License, to obtain it the driver must not having received a traffic conviction within the last 6 months, and if under the age of 18, the driver must have had the Instructional Permit for 6 months prior to obtaining the Provisional License and have a parent, legal guardian, or employer certify the driver has had 40 hours of experience and 10 of those hours must be during "progressively challenging circumstances". If under the age of 18 a driver with a Provisional License are under the following restrictions:

  • May not carry passengers unless
    • One of the passengers is a parent
    • Legal guardian
    • Passenger is at least 21 years of age.
  • May carry passengers, without a parent in the vehicle, if they are siblings.
  • May not operate a motor vehicle between the hours of 1:00 am and 5:00 am unless accompanied by
    • A parent
    • Legal guardian
    • A person at least 21 years of age who is licensed to drive the class of vehicle being used.
  • May operate a motor vehicle between the hours of 1:00am and 5:00am to or from your place of employment or within the scope of your employment and driving is along the most direct route.

Above restrictions do not apply if the driver has an "off system" license restricted to areas not connected to the land highway system or is not connected to a highway where average daily traffic volume is 499 or greater.
A driver may apply for a non-Provisional License if they are older than 18 or have held a Provisional License for 6 months, have not received a traffic offence or been convicted on multiple instances of a minor consuming alcohol. [15]


The State of Arizona issues to new drivers a Graduated Instruction Permit at or over the age of 15 years 6 months, with a Graduated Instruction Permit the driver must have a licensed driver of at least 21 years of age. At 16 years old a Driver can obtain a Class G (Graduated) Drivers License, after completing 20 hours of daytime driving and 10 hours of nighttime driving, along with holding a Graduated Instruction Permit for 6 months. A driver with a Class G Drivers License for the first 6 months cannot:

  • Drive between midnight and 5 am unless
    • a parent or legal guardian with a valid Class A, B, C or D license is in the front passenger seat
    • is driving from or to a
      • sanctioned school sponsored activity
      • sanctioned religious activity
      • place of employment
      • family emergency
  • Drive one or more passengers under the age of 18 unless
    • Passenger(/s) are the drivers sibling(/s)
    • a parent or legal guardian with a valid Class A, B, C or D license is in the front passenger seat

At 18 years old a Driver may apply for a Class D (non-Graduated) license. [16]


The State of Arkansas uses an age-based graduated licensing system, drivers who start over the age of 18 are not required to have had a Learner's License or an Intermediate License and can get a Class D License after completing an Instruction Permit. [17]

Instruction Permit
A applicant for an Instruction permit must be 14 years of age and complete a vision and knowledge exam. The Instruction Permit is valid for 1 year after the completion of the knowledge exam and cannot be renewed passed, once this permit has expired an applicant can then receive a Lerner's License, Intermediate License or Class D license depending on age. With an Instruction Permit they must have a licensed driver and be at least 21 years old in the seat beside the driver.
Learner's License
A applicant can receive a Learner's License if they are between the ages of 14 and 16 and must have completed an Instruction Permit. With a Learner's License they must have a licensed driver of least 21 years old in the seat beside the driver.
Intermediate License
A applicant can receive an Intermediate License if they are between the ages of 16 and 18 and must have completed an Instruction Permit. A restriction is put in place if the applicant hasn't had a Learner's License for 6 months. If the applicant has not had a Learner's License a 6-month restriction or has not held a Learner's License for 6 months or more the difference is added as a restriction. The aforementioned restriction is that they must have a licensed driver of least 21 years old in the seat beside the driver. On the Driver's 18th birthday they can receive a Class-D License.


