Three-level diamond interchange

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Three-level diamond diagram. Arrows are for traffic driving on the right. Volleyball Interchange Diagram.gif
Three-level diamond diagram. Arrows are for traffic driving on the right.

A three-level diamond interchange is a type of highway interchange where through traffic on both main roads is grade-separated from intersections which handle transferring traffic. [1] It is similar in design to a three-level stacked roundabout except for its use of (usually signalled) conventional intersections, and can be thought of as two diamond interchanges fused together.

Contents

Road enthusiasts sometimes use the terms volleyball interchange or split-level diamond interchange to refer to these interchanges. [2]

Description

In a three-level diamond interchange, the two main roads are on separate levels, and on a third level, usually in the middle, there is a square of one-way roads. The square circulates clockwise where traffic drives on the left, or anticlockwise where it drives on the right. At each corner of the square is the terminal of an exit ramp from one main road and an entrance ramp to the other main road.

Traffic transferring from one road to the other to make an overall right turn only passes through one corner of the square, at which point a right turn is made. Transfer traffic making an overall left turn must proceed straight through the first intersection it encounters, turn left at the next, and then proceed straight through a third intersection to enter the other main roadway.

Its two-level variant is the split diamond interchange.

Its at-grade variant is the town center intersection (TCI).

Examples

LocationFirst RouteSecond RouteNotes
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United StatesI-380.svg I-380 Elongated circle 100.svg Iowa 100 Collector/distributor roads intersect.
Detroit, Michigan, United StatesI-75.svg I-75 (Walter P. Chrysler Freeway)M-102 rectangle.svg M-102 (8 Mile Road)I-75 uses frontage roads
M-1.svg M-1 (Woodward Avenue)M-102 rectangle.svg M-102 (8 Mile Road)
M-10.svg M-10 (John C. Lodge Freeway)M-102 rectangle.svg M-102 (8 Mile Road)Includes slip ramps from northbound M-10 to westbound M-102, eastbound M-102 to southbound M-10, and westbound M-102 to northbound M-10. M-10 uses frontage roads
Redford Township, Michigan, United StatesI-96.svg I-96 (Jeffries Freeway)US 24.svg US 24 (Telegraph Road)I-96 uses frontage roads
Jefferson City, Missouri, United StatesUS 50.svgUS 63.svg US 50 / US 63 northboundUS 54.svgUS 63.svg US 54 / US 63 southboundA flyover ramp has been added to allow westbound US 54 traffic to join US 50 east, bypassing one intersection. This addition necessitates the use of a nearby city street to transfer from westbound US 50 to westbound US 54.
Asheville, North Carolina, United StatesI-240.svg I-240 US 70.svg US 70 I-240 exit 7
High Point, North Carolina, United StatesI-74.svgUS 311.svg I-74 / US 311 Business Loop 85.svgUS 29.svgUS 70.svg I-85 Bus. / US 29 / US 70 I-74 exit 71B
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United StatesOklahoma State Highway 74.svg SH-74 Kilpatrick Turnpike.svg Kilpatrick Turnpike A flyover ramp has been added to allow westbound Kilpatrick Turnpike traffic to join State Highway 74 south, bypassing one intersection.
Marple Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, United StatesI-476.svg I-476 US 1.svg US 1 I-476 exit 5
Robinson Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania, United StatesTurnpike-576.svg PA Turnpike 576 US 22.svg US 22 PA 576 exit 6; partially completed, temporary terminus of PA 576
Austin, Texas, United StatesUS 183.svg US 183 Texas Loop 275.svg Loop 275 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Dallas, Texas, United StatesTexas Loop 12.svg Loop 12 (Buckner Boulevard)I-30.svgUS 67.svg I-30 / US 67 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Del Valle, Texas, United States71 Toll Lane free.svg 71 Toll Lanes Toll Texas 130 new.svg SH 130 Toll Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange. A flyover ramp was added to allow eastbound SH 71 traffic to join SH 130 north.
El Paso, Texas, United StatesUS 62.svg US 62 (East Paisano Drive)I-110.svg I-110 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Frisco, Texas, United StatesToll Texas SRT new.svg Sam Rayburn Tollway Texas 289.svg SH 289 (Preston Road)Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange (signed as SH 121 for the first route)
Houston, Texas, United StatesTexas 6.svgTexas FM 1960.svg SH 6 / FM 1960 US 290.svg US 290 (Northwest Freeway)Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange. A flyover ramp was added to allow northbound SH 6 traffic to join U.S. 290 east.
Texas Beltway 8.svg Beltway 8 Hardy Toll Road.svg Hardy Toll Road Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange. A flyover ramp was added to allow eastbound Beltway 8 traffic to join Hardy Toll Road north.
Texas FM 1960.svg FM 1960 Hardy Toll Road.svg Hardy Toll Road Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange.
