Last updated
Delft Blick von der Nieuwe Kerk auf die Oude Kerk 1.jpg
A view of Delft with the Oude Kerk in the centre
Flag of Delft.svg
Coat of arms of Delft.svg
Prinsenstad (Prince City)
Map - NL - Municipality code 0503 (2009).svg
Location in South Holland
Netherlands relief location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location within the Netherlands
Europe relief laea location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 52°0′42″N4°21′33″E / 52.01167°N 4.35917°E / 52.01167; 4.35917
Province South Holland
City Hall Delft City Hall
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Marja van Bijsterveldt (CDA)
  Total24.06 km2 (9.29 sq mi)
  Land22.65 km2 (8.75 sq mi)
  Water1.41 km2 (0.54 sq mi)
0 m (0 ft)
 (January 2021) [4]
  Density4,573/km2 (11,840/sq mi)
  • Delftenaar
  • Delvenaar
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code 015
A 2018 map of Delft municipality. Gem-Delft-OpenTopo.jpg
A 2018 map of Delft municipality.

Delft (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdɛl(ə)ft] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. It is located between Rotterdam, to the southeast, and The Hague, to the northwest. Together with them, it is a part of both the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area and the Randstad.


Delft is a popular tourist destination in the Netherlands, famous for its historical connections with the reigning House of Orange-Nassau, for its blue pottery, for being home to the painter Jan Vermeer, and for hosting Delft University of Technology (TU Delft). Historically, Delft played a highly influential role in the Dutch Golden Age. [5] [6] [7] [8] In terms of science and technology, thanks to the pioneering contributions of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [9] [10] and Martinus Beijerinck, [11] Delft can be considered to be the birthplace of microbiology.


Early history

The Gemeenlandshuis and the Old Church, Delft, Summer by Cornelis Springer, 1877 Cornelis Springer, The Gemeenlandshuis and the Old Church, Delft, Summer (1877).jpg
The Gemeenlandshuis and the Old Church, Delft, Summer by Cornelis Springer, 1877
A map of Delft in 1649, by Joan Blaeu Antique map of Delft, Netherlands by Blaeu J. 1649.jpg
A map of Delft in 1649, by Joan Blaeu

The city of Delft came into being beside a canal, the 'Delf', which comes from the word delven, meaning to delve or dig, and this led to the name Delft. At the elevated place where this 'Delf' crossed the creek wall of the silted up river Gantel, a Count established his manor, probably around 1075. Partly because of this, Delft became an important market town, the evidence for which can be seen in the size of its central market square.

Having been a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed into a city, and on 15 April 1246, Count Willem II granted Delft its city charter. Trade and industry flourished. In 1389 the Delfshavensche Schie canal was dug through to the river Maas, where the port of Delfshaven was built, connecting Delft to the sea.

Until the 17th century, Delft was one of the major cities of the then county (and later province) of Holland. In 1400, for example, the city had 6,500 inhabitants, making it the third largest city after Dordrecht (8,000) and Haarlem (7,000). In 1560, Amsterdam, with 28,000 inhabitants, had become the largest city, followed by Delft, Leiden and Haarlem, which each had around 14,000 inhabitants.

In 1536, a large part of the city was destroyed by the great fire of Delft.

The town's association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), nicknamed William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger), took up residence in 1572 in the former Saint-Agatha convent (subsequently called the Prinsenhof). At the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years' War. By then Delft was one of the leading cities of Holland and was equipped with the necessary city walls to serve as a headquarters. In October 1573, an attack by Spanish forces was repelled in the Battle of Delft.

After the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange.

When William was shot dead on 10 July 1584 by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof (now the Prinsenhof Museum), the family's traditional burial place in Breda was still in the hands of the Spanish. Therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk (New Church), starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.

Around this time, Delft also occupied a prominent position in the field of printing.

A number of Italian glazed earthenware makers settled in the city and introduced a new style. The tapestry industry also flourished when famous manufacturer François Spierincx moved to the city. In the 17th century, Delft experienced a new heyday, thanks to the presence of an office of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) (opened in 1602) and the manufacture of Delft Blue china.

A number of notable artists based themselves in the city, including Leonard Bramer, Carel Fabritius, Pieter de Hoogh, Gerard Houckgeest, Emanuel de Witte, Jan Steen, and Johannes Vermeer. Reinier de Graaf and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek received international attention for their scientific research.