All first-time drivers between 15 and 18 years old must follow Missouri's Graduated Driver License law. [18]

Instruction Permit
A applicant for an Instruction permit must be 15 years of age and pass a vision, road sign recognition, and written tests at a Missouri State Highway Patrol driver examination station. The applicant must then be accompanied by a guardian, or other qualified person to a license office to sign a permission form. The Instruction Permit is valid for 1 year after application at the permit office and can be renewed. People with an instruction permit may only drive when there is a qualified person in the car (parent, driving instructor, etc.)
Intermediate License
If the applicant has had an instruction permit for a minimum of 182 days, has received 40 hours of driving instruction; They may take a driving examination which if passed will earn them their Intermediate License. Intermediate License holders have restrictions when driving with people under 19 years of age in the car and restrictions on driving from 1 to 5 a.m.
Under 21 Full Driver License
Must be 18 years of Age, and must pass the vision and road sign recognition tests again. No special restrictions.

New Jersey

New Jersey residents who have never had a driver license must follow New Jersey's Graduated Driver License (GDL) program to get their first unrestricted basic driver license. The GDL is designed to give new drivers increased, step-by-step instruction and driving experience on the road to obtaining a basic driver license. The GDL has been proven to save lives among new drivers and their passengers. [19]



Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) first commenced in Australia in the mid-1960s with New South Wales introducing provisional licences on 4 January 1966. Learner licences had been in use since 1952. The provisional phase was for 12 months and had 40 mph speed restriction. Today in all Australian states, newly licensed drivers are required by law to display P-plates for varying lengths of time. The P is usually a red or green letter on a white background or a white letter on a red or green background (Victoria & Western Australia only). In New South Wales and Victoria there are two classes of provisional licence, red P-plates are for the first year after passing the Learner test and then after passing a computerised test, they are green for two to three years. Western Australia requires six months of red P-plates, where provisional drivers are under a 12 am – 5 am curfew, and one and a half years of green P-plates.

On 1 July 2000, New South Wales introduced a three-stage Graduated Licensing Scheme (GLS).[ citation needed ]

On 1 July 2010, Victoria introduced the Graduated Licensing Systems (GLS).[ citation needed ]

A good driving record will be necessary to progress to the next licence stage.

As of July 2007, newly issued Queensland drivers licences have new restrictions for those under 25. Learners must first log 100 hours of driving experience (of which 10 must be undertaken at night) before taking their practical driving examination. Learners can boost this experience by taking professional lessons which count for 3 times the hours, for up to 10 hours (or 30 logbook hours.) After a period of one year, provisional drivers must then pass a hazard-perception test to move from red to green P-Plates where previously only a 3-year duration was required. New restrictions also prevent any under-25, Queensland provisional licence-holder from carrying more than one passenger under the age of 21, who is not an immediate family member, between the hours of 11 pm and 5 am.[ citation needed ]

New Zealand

New Zealand has had a graduated driver licence system since 1987. The process of obtaining a full light vehicle driver licence in New Zealand is: [20]

  1. Theory test at a minimum age of 16.
  2. Learner licence: 6 months
  3. Practical test at a minimum age of 16 years 6 months
  4. Restricted licence: 12 months (with advanced driving course) or 18 months (without advanced driving course)
  5. Practical test at a minimum age of 17 years 6 months or 18 years, depending on whether the driver passes an advanced driving course.

Related Research Articles

An L-plate is a square plate bearing a sans-serif letter L, for learner, which must be affixed to the front and/or back of a vehicle in many countries if its driver is a learner under instruction, or a motorcycle rider with provisional entitlement to ride restricted motorcycles.

Commercial drivers license License to operate large or heavy vehicles

A commercial driver's license (CDL) is a driver's license required to operate large, heavy, or placarded hazardous material vehicles in commerce.

A driver's permit, learner's permit, learner's license or provisional license, is a restricted license that is given to a person who is learning to drive, but has not yet satisfied the prerequisite to obtain a driver's license. Having a learner's permit for a certain length of time is usually one of the requirements for applying for a full driver's license. To get a learner's permit, one must typically pass a written permit test, take a basic competency test in the vehicle, or both.

Many countries have adopted a penalty point or demerit point system under which a person’s driving license is cancelled or suspended based on the number of points accumulated by them over a period of time because of the traffic offences or infringements committed by them in that period. The demerit points schemes of each jurisdiction varies. These demerit schemes are usually in addition to fines or other penalties which may be imposed for a particular offence or infringement, or after a prescribed number of points have been accumulated.

