Three-level diamond interchange

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Three-level diamond diagram. Arrows are for traffic driving on the right. Volleyball Interchange Diagram.gif
Three-level diamond diagram. Arrows are for traffic driving on the right.

A three-level diamond interchange is a type of highway interchange where through traffic on both main roads is grade-separated from intersections which handle transferring traffic. [1] It is similar in design to a three-level stacked roundabout except for its use of (usually signalled) conventional intersections, and can be thought of as two diamond interchanges fused together.

Interchange (road) road junction, typically using grade separation

In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, and typically one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from other crossing traffic streams. It differs from a standard intersection, where roads cross at grade. Interchanges are almost always used when at least one road is a controlled-access highway or a limited-access divided highway (expressway), though they are sometimes used at junctions between surface streets.

Grade separation type of road junction

Grade separation is a method of aligning a junction of two or more surface transport axes at different heights (grades) so that they will not disrupt the traffic flow on other transit routes when they cross each other. The composition of such transport axes does not have to be uniform; it can consist of a mixture of roads, footpaths, railways, canals, or airport runways. Bridges, tunnels, or a combination of both can be built at a junction to achieve the needed grade separation.

Intersection (road) A road junction where two or more roads either meet or cross at grade

An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more roads or streets meet or cross. Intersections may be classified by number of road segments, traffic controls, and/or lane design.


Road enthusiasts sometimes use the terms volleyball interchange or split-level diamond interchange to refer to these interchanges. [2]


A roadgeek is an individual involved in "roadgeeking" or "road enthusiasm"—an interest in roads, and especially going on road trips, as a hobby. A person with such an interest is also referred to as a road enthusiast, road buff, roadfan or Roads Scholar, the latter being a play on the term Rhodes Scholar.


In a three-level diamond interchange, the two main roads are on separate levels, and on a third level, usually in the middle, there is a square of one-way roads. The square circulates clockwise where traffic drives on the left, or anticlockwise where it drives on the right. At each corner of the square is the terminal of an exit ramp from one main road and an entrance ramp to the other main road.

Traffic transferring from one road to the other to make an overall right turn only passes through one corner of the square, at which point a right turn is made. Transfer traffic making an overall left turn must proceed straight through the first intersection it encounters, turn left at the next, and then proceed straight through a third intersection to enter the other main roadway.

Its two-level variant is the split diamond interchange.

Its at-grade variant is the town center intersection (TCI).