Egbert van der Poel: A View of Delft after the Explosion of 1654 Delftsedonderslag.jpg
Egbert van der Poel: A View of Delft after the Explosion of 1654
The "new" gunpowder store "Kruithuis", built in 1660 on the water of the Delftse Schie for public safety, today in use as a clubhouse Kruithuis.jpg
The "new" gunpowder store "Kruithuis", built in 1660 on the water of the Delftse Schie for public safety, today in use as a clubhouse

The Delft Explosion, also known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 [12] when a gunpowder store exploded, destroying much of the city. Over a hundred people were killed and thousands were injured.

About 30  t (29.5 long tons ; 33.1 short tons ) of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarist convent in the Doelenkwartier district, where the Paardenmarkt is now located. Cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a market in Schiedam or a fair in The Hague.

Today, the explosion is primarily remembered for killing Rembrandt's most promising pupil, Carel Fabritius, and destroying almost all of his works.

Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation.

The gunpowder store (Dutch: Kruithuis) was subsequently re-housed, a 'cannonball's distance away', outside the city, in a new building designed by architect Pieter Post.


View of Delft by Johannes Vermeer, 1660-1661 View of Delft, by Johannes Vermeer.jpg
View of Delft by Johannes Vermeer, 1660–1661
View of the horse market in Delft by Pieter Wouwerman, 1665 Pieter Wouwerman - Gezicht op de Paardenmarkt te Delft.jpg
View of the horse market in Delft by Pieter Wouwerman, 1665

The city centre retains a large number of monumental buildings, while in many streets there are canals of which the banks are connected by typical bridges, altogether making this city a notable tourist destination. [13]

Historical buildings and other sights of interest include:


Delft blue is most famous but there are other kinds of Delftware, like this plate faience in rose Delft plate faience Famille Rose 1760 1780.jpg
Delft blue is most famous but there are other kinds of Delftware, like this plate faience in rose

Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products [13] which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century. The city had an early start in this area since it was a home port of the Dutch East India Company. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles (or Royal Delft) and De Delftse Pauw, while new ceramics and ceramic art can be found at the Gallery Terra Delft. [19]

The painter Johannes Vermeer (1632–1675) was born in Delft. Vermeer used Delft streets and home interiors as the subject or background in his paintings. [13] Several other famous painters lived and worked in Delft at that time, such as Pieter de Hoogh, Carel Fabritius, Nicolaes Maes, Gerard Houckgeest and Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet. They were all members of the Delft School. The Delft School is known for its images of domestic life and views of households, church interiors, courtyards, squares and the streets of Delft. The painters also produced pictures showing historic events, flowers, portraits for patrons and the court as well as decorative pieces of art.

Delft supports creative arts' companies. From 2001 the Bacinol  [ nl ], a building that had been disused since 1951, began to house small companies in the creative arts sector. [20] Its demolition started in December 2009, making way for the new railway tunnel in Delft. The occupants of the building, as well as the name 'Bacinol', moved to another building in the city. The name Bacinol relates to Dutch penicillin research during WWII.


TU Delft buildings TU Delft buildings.jpg
TU Delft buildings

Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) is one of four universities of technology in the Netherlands. [21] It was founded as an academy for civil engineering in 1842 by King William II. Today, well over 21,000 students are enrolled. [22]

The UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, providing postgraduate education for people from developing countries, draws on the strong tradition in water management and hydraulic engineering of the Delft university.

The Hague University of Applied Sciences has a building on the Delft University of Technology campus. It opened in 2009 [23] and offers several bachelor degrees for the Faculty of Technology, Innovation & Society.

Inholland University of Applied Sciences also has a building on the Delft University of Technology campus. Several bachelor degrees for the Agri, Food & Life Sciences faculty and the Engineering, Design and Computing faculty are being taught at the Delft campus.


In the local economic field, essential elements are:

Nature and recreation

The Plantagegeer, one of Delft's several smaller city parks Delft Plantagegeer.JPG
The Plantagegeer, one of Delft's several smaller city parks

East of Delft lies a relatively large nature and recreation area called the "Delftse Hout" ("Delft Wood"). [24] Through the forest lie bike, horse-riding and footpaths. It also includes a vast lake (suitable for swimming and windsurfing), narrow beaches, a restaurant, and community gardens, plus camping ground and other recreational and sports facilities. (There is also a facility for renting bikes from the station.)