Driver licences in Australia

Driver licences in Australia refer to the official permit required for a person to legally drive a motor vehicle in Australia. The issue of driver licences, alongside the regulation and enforcement of road use, are all managed by state and territory governments.

Drivers licenses in the United States

In the United States, driver's licenses are issued by each individual state, territory, and the District of Columbia rather than by the federal government due to federalism. Drivers are normally required to obtain a license from their state of residence and all states recognize each other's licenses for non-resident age requirements. There are also licenses for motorcycle use. Generally, a minimum age of 16 is required to obtain a drivers/M1 license. A state may also suspend an individual's driving privilege within its borders for traffic violations. Many states share a common system of license classes, with some exceptions, e.g. commercial license classes are standardized by federal regulation at 49 CFR 383. Many driving permits and ID cards display small digits next to each data field. This is required by the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators’ design standard and has been adopted by many US states. According to the United States Department of Transportation, as of 2018, there are approximately 227 million licensed drivers in the United States.

Drivers licences in Canada

In Canada, driver's licences are issued by the government of the province or territory in which the driver is residing. Thus, specific regulations relating to driver's licences vary province to province, though overall they are quite similar. All provinces have provisions allowing non-residents to use licences issued by other provinces and territories, out-of-country licences, and International Driving Permits. Many provinces also allow non-residents to use regular licences issued by other nations and countries. Canadian driver's licences are also valid in many other countries due to various international agreements and treaties.

In India, a driving licence is an official document that authorises its holder to operate various types of motor vehicles on highways and some other roads to which the public have access. In various Indian states, they are administered by the Regional Transport Authorities/Offices (RTA/RTO). A driving licence is required in India by any person driving a vehicle on any highway or other road defined in the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988.

A driver license is required in Singapore before a person is allowed to drive a motor vehicle of any description on a road in the country. Like many other countries in the world, an individual must possess a valid driving licence before being permitted to drive on the road, and driving licence holders are subject to all traffic rules.

The New Zealand driver licence system is a graduated system that has been in place since 1988. It consists of three phases for a car licence, each with varying levels of conditions.

Driver's license in the Philippines consists of three types. These are Student Permit, Non-Professional, and Professional. The minimum age for driving in the Philippines is 17 years old provided that the driver has applied for a Student Permit and is accompanied by a duly licensed person, whether professional or non-professional. An applicant can only apply for a Non-Professional driver's license one month after acquiring a Student Permit. An applicant needs to have a Non-Professional driver's license for 1 week in order to be eligible for a Professional driver's license. An applicant must pass both the Land Transportation Office written exam and a driving exam. If the applicant fails the tests, the applicant must wait for a month before being able to take the tests again.

Driving licence in the Republic of Ireland

In Ireland, a driving licence is the official document which authorises its holder to operate various types of motor vehicle on roads to which the public have access. Since 29 October 2013, they are issued by the National Driver Licence Service (NDLS). Based on the European driving licence standards, all the categories of licence available and the physical licence meet the 2006 EU standards.

Driving licence in Sweden

Swedish driving licences adhere to a standard set in the European Economic Area. 18 years is the minimum age to obtain a licence for cars.

Driving licence in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, a driving licence is the official document which authorises its holder to operate motor vehicles on highways and other public roads. It is administered in England, Scotland and Wales by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) and in Northern Ireland by the Driver & Vehicle Agency (DVA). A driving licence is required in England, Scotland, and Wales for any person driving a vehicle on any highway or other "road", as defined in s.192 Road Traffic Act 1988, irrespective of the ownership of the land over which the road passes. Similar requirements apply in Northern Ireland under the Road Traffic Order 1981.

