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An ice road (ice crossing, ice bridge ) is a winter road, or part thereof, that runs on a naturally frozen water surface (a river, a lake or an expanse of sea ice) in cold regions. Ice roads allow temporary transport to isolated areas with no permanent road access. They reduce transportation cost of materials that otherwise would ship as expensive air freight, and they allow movement of large or heavy objects for which air freight is impractical.
Ice roads may be winter substitutes for summer ferry services. Ferry service and an ice crossing may operate yearly at the same time for several weeks.
Ice roads provide a flat, smooth driving surface devoid of trees, rocks, and other obstacles. They can be snow plowed, and may comprise a series of short overland portages - overland segments linking lakes. Similar to ice roads, ice runways are common in the polar regions and include the blue ice runways such as Wilkins Runway in Antarctica or lake ice runways like Doris Lake Aerodrome in the Arctic. Ice can also be used as an emergency landing surface.
In general, these roads are built in areas where construction of year-round roads is expensive due to boggy muskeg land and a number of other reasons. In the winter, these obstacles are therefore easier to cross. Ice roads, such as the stretch between Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories (no longer in use), Canada, provided an almost level driving surface with few detours several months of the year.
When frozen in winter, the waterway crossings can be built up with auger holes to flood and thicken the crossing. The act of clearing snow quickly makes ice thicker by exposing the road directly to subfreezing air (temperatures as low as −50 °C (−58 °F)). In the summer, after the ice melts, effects of the roads can still be seen from overhead in a bush plane, as bare strips remain on the lake floor where the ice blocked light and prevented plants and algae from growing.
Often there is a car ferry used in summer time. There are normally periods in spring and fall where there is too much ice for the ferry, but too little for an ice road.
While easier to drive across in the winter than land, roads over water present a great danger to anyone using them. Speeds are typically limited to 25 km/h (16 mph) to prevent a truck's weight from causing waves under the surface. These waves can damage the road, or dislodge the ice from the shoreline and create a hazard. Another hazard on large lakes is the pressure ridge, a break in the ice created by the expansion and contraction of the surface ice due to variations in temperature.
The roads are normally the domain of large trucks (e.g. tractor-trailer units), although lighter vehicles, such as pickup trucks, even small cars, can be seen, as are snowmobiles.
Use of ice as the main construction material allows unusual construction techniques: to make a ramp to get the road over a step such as the shore of a lake, for example, lake water is pumped out and mixed with snow to make slush, formed into the shape of the ramp, and allowed to quickly freeze in the intense cold. Worn and damaged roads are repaired by flooding with shallow water that freezes into a new surface layer.
The South Pole Traverse (McMurdo-South Pole highway) is approximately 1,400 km (870 mi) long and links the United States' McMurdo Station on the coast to the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station. It was constructed by leveling snow and filling in crevasses, but is not paved. There are flags to mark the route.
Also, the United States Antarctic Program maintains two ice roads during the austral summer. One provides access to Pegasus Field on the Ross Ice Shelf. The ice road between Pegasus Field and McMurdo Station is about 14 miles. The other road provides access to the Ice Runway, which is on sea ice. The road between the Ice Runway and McMurdo Station varies in length from year to year depending on many factors, including ice stability. These roads are critical for resupplying McMurdo Station, Scott Base, and Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.
Some of the first ice roads in history were built in the 1930s in northern Canada, for use by caterpillar sleds pulling heavy loads called tractor trains for mines where loads were too heavy for transport by aircraft and the soil too boggy for standard roads when the land was not frozen.Tractor-freighting was eventually phased out in the north and replaced with truck transport over well-maintained ice roads; in the far north, these were first engineered by Al Hamilton of Grimshaw Transport in the 1950s and later improved by John Denison of Byers Transport in the 1960s, and Robinson's Trucking in the 1980s.
Winter roads and ice roads in Canada are found primarily in northern parts of some provinces, as well as the sparsely-populated northern territories of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. In Nunavut, while there are a number of permanent roads within the territory, the Tibbitt to Contwoyto Winter Road, linking Nunavut to Tibbitt Lake in the Northwest Territories, forms the territory's only road access to the rest of North America's road network.
Winter roads in the Northwest Territories, most notably the Tuktoyaktuk Winter Road (which has since been replaced by an all-season highway), link various isolated communities and mineral exploration sites to the territory's highway network. One exception to the usual purpose of an ice road is the winter link between the territorial capital city of Yellowknife and the village of Detah, which crosses a branch of Great Slave Lake during the winter months; there is an all-year road linking Detah to Yellowknife, but the ice road allows for a much shorter link between the two centres during the winter.
Winter roads may also be found in the sparsely populated northernmost regions of some Canadian provinces. Most communities north of Ontario's Albany River are served by winter roads. Most of these roads in Northwestern Ontario are linked to the Northern Ontario Resource Trail, a permanent gravel road which extends northerly from the end of Highway 599 at Pickle Lake, the northernmost community in the province with year-round highway access. In Northeastern Ontario, some communities are linked to Moosonee, a town that has rail access but no road access to the south.
Saskatchewan also has an ice road in the southern part of the province at the Riverhurst Ferry.
Transport links between Russia and China rely heavily on ice roads which link border Chinese and Russian towns/cities. Because winter temperatures in the Sino-Russian border have average January minima between −20 and −25 °C (−4 and −13 °F), border rivers such as the Amur and Ussuri are well frozen by late October/early November. Russian and Chinese border trade heavily rely on the ice roads. Notable examples include the ice road linking the Chinese city of Heihe and the Russian city of Blagoveshchensk, and the ice road linking Suifenhe in China and Pogranichny.
The Estonian Road Administration is responsible for managing ice roads in winter. An ice road may be opened when ice thickness is at least 22 cm (8.7 in) along the entire route. An ice road to Piirissaar Island in Lake Peipus is opened in most years, while colder winters permit opening official ice roads on the Baltic Sea between mainland Estonia and the islands of Hiiumaa, Vormsi, Muhu and Kihnu, between the islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa and also between Haapsalu and Noarootsi. As of 2011, the longest ice road in Europe is the 26.5 km route between Rohuküla on the continent and Heltermaa in Hiiumaa. The limitations for ice road traffic include:
Ice road lengths:
The Finnish Transport Agency maintains some ice roads during winters. These roads are considered as public roads when they are open. The longest 7 km (4.3 mi) road crosses Lake Pielinen. Ice must be at least 40 cm (16 in) thick before the road may be opened. The following limits apply to ice roads:
On the severest winters ice roads have been privately constructed from the mainland of Finland to the Åland Islands and elsewhere in the Archipelago; using these is unlikely to be within any insurance policy.
Though it is not allowed to stop on these ice roads, it is common to drive off the road, park the car, and go fishing. Some cottages are also accessed during the winter by ice without any actual ice roads.
Over the Tana river there are usually two ice roads from December to April. These roads have a weight limit of 2 t (2.0 long tons; 2.2 short tons), but few other limitations. There are numerous ice roads over frozen rivers elsewhere in Norway.[ specify ]
An example of an ice road was the Road of Life across the frozen Lake Ladoga, which provided the only access to the besieged city of Leningrad in the winter months during World War II.
The Lena River has an ice road on its surface for hundreds of kilometres during the winter.
There are several border crossing points between Russia and China via the Amur River. They are ice roads in the winter months, and ferries during summer.
In the northern part of Sweden there are many ice roads. The Swedish Road Administration maintains most of them, but some private ice roads also exist. Ice roads are usually put in when ice thickness exceeds 20 cm (7.9 in). The limitations for ice road traffic normally include:
The longest ice road in Sweden, at 15 km (9.3 mi), is in the Luleå Archipelago, Bothnian Bay, in the northernmost part of the Gulf of Bothnia. It starts in the port of Hindersöstallarna and connects the islands Hindersön, Stor-Brändön, and Långön with the mainland. The ice roads in Luleå are usually open from January to April and have a weight restriction of 2–4 t (2.0–3.9 long tons; 2.2–4.4 short tons).
There are several ice roads across the lake Storsjön. The roads are usually open from January to April and have a weight restriction of 2–4 t (2.0–3.9 long tons; 2.2–4.4 short tons).
The southernmost ice road in Sweden is on Lake Hjälmaren, to Vinön Island.Due to poor ice it is not open every season.
As with all ice roads there are periods when there is too much ice for the ferry and too little for the ice road. There has been experiments with pipes blowing compressed air to the bottom, which to some extent prevents ice formation. The ice road has to be placed some distance away from the ferry route. In Sweden there is never more than 80 km (50 mi) detour to use a road with a bridge or around a bay instead of the ferry/ice road, except for some island connections, like the Holmön island, which has a ferry with better ice breaking capabilities.
There is an ice road in the continental United States on Lake Superior, linking the city of Bayfield, Wisconsin on the mainland with La Pointe, Wisconsin on Madeline Island. The road is about 2 mi (3.2 km) long and is used for several weeks in the year as replacement for the summer ferry service. When the ice is too thin to allow the construction of the road, but too thick to allow ferry service, a type of hovercraft is used to transport school children from the island to and from the mainland. In Michigan's Straits of Mackinac, seasonal ice roads also connect Mackinac Island and Bois Blanc Island with the mainland.
In Prudhoe Bay in Alaska, there is an ice road over the Arctic Ocean about 25 mi (40 km) long with a maximum speed of 10 mph (16 km/h). It is used a few months during winter to serve an oil field site on the ocean. Another ice road in Alaska is the ice road from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to Point Thomson, Alaska. The ice road is 68 mi (109 km) long and is on the Beaufort Sea; this ice road is mainly used by semi-trucks to deliver loads to serve the Point Thomson area.
There is a seasonal ice road constructed from the Kuparuk Oil Field to the Alpine oil field, which is roadless in the summer months. This road also connects to the village of Nuiqsut, on the banks of the Colville River. This road is roughly 31 mi (50 km) long and is used to resupply Alpine with critical supplies for operations as well as to transport drilling rigs.
The 2008 film Frozen River tells the story of two women who get involved with trafficking illegal immigrants from Canada into the United States by driving them across the frozen St. Lawrence River in their car.
Canada's and Alaska's ice roads were prominently featured in the History Channel show Ice Road Truckers .
Transport in Antarctica has transformed from explorers crossing the isolated remote area of Antarctica by foot to a more open era due to human technologies enabling more convenient and faster transport, predominantly by air and water, as well as land. Transportation technologies on a remote area like Antarctica need to be able to deal with extremely low temperatures and continuous winds to ensure the travelers' safety. Due to the fragility of the Antarctic environment, only a limited amount of transport movements can take place and sustainable transportation technologies have to be used to reduce the ecological footprint. The infrastructure of land, water and air transport needs to be safe and sustainable. Currently thousands of tourists and hundreds of scientists a year depend on the Antarctic transportation system.
Transport in Estonia relies mainly on road and rail networks.
The transport system of Finland is well-developed. Factors affecting traffic include the sparse population and long distance between towns and cities, and the cold climate with waterways freezing and land covered in snow for winter.
Transport in Tanzania includes road, rail, air and maritime networks. The road network is 86,472 kilometres (53,731 mi) long, of which 12,786 kilometres (7,945 mi) is classified as trunk road and 21,105 kilometres (13,114 mi) as regional road. The rail network consists of 3,682 kilometres (2,288 mi) of track. Commuter rail service is in Dar es Salaam only. There are 28 airports, with Julius Nyerere International being the largest and the busiest. Ferries connect Mainland Tanzania with the islands of Zanzibar. Several other ferries are active on the countries' rivers and lakes.
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi.
Hiiumaa is the second largest island in Estonia and is part of the West Estonian archipelago, in the Baltic Sea. It has an area of 989 km2 and is 22 km from the Estonian mainland. Its largest town is Kärdla. It is located within Hiiu County.
McMurdo Sound and its ice-clogged waters extends about 55 kilometres (34 mi) long and wide. The sound connects the Ross Sea to the north with the Ross Ice Shelf cavity to the south via Haskell Strait. The strait is largely covered by the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The Royal Society Range rises from sea level to 4,205 metres (13,796 ft) on the western shoreline. Ross Island, an historic jumping-off point for polar explorers, designates the eastern boundary. The active volcano Mount Erebus at 3,794 metres (12,448 ft) dominates Ross Island. Antarctica's largest scientific base, the United States' McMurdo Station, as well as the New Zealand Scott Base are on the southern shore of the island. Less than 10 percent of McMurdo Sound's shoreline is free of ice. It is the southernmost navigable body of water in the world.
The United States Antarctic Program is an organization of the United States government which has presence in the continent of Antarctica. Founded in 1959, the USAP manages all U.S. scientific research and related logistics in Antarctica as well as aboard ships in the Southern Ocean.
Muhu, is an island in the West Estonian archipelago of the Baltic Sea. With an area of 198 km2 (76 sq mi) it is the third largest island belonging to Estonia, after Saaremaa and Hiiumaa.
Kihnu is an island in the Baltic Sea. With an area of 16.4 km2 (6.3 sq mi) it is the largest island in the Gulf of Riga and the seventh largest island of Estonia. The length of the island is 7 km (4.3 mi) and width 3.3 km (2.1 mi), the highest point is at 8.9 metres (29.2 ft) above sea level.
Williams Field or Willy Field is a United States Antarctic Program airfield in Antarctica. Williams Field consists of two snow runways located on approximately 8 meters (25 ft) of compacted snow, lying on top of 8–10 ft of ice, floating over 550 meters (1,800 ft) of water. The airport, which is approximately seven miles from Ross Island, serves McMurdo Station and New Zealand's Scott Base. Until the 2009–10 summer season, Williams was the major airfield for on-continent aircraft operations in Antarctica.
Transportation in North America is performed through a varied transportation system, whose quality ranges from being on par with a high-quality European motorway to an unpaved gravelled back road that can extend hundreds of miles. There is also an extensive transcontinental freight rail network, but passenger railway ridership is lower than in Europe and Asia.
Manilaid is a 1.87 km2 (0.72 sq mi) Estonian islet in the Gulf of Riga, located between the island of Kihnu and the mainland's Tõstamaa peninsula. Together with the neighbouring smaller uninhabited islets Sorgu and Annilaid, Manilaid forms the village of Manija. Administratively the village belongs to Tõstamaa Parish in Pärnu County.
Tibbitt to Contwoyto Winter Road is an annual ice road first built in 1982 to service mines and exploration activities in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Northern Canada. Between 400 and 600 km long, the road is said to be the world's longest heavy haul ice road and operates for eight to ten weeks starting in the last week of January. Most of the road (85%–87%) is built over frozen lakes, 495 km (308 mi), with the remaining 73 km (45 mi) built on over 64 land portages between lakes. The ice road was the location of the first season of Ice Road Truckers.
A360 Lena Highway or The Amur-Yakutsk Highway is a federal highway in Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in Russia, connecting Yakutsk with the Trans-Siberian Railway corridor near Skovorodino. The road was built in stages between 1925 and 1964.
This is a list of Ice Road Truckers Season 1 episodes.
This is a list of Ice Road Truckers Season 2 episodes.
Rohuküla is a village in Ridala Parish, Lääne County, in western Estonia. It is a seaport connecting the mainland with the islands of Hiiumaa and Vormsi. During winter there are two ice roads from the village to the two islands, the one to Hiiumaa being Europe's longest, at 26.5km.
Rukkirahu is a small, uninhabited island in the Baltic Sea belonging to the country of Estonia.
TS Laevad is an Estonian ferry company which operates two routes between the Estonian mainland and the islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa in the Baltic Sea. It is a fully owned subsidiary of the Port of Tallinn, which is in turn owned by the Estonian state.
§ 65. Traffic on an ice roadCS1 maint: location (link)
(4) On an ice road, the doors of a vehicle shall be easily opened.
(5) Every driver and all the passengers shall have their safety belts unfastened.
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