LocationFirst RouteSecond RouteNotes
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United StatesI-380.svg I-380 Elongated circle 100.svg Iowa 100 Collector/distributor roads intersect.
Detroit, Michigan, United StatesI-75.svg I-75 (Walter P. Chrysler Freeway)M-102.svg M-102 (8 Mile Road)I-75 uses frontage roads
M-1.svg M-1 (Woodward Avenue)M-102.svg M-102 (8 Mile Road)
M-10.svg M-10 (John C. Lodge Freeway)M-102.svg M-102 (8 Mile Road)Includes slip ramps from northbound M-10 to westbound M-102, eastbound M-102 to southbound M-10, and westbound M-102 to northbound M-10. M-10 uses frontage roads
Redford Township, Michigan, United StatesI-96.svg I-96 (Jeffries Freeway)US 24.svg US 24 (Telegraph Road)I-96 uses frontage roads
Jefferson City, Missouri, United StatesUS 50.svgUS 63.svg US 50 / US 63 northboundUS 54.svgUS 63.svg US 54 / US 63 southboundA flyover ramp has been added to allow westbound US 54 traffic to join US 50 east, bypassing one intersection. This addition necessitates the use of a nearby city street to transfer from westbound US 50 to westbound US 54.
Asheville, North Carolina, United StatesI-240.svg I-240 US 70.svg US 70 I-240 exit 7
High Point, North Carolina, United StatesI-74.svgUS 311.svg I-74 / US 311 Business Loop 85.svgUS 29.svgUS 70.svg I-85 Bus. / US 29 / US 70 I-74 exit 71B
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United StatesOklahoma State Highway 74.svg SH-74 Kilpatrick Turnpike.svg Kilpatrick Turnpike A flyover ramp has been added to allow westbound Kilpatrick Turnpike traffic to join State Highway 74 south, bypassing one intersection.
Marple Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, United StatesI-476.svg I-476 US 1.svg US 1 I-476 exit 5
Robinson Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania, United StatesTurnpike-576.svg PA Turnpike 576 US 22.svg US 22 PA 576 exit 6; partially completed, temporary terminus of PA 576
Frisco, Texas, United StatesToll Texas 121 new.svg SH 121 Toll Texas 289.svg SH 289 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Richardson, Texas, United StatesUS 75.svg US 75 Spring Valley RoadIncludes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Round Rock, Texas, United StatesUS 79.svg US 79 Toll Texas 130 new.svg SH 130 Toll Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Sherman, Texas, United StatesUS 75.svg US 75 US 82.svg US 82 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Waco, Texas, United StatesUS 84.svg US 84 Texas 6.svg SH 6 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Alexandria, Virginia, United StatesI-395.svg I-395 ( Shirley Highway )Seminary RoadI-395 exit 4
Fairfax County, Virginia, United StatesVirginia 286.svg SR 286 ( Fairfax County Parkway )US 29.svg US 29 The south end of West Ox Road also meets this interchange.
Welch, West Virginia, United StatesUS 52.svg US 52 ( King Coal Highway )US 121.svg US 121 ( Coalfields Expressway )As of 2011, grading has been completed for interchange but interchange itself has not been constructed.
Wheeling, West Virginia, United StatesI-470.svg I470 US 250.svgWV-2.svg US 250 / WV 2 Entire interchange is elevated above city streets.
Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, United StatesUS 45 (WI).svg US 45 WIS 190.svg WIS 190 (Capitol Drive)An access road for the adjacent Harley-Davidson plant is also part of the interchange.
Belmont, Queensland, AustraliaAustralian Alphanumeric State Route M1.PNG Gateway Motorway ( State Route M1 )Australian state route 22.svg Old Cleveland Road (State Route 22)Two of the ramps are two-way for a short distance to allow access from the interchange to and from local streets.
Düsseldorf-Stockum, Germany Autobahn 44 Bundesstraße 8 At 51°16′16.9″N6°45′1.8″E / 51.271361°N 6.750500°E / 51.271361; 6.750500 ; rare design in Germany

Many examples of this interchange type can also be found in Texas; however, the interchanges almost always include the frontage roads as well. If the traffic amounts increase, the interchange is usually converted into a stack interchange, also as the second level of the High Five Interchange.

Frontage road Type of road

A frontage road is a local road running parallel to a higher-speed, limited-access road. A frontage road is often used to provide access to private driveways, shops, houses, industries or farms. Where parallel high-speed roads are provided as part of a major highway, these are also known as local-express lanes.

Stack interchange

A stack interchange, or colloquially butterfly junction, is a particular, free-flowing type of design for interchanges, meaning grade-separated road junctions. It is referred to as a directional interchange in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.

High Five Interchange interchange in Dallas, Texas

The High Five Interchange is one of the first five-level stack interchanges built in Dallas, Texas. Located at the junction of the Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway and the Central Expressway, it replaces an antiquated partial cloverleaf interchange constructed in the 1960s.

Related Research Articles

An overpass is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway. An overpass and underpass together form a grade separation. Stack interchanges are made up of many overpasses.

Cloverleaf interchange type of road interchange

A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level interchange in which left turns are handled by ramp roads. To go left, vehicles first continue as one road passes over or under the other, then exit right onto a one-way three-fourths loop ramp (270°) and merge onto the intersecting road. The objective of a cloverleaf is to allow two highways to cross without the need for any traffic to be stopped by red lights, even for left and right turns. The limiting factor in the capacity of a cloverleaf interchange is traffic weaving.

Diamond interchange common type of road junction

A diamond interchange is a common type of road junction, used where a freeway crosses a minor road.

Single-point urban interchange highway interchange design

A single-point urban interchange, also called a single-point interchange (SPI) or single-point diamond interchange (SPDI), is a type of highway interchange. The design was created in order to help move large volumes of traffic through limited amounts of space safely and efficiently.

Partial cloverleaf interchange modification of a cloverleaf interchange

A partial cloverleaf interchange or parclo is a modification of a cloverleaf interchange.