Inside the city, apart from a central park, there are several smaller town parks, including "Nieuwe Plantage", "Agnetapark", "Kalverbos". There is also the Botanical Garden of the TU and an arboretum in Delftse Hout.

Notable people

Self portrait of Jacob Willemsz Delff and his family, ca. 1590 Zelfportret van de schilder met zijn gezin Rijksmuseum SK-A-1460.jpg
Self portrait of Jacob Willemsz Delff and his family, ca. 1590
Jan Vermeer van Delft, 1656 Cropped version of Jan Vermeer van Delft 002.jpg
Jan Vermeer van Delft, 1656
portrait of Hugo Grotius, 1631 Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt - Hugo Grotius.jpg
portrait of Hugo Grotius, 1631
Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, ca. 1635 Frederik Hendrik by Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt.jpg
Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, ca. 1635
Anthonie van Leeuwenhoek, ca. 1680 Anthonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). Natuurkundige te Delft Rijksmuseum SK-A-957.jpeg
Anthonie van Leeuwenhoek, ca. 1680
Martinus Beijerinck, 1931 Martinus Willem Beijerinck.png
Martinus Beijerinck, 1931
Betsy Perk Betsy Perk.jpg
Betsy Perk
Stien Kaiser, 1968 Stien Kaiser (1968).jpg
Stien Kaiser, 1968
Ria Stalman, 1982 Ria Stalman 1982b.jpg
Ria Stalman, 1982

Delft is the birthplace of:

Dutch Golden Age

Public thinking and service

Science and business




One of the 8 different Nuna cars Nuna3atZandvoort1.JPG
One of the 8 different Nuna cars

International relations

Twin towns

Delft is twinned with: [38]


Trains stopping at these stations connect Delft with, among others, the nearby cities of Rotterdam and The Hague, as often as every five minutes, for most of the day.

There are several bus routes from Delft to similar destinations. Trams frequently travel between Delft and The Hague via special double tracks crossing the city.

The whole city center and adjacent areas are a paid on-street parking area. In 2018, with the day parking fee of 29.5 Euro, it was the most expensive on-street parking area in the Netherlands, with the city centers of Deventer and Dordrecht being second and third, respectively. [41]

See also

Delft city view Delft - Visbrug.jpg
Delft city view
"Gemeenlandshuis" Delft - building.jpg
Nieuwe Kerk (New Church) Nieuwe-Kerk-vanuit-het-westen.JPG
Nieuwe Kerk (New Church)
Legermuseum (Army museum) Legermuseum delft.jpg
Legermuseum (Army museum)
Central Market Square Delft Central Market Square.jpg
Central Market Square
City sight ("Vrouw Juttenland") Delft centre.JPG
City sight ("Vrouw Juttenland")
Huybrechtstower Huybrechtstoren delft 2.JPG
"Koornbeurs" Koornbeurs delft.jpg
Observatory Delft observatory.jpg
Former station building Delft Station.jpg
Former station building
New station building 20170720 Delft station 01.jpg
New station building
Main canal "Delftse Schie" at sundown Delftse Schie at sundown.JPG
Main canal "Delftse Schie" at sundown
Sculpture near the church Delft, het Blauwe Hart van plexiglas en staal bij de Nieuwe Kerk foto7 niet-ontwikkelt 2016-03-13.jpg
Sculpture near the church
Streetview (het Oosteinde) Delft, straatzicht Oosteinde vanaf de Molslaan foto7 2016-03-13 10.54.jpg
Streetview (het Oosteinde)
Streetview (Dertienhuizen) Delft, straatzicht Dertienhuizen-Verwersdijk foto4 2016-03-13 11.29.jpg
Streetview (Dertienhuizen)
Lutherse Kerk Delft, de Lutherse kerk in straatzicht RM11951 foto6 2016-03-13 11.55.jpg
Lutherse Kerk