Joshua’s Law is a Georgia state law enacted in 2007 changing the driver's license requirements for teen drivers. A teen driver must meet the new requirements to obtain a Georgia driver’s license. The law was named after Joshua Brown, who died in an accident in 2003. Joshua’s parents joined with legislators in an effort to put stronger driver training laws into effect. The end result was The Teenage and Adult Driver Responsibility Act (TADRA), a law that requires teens get specific driving experience and instruction before obtaining licensing beyond the learner's permit. The law also implemented a graduated driver licensing system, imposing time-of-day and passenger restrictions on drivers aged 16 and 17.

Kyleigh's Law (S2314) is a motor vehicle law in New Jersey. It requires any driver under age 21 who holds a permit or probationary driver's license to display a $4 pair of decals on the top left corner of the front and rear license plates of their vehicles. The decals are mandatory as of May 1, 2010. This law prohibits drivers under the age of 21 from driving between 11:01 pm and 5:00am. If pulled over, a first or second offense can subject the driver to a $25 fine, whereas a third offense earns 2 points on the driver's license, and a 4th offense puts the teen driver on probation and takes away their license for up to 6 months. This law is in effect in New Jersey as of May, 2010.

Driving licence in Hong Kong Overview of driving licences in Hong Kong

Driving licences in Hong Kong are issued by the Transport Department. A full driving licence is valid for 10 years and is compulsory in order to drive a motor vehicle. Most driving licences are issued after the applicant passed a driving test for the respective type of vehicles. They may be issued without a test if the applicant is a holder of an overseas driving licence issued on passing a driving test in an approved country.

Driving licence in Thailand Document in Thailand

Driving licence in Thailand is a document that allows the holder to drive on any roads in Thailand and in other ASEAN states without an International Driving Permit. The minimum age to drive a motor vehicle is 18, and to drive a motorcycle is 15. Driving licence is issued and administered by the Department of Land Transport, Ministry of Transport and its branches, land transport offices across Thailand.

Drivers license Document allowing one to drive a motorized vehicle

A driver's license is a legal authorization, or the official document confirming such an authorization, for a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles -- such as motorcycles, cars, trucks, or buses -- on a public road. Drivers licenses are often plastic and the size of a credit card,.

In the Republic of Lebanon, a driving licence is the official document which authorises its holder to operate various types of motor vehicles on highways and some other roads to which the public have access and are issued by each individual district(Arabic: قضاء‎, Kadaa).


  1. "Teen and Novice Drivers". GHSA. July 7, 2017.
  2. Bates, Lyndel; Watson, Barry; King, Mark (2010). "Required hours of practice for learner drivers: A comparison between two Australian jurisdictions" (PDF). Journal of Safety Research. 41 (2): 93–97. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2010.02.006. PMID   20497794.
  3. Autorenname (2018-10-31). "Website by the ministry for traffic". BF17. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  4. "Führerschein auf Probe | ADAC Rechtsberatung". (in German). Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  5. "Apply for your first provisional driving licence". UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  6. "Learner drivers on motorways from 4 June 2018". UK Government. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  7. "Theory test for cars and motorcycles". UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  8. "The car practical driving test". UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  9. "Driving before you've got your full licence". UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  10. "Pass Plus". UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  11. "Jag ska vara handledare (in Swedish)". Swedish gov't entity. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
  12. National Transportation Safety Board. 2017. Reducing Speeding-Related Crashes Involving Passenger Vehicles . Safety Study NTSB/SS-17/01. Washington, DC. (Table 9, p. 51)
  13. "The STANDUP Act ~ S. 528/H.R. 1515". SafeRoads4Teens. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  14. National Safety Council. (2017) The State of Safety - A State-by-State Report. Itasca, IL. p. 19. accessed at: Archived 2017-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
  15. State of Alaska. "Driver Manual" (PDF). Department of Administration. Division of Motor Vehicles. pp. 7–9. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  16. Arizona Drivers License Manual (PDF). Arizonia Department Of Transport. pp. 11–13. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  17. Arkansas Drivers License Study Guide (PDF) (8th ed.). State of Arkansas. pp. 16–18. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  18. "Graduated Driver License Law". Missouri Department of Revenue. Missouri Department of Revenue. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  20. "Car licence requirements". 2017-08-07. Retrieved 1 September 2017.