Fort Bend Toll Road.svg Fort Bend Tollway Sam Houston Tollway.svg Sam Houston Tollway Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange (signed as Hillcroft Avenue and Beltway 8, respectively, for the first and second routes).
Fort Bend Parkway Toll Road Texas 6.svg SH 6 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange.
Grand Parkway Toll Road Fort Bend Westpark Tollway Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange (signed as SH 99 and F.M. 1093, respectively, for the first and second routes). A flyover ramp was added to allow southbound Grand Parkway traffic to join Westpark Tollway east.
I-10.svg I-10 (Katy Freeway)Texas 6.svg SH 6 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange.
I-45.svg I-45 (North Freeway)Texas FM 1960.svg FM 1960 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange.
I-45.svg I-45 (North Freeway)Greens RoadIncludes frontage roads at-grade with interchange.
Memorial DriveHouston AvenueIncludes frontage roads at-grade with interchange.
Sam Houston Tollway.svg Sam Houston Tollway US 90.svg US 90 (Crosby Freeway)Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange (signed as Beltway 8 for the first route).
Sam Houston Tollway.svg Sam Houston Tollway Alt plate.svg
US 90.svg Alt. US 90
Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange (signed as Beltway 8 for the first route).
Texas 249.svg SH 249 (Tomball Parkway)Texas FM 1960.svg FM 1960 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange.
Lubbock, Texas, United StatesUS 62.svgUS 82.svg US 62 / US 82 Texas Loop 289.svg Loop 289 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchanges.
US 84.svg US 84 I-27.svgUS 87.svg I-27 / US 87
Texas Loop 289.svg Loop 289 I-27.svgUS 87.svg I-27 / US 87
Texas Loop 289.svg Loop 289 US 82.svgTexas 114.svg US 82 / SH 114
Midland, Texas, United StatesTexas Loop 250.svg Loop 250 No image wide.svgBusiness plate.svg
Texas 158.svgTexas 158.svg SH 158 / Bus. SH 158
Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange. The western terminus for Business SH 158 is at this interchange. Eastbound SH 158 merges with southbound Loop 250.
Pasadena, Texas, United StatesSam Houston Tollway.svg Sam Houston Tollway Texas 225.svg SH 225 (Pasadena Freeway)Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange (signed as Beltway 8 for the first route).
Richardson, Texas, United StatesUS 75.svg US 75 Spring Valley RoadIncludes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Round Rock, Texas, United StatesUS 79.svg US 79 Toll Texas 130 new.svg SH 130 Toll Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Sherman, Texas, United StatesUS 75.svg US 75 US 82.svg US 82 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Sugar Land, Texas, United StatesI-69.svgUS 59.svg I-69 / US 59 Alt plate.svg
US 90.svg Alt. US 90
Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Tomball, Texas, United StatesToll Texas 99 new.svg SH 99 Toll (Grand Parkway)Tomball Tollway.svg Tomball Tollway Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange (signed as SH 249 for the second route).
Tyler, Texas, United StatesToll Texas 49 new.svg Loop 49 Toll I-20.svg I-20 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange.
Waco, Texas, United StatesUS 84.svg US 84 Texas 6.svg SH 6 Includes frontage roads at-grade with interchange
Alexandria, Virginia, United StatesI-395.svg I-395 ( Shirley Highway )Seminary RoadI-395 exit 4
Fairfax County, Virginia, United StatesVirginia 286.svg SR 286 ( Fairfax County Parkway )US 29.svg US 29 The south end of West Ox Road also meets this interchange.
Welch, West Virginia, United StatesUS 52.svg US 52 ( King Coal Highway )US 121.svg US 121 ( Coalfields Expressway )As of 2011, grading has been completed for interchange but interchange itself has not been constructed.
Wheeling, West Virginia, United StatesI-470.svg I-470 US 250.svgWV-2.svg US 250 / WV 2 Entire interchange is elevated above city streets.
Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, United StatesUS 45 (WI).svg US 45 WIS 190.svg WIS 190 (Capitol Drive)An access road for the adjacent Harley-Davidson plant is also part of the interchange.
Belmont, Queensland, AustraliaAustralian Alphanumeric State Route M1.PNG Gateway Motorway ( State Route M1 )Australian state route 22.svg Old Cleveland Road (State Route 22)Two of the ramps are two-way for a short distance to allow access from the interchange to and from local streets.
Düsseldorf-Stockum, Germany Autobahn 44 Bundesstraße 8 At 51°16′16.9″N6°45′1.8″E / 51.271361°N 6.750500°E / 51.271361; 6.750500 ; rare design in Germany

Many examples of this interchange type can also be found in Texas; however, the interchanges almost always include the frontage roads as well. If the traffic amounts increase, the interchange is usually converted into a stack interchange, also as the second level of the High Five Interchange.

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Indiana Department of Transportation, "Interchanges" (PDF). (203  KiB), pages 21 and 22
  2. Oglesby, Scott. "Volleyball Interchange". Kurumi's Field Guide to Interchanges. Retrieved 23 August 2013.[ self-published source ]