  1. "Maak kennis met" [Meet.]. Burgermeester Verkerk (in Dutch). Gemeente Delft. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2020" [Key figures for neighbourhoods 2020]. StatLine (in Dutch). CBS. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  3. "Postcodetool for 2611GX". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  5. Huerta, Robert D.: Giants of Delft: Johannes Vermeer and the Natural Philosophers: The Parallel Search for Knowledge during the Age of Discovery. (Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press, 2003)
  6. Brook, Timothy: Vermeer's Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World . (Bloomsbury Press, 2009, ISBN   978-1596915992)
  7. Liedtke, Walter; Plomp, Michiel C.; Ruger, Axel; Baarsen, Reinier J.: Vermeer and the Delft School. (NYC: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013, ISBN   978-0300200294)
  8. Snyder, Laura J.: Eye of the Beholder: Johannes Vermeer, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, and the Reinvention of Seeing. (W. W. Norton & Company, 2015, ISBN   978-0393352887)
  9. Ruestow, Edward G.: The Microscope in the Dutch Republic: The Shaping of Discovery. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996)
  10. Fournier, Marian: The Fabric of Life: The Rise and Decline of Seventeenth-Century Microscopy. (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, ISBN   978-0801851384)
  11. Artenstein, Andrew W.: The discovery of viruses: advancing science and medicine by challenging dogma. (International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 16, Issue 7, July 2012, pages: e470-e473). doi : 10.1016/j.ijid.2012.03.005. Andrew W. Artenstein: "By 1895 Beijerinck had returned to academia after leaving the Agricultural School for a 10-year stint in industrial microbiology in Delft, the South Holland birthplace of van Leeuwenhoek, one of the founding fathers of microbiology. During his first years at the Technical University of Delft, Beijerinck resumed the research on tobacco mosaic disease that he had started while working with Mayer. Even then, he had appreciated that the affliction was microbial in nature, although he felt that the actual agents had yet to be discovered. Beijerinck's investigations at Delft proved fruitful; he not only confirmed the infectivity of the contagium vivum fluidum—soluble living germ—despite filtration, but he importantly demonstrated that unlike bacteria, the culprit of tobacco disease of plants was incapable of independent growth, requiring the presence of living, dividing host cells in order to replicate."
  12. "The Day the World Came to an End: the Great Delft Thunderclap of 1654". October 14, 2004.
  13. 1 2 3 4 Martin Dunford (2010). The Rough Guide to The Netherlands. Penguin. p. 169. ISBN   978-1-84836-882-8 . Retrieved 24 November 2011.
  14. "Delft, Zuid-Holland" (in Dutch). Molendatabase. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  15. "Royal Delft. Ontdek de wereld van koninklijk Delfts Blauw". Retrieved 2019-12-30.
  16. "Welcome to".
  17. "Science Centre Delft". TU Delft (in Dutch). Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  18. "Museumkids". (in Dutch). Retrieved 2020-01-02.
  19. Kitty Kilian, "10 jaar galerie Terra; Keramisch gezicht op Delft." NRC Handelsblad, 23 May 1996.
  20. "Art on the streets of Delft". Kunstwandeling Delft. Retrieved 2023-02-05.
  21. "4TU.Federation".
  22. "Studentenpopulatie". TU Delft. Archived from the original on 2021-04-22. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  23. "Vestiging Delft - De Haagse Hogeschool". Retrieved 2022-07-03.
  24. "Category:Delftse Hout" . Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  25. "Christian Kruik van Adrichem"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . Vol. 01. 1907.
  26. "Marum, Martin van"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 17 (11th ed.). 1911.
  27. "Ton Lutz". IMDb. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  28. "Mariska Hulscher". IMDb. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  29. "Depth of Field | Scherptediepte". Retrieved 2023-01-18.
  30. "Wessel van Diepen". IMDb. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  31. "Rob Das". IMDb.
  32. "Jan-Willem van Ewijk". IMDb. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  33. "Ricky Koole". IMDb. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  34. "Marly van der Velden". IMDb. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  35. "World Solar Challenge 2017". Archived from the original on 2017-10-16. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  36. "HOME". DUT23.
  37. "The Recumbent Bicycle and Human Powered Vehicle Information Center".
  38. (source: Delft municipality guide 2005)
  39. "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). © 2009 Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-28. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
  40. "Category:Spoorzone-project" . Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  41. "Parkeer Puzzel". Kampioen (in Dutch). Royal Dutch Touring Club (4): 18–21. April 2018.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antonie van Leeuwenhoek</span> Dutch scientist known as "the Father of Microbiology", and one of the first microscopists

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch microbiologist and microscopist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology. A largely self-taught man in science, he is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and one of the first microscopists and microbiologists. Van Leeuwenhoek is best known for his pioneering work in microscopy and for his contributions toward the establishment of microbiology as a scientific discipline.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Johannes Vermeer</span> Dutch painter (1632–1675)

Johannes Vermeer was a Dutch Baroque Period painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. He is acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age. During his lifetime, he was a moderately successful provincial genre painter, recognized in Delft and The Hague. He produced relatively few paintings, primarily earning his living as an art dealer. He was not wealthy at his death, leaving his wife in debt.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leiden</span> City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden has a population of 119,713, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 km (12 mi) from The Hague to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nieuwe Kerk (Delft)</span>

The Nieuwe Kerk is a Protestant church in the city of Delft in the Netherlands. The building is located on Delft Market Square (Markt), opposite to the City Hall. In 1584, William the Silent was entombed here in a mausoleum designed by Hendrick and Pieter de Keyser. Since then members of the House of Orange-Nassau have been entombed in the royal crypt. The latest are Queen Juliana and her husband Prince Bernhard in 2004. The private royal family crypt is not open to the public. The church tower, with the most recent recreation of the spire which was designed by Pierre Cuypers and completed in 1872, is the second highest in the Netherlands, after the Domtoren in Utrecht.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Esaias van de Velde</span> Dutch landscape painter (1587–1630)

Esaias van de Velde was a Dutch landscape painter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet</span> Dutch Golden Age painter

Hendrick Corneliszoon van Vliet was a Dutch Golden Age painter remembered mostly for his church interiors.

The Admiralty of Rotterdam, also called the Admiralty of de Maze, was one of the five Dutch admiralties in the Dutch Republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pieter van Ruijven</span>

Pieter Claeszoon van Ruijven has been known as Johannes Vermeer's main patron for the better part of the artist's career, but in 2023 his wife Maria de Knuijt was identified by the curators of the 2023 exhibition of Vermeer's works at the Rijksmuseum, in Amsterdam as the main patron due to her long-standing and supportive relationship with the artist. He built a sizeable estate from inheritances he and his wife received and fruitful investments. In 1669, he became the Lord of Spalant when he purchased land owned by Willem, Baron van Renesse.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jan Verkolje</span> Dutch painter (1650–1693)

Jan Verkolje or Johannes Verkolje was a Dutch painter, draughtsman and engraver. He is mainly known for his portraits and genre pieces of elegant couples in interiors and, to a lesser extent, for his religious and mythological compositions. He was a gifted mezzotint artist. Trained in Amsterdam, Verkolje spent his active professional career in Delft where he had access to powerful patrons.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bartholomeus van Bassen</span> Dutch Golden Age painter and architect

Bartholomeus Corneliszoon van Bassen (1590–1652) was a Dutch Golden Age painter and architect.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pieter Jansz van Asch</span> Dutch Golden Age painter

Pieter Jansz van Asch was a Dutch Golden Age painter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pieter van Bronckhorst</span> Dutch painter

Pieter Anthonisz van Bronckhorst or Bronkhorst, was a Dutch painter active in Delft. He was mainly an architectural painter known for his church interiors and fantasy palaces with small figures representing biblical stories. It is possible he also painted still lifes and was a staffage painter for other painters.

Pieter Jansz van Ruyven, was a Dutch Golden Age painter.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pieter Biesboer</span>

Pieter Biesboer, is a Dutch art historian and prolific writer on 17th-century Dutch art. His specialty is art from Haarlem.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bernard van Beek</span> Dutch painter (1875–1941)

Bernardus Antonie van Beek was a Dutch landscape painter. He never attended an academy. He was part of the Kortenhoef School, a sub-movement of the Hague School and is thus in the tradition of Barbizon School. From his choice of motifs, there are also influences of the Amsterdam Impressionism. His work was part of the painting event in the art competition at the 1928 Summer Olympics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chris Dagradi</span> American artist

Chris Dagradi is an American artist, who lives and works in the Netherlands since 1978. He works as painter, sculptor and ceramist.

The following is a timeline of the history of the municipality of Delft, Netherlands.


Further reading