Bombardier Transportation

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Bombardier Transportation
Wholly owned subsidiary (of Bombardier Inc.)
IndustryRail vehicle manufacturing
FateSale to Alstom pending
Founded1974;46 years ago (1974)
Headquarters Berlin, Germany
Key people
Danny Di Perna (President)
Products Locomotives
High-speed trains
Intercity and commuter trains
People movers
Signalling systems
RevenueUS$8.8 billion (2013); [1] US$9.6 billion (2014) [2]
Number of employees
Parent Bombardier Inc.

Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian multinational firm Bombardier Inc.. It is one of the world's largest companies in the rail vehicle and equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Headquartered in Berlin, Germany, Bombardier Transportation has many regional offices, production and development facilities worldwide. [3] [4] In February 2020, Bombardier announced an agreement for Alstom to purchase the entire rail transportation division. [5]


Bombardier Transportation produces a wide range of products including passenger rail vehicles, locomotives, bogies, propulsion and controls.

Danny Di Perna is the president and chief operating officer of Bombardier Transportation. [6] In February 2020, the company had 36,050 employees, and 63 manufacturing and engineering locations around the world. [7]


20th century

1970s: Formation and first orders

Bombardier Transportation's first order for mass transit rolling stock was in 1974 for the Société de transport de Montréal (STM) (Montreal transport authority) to build metro trains for the Montreal Metro. [8]

The core of the Transportation group was formed with the purchase of Montreal Locomotive Works (MLW) in 1975.

1980s: Expansion to the US, France and Belgium

With the 1975 purchase, Bombardier acquired MLW's LRC (Light, Rapid, Comfortable) tilting train design which it produced in the 1980s. In 1987, Bombardier bought the assets of US railcar manufacturers Budd and Pullman-Standard.

In the late 1980s Bombardier Transportation gained a manufacturing presence in Europe with the acquisition of a 45% share in BN Constructions Ferroviaires et Métalliques [8] (whose principal site was in Brugge (Bruges), Belgium) in 1986, and the acquisition of ANF-Industries (whose principal site was in Crespin, France, near the Belgian border) in 1989. [8]

1990s: Expansion to Mexico, Germany and the UK

In 1990, Procor Engineering Ltd. of Horbury near Wakefield, UK; a manufacturer of bodyshells, was acquired, [8] and renamed Bombardier Prorail. [9]

In 1991 the group purchased Urban Transportation Development Corporation (UTDC) from the Government of Ontario, which had previously acquired Hawker Siddeley Canada [ citation needed ]. MLW was sold to General Electric in 1988. GE ended railcar operations in Canada in 1993. Bombardier Transportation continues to operate the railcar operations in Thunder Bay.[ citation needed ]

In 1991 the grouping Bombardier Eurorail was formed consisting of the company's European subsidiaries; BN, ANF-Industrie, Prorail, and BWS. [10] [11] In 1992, the company acquired Mexico's largest railway rolling-stock manufacturer, Concarril, from the Mexican government. [12]

In 1995 Waggonfabrik Talbot KG in Aachen, Germany, and in 1998, Deutsche Waggonbau AG (DWA), and Ateliers de Constructions Mécaniques de Vevey in Vevey, Switzerland, [13] were acquired. [8] DWA encompassed the major portion of the railway equipment industry of the former East Germany ("Kombinat Schienenfahrzeugbau"), and had its principal sites in Bautzen and Görlitz.[ citation needed ]

21st century

2000s: Western world's largest rail-equipment manufacturer

In 2001 Bombardier Transportation acquired Adtranz from DaimlerChrysler, and became by many measurements the Western world's largest rail-equipment manufacturer. [14] The takeover was approved by the EU competition commission subject to a number of minor clauses including the divestment of Bombardier's stake in Adtranz/Stadler joint venture Stadler Pankow GmbH (sold to Stadler Rail), and an agreement to retain Kiepe as a supplier, and ELIN as a partner for a number of years after the acquisition. [15] The addition of ADtranz made Bombardier a manufacturer of locomotives along with its existing product lines of passenger carriages, multiple-unit trains, and trams. With the acquisition of ADtranz, Bombardier also gained competence in the electrical propulsion components business.[ citation needed ]

After the Adtranz acquisition in 2001, Bombardier Transportation moved its core manufacturing strategy for Europe with a few legacy plants in North America for the smaller North American market: [16]

Additionally a number of plants would have specialised manufacturing roles, including Česká Lípa (Czech Republic) and the Pafawag facility in Poland which would supply parts and welded structures, and sites in Vienna (Austria) and Bautzen (Germany) which would specialise in light rail vehicle (LRV) manufacture whilst double deck trains for the German market would be manufactured in Görlitz. Other sites had their work mandate reduced in scope, or were closed. [17] [18]

In 2004 due to overcapacity in the European passenger train industry, Bombardier announced a restructuring program resulting in the closure of several plants; in the UK, the bogie production site at Pride Park, Derby, Bombardier Prorail (Wakefield), and a maintenance facility in Doncaster were closed; in mainland Europe, the plants at Pratteln, Kalmar and Amadora were to be closed, [19] as well as plants in Ammendorf and Vetschau in eastern Germany which had been slated for closure in 2001. [17] [19]

2010s: Global operations and consolidations

In late 2012 Bombardier announced the closure of the Bombardier Talbot plant in Aachen, and a reduction in workforce in the transportation division of 1,200 people. [20] [21]

The company obtained two major orders in 2014: San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) ordered an additional 365 rail cars from Bombardier in early 2014, to be assembled at Bombardier's plant in Plattsburgh, New York; [22] Transport for London (United Kingdom) awarded a £1.3 billion contract to provide 70 Aventra trains for Crossrail, and included the building of a maintenance depot at Old Oak Common. [23]

In May 2014 Bombardier extended its presence in Australia by purchasing a 100% stake in Rail Signalling Service (RSS), an Australian company focused on designing and constructing rail signalling solutions. [24] In Sep 2014 the downsizing and eventual closure of the Maryborough factory was announced, [25] the factory closed in Dec 2015. [26]

In January 2015 the government of Hungary nationalised the loss-making and under-utilised Bombardier carriage works at Dunakeszi (Bombardier MÁV Kft., Hungarian), acquiring a 64