Interstate 380 (I-380) is a 73-mile (117 km) auxiliary Interstate Highway in eastern Iowa. The route extends from Interstate 80 near Coralville to Waterloo. I-380 connects the cities of Cedar Rapids and Waterloo, the state's second- and sixth-largest cities, respectively, to the Interstate Highway System. Except for its last 1 12 miles (2.4 km) north of U.S. Route 20 (US 20), I-380 runs concurrently with Iowa Highway 27 (Iowa 27), which represents Iowa's portion of the 560-mile (900 km) Avenue of the Saints highway connecting St. Louis, Missouri, with St. Paul, Minnesota.

Diverging diamond interchange

A diverging diamond interchange (DDI), also called a double crossover diamond interchange (DCD), is a type of diamond interchange in which the two directions of traffic on the non-freeway road cross to the opposite side on both sides of the bridge at the freeway. It is unusual in that it requires traffic on the freeway overpass to briefly drive on the opposite side of the road from what is customary for the jurisdiction. The crossover "X" sections can either be traffic-light intersections or one-side overpasses to travel above the opposite lanes without stopping, to allow nonstop traffic flow when relatively sparse traffic.

In the field of road transport, a turnaround is a type of junction that allows traffic traveling in one direction on a road to efficiently make a U-turn typically without backing up or making dangerous maneuvers in the middle of the traffic stream. While many junction types permit U-turns, the term turnaround often applies to road junctions built specifically for this purpose.

The Ngauranga Interchange is a major interchange in the suburb of Ngauranga, in Wellington City, New Zealand. The Ngauranga interchange connects State Highways 1 and 2 with each other and also to Hutt Road for access to the interisland ferry terminals and alternative access to Wellington City. The majority of traffic in and out of Wellington City uses this interchange.

Interstate 90 Business may refer to several business routes of the Interstate Highway System that connects Interstate 90 with the central business district of various cities bypassed by I-90. Each business route can be either a business loop or a business spur, depending on whether both ends connect to I-90. The business route in each community is considered a unique route. In many cases, these routes are a former section of a U.S. Route.

Interstate 74 (I-74) is the central freeway through the Iowa Quad Cities. It roughly divides Davenport to the west and Bettendorf to the east. The Interstate Highway begins at an interchange with Interstate 80 (I-80) at the northeastern edge of Davenport and continues into Illinois at the Mississippi River by crossing the I-74 Bridge. The freeway was built in stages during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

A wide variety of road signs is displayed in the People's Republic of China. China's traffic signs also closely followed those used in the UK and Japan, China's traffic signs used Highway Gothic font just like the US.

Interstate business routes are roads connecting a central or commercial district of a city or town with an Interstate bypass. These roads typically follow along local streets often along a former U.S. route or state highway that had been replaced by an Interstate. Interstate business route reassurance markers are signed as either loops or spurs using a green shield shaped and numbered like the shield of the parent Interstate highway.

Road signs in Indonesia

Road signs in Indonesia are standardised road signs similar to those used in other nations but with certain distinctions. As a former Dutch colony, until the 1970s road signs in Indonesia closely followed The Netherlands rules on road signs. Nowadays Indonesian road sign design are a mix of Dutch, German, The American MUTCD, New Zealand, and Japanese road sign features. According to the 2014 Minister of Transportation's Regulation No. 13 concerning Traffic Signs, the official typeface for road signs in Indonesia is Clearview. Indonesia formerly used FHWA Series fonts as the designated typeface though the rules are not being implemented properly.

Bowers Hill Interchange

The Bowers Hill interchange is a large interchange complex where the Hampton Roads Beltway intersects with Interstate 264 (I-264) as well as Military Highway, which carries the three U.S. Highways. It is named for the unincorporated community surrounding it, Bowers Hill, Virginia, which itself is a part of the independent city of Chesapeake.

Glossary of road transport terms Wikimedia list article

Terminology related to road transport—the transport of passengers or goods on paved routes between places—is diverse, with variation between dialects of English. There may also be regional differences within a single country, and some terms differ based on the side of the road traffic drives on. This glossary is an alphabetical listing of road transport terms.

Dozens of business routes of Interstate 84 (I-84) exist. The existing and former business routes are located along the western and eastern segments of I-84.


  1. Indiana Department of Transportation, "Interchanges" (PDF). (203  KiB), pages 21 and 22
  2. Oglesby, Scott. "Volleyball Interchange". Kurumi's Field Guide to Interchanges. Retrieved 23 August 2013.[ self-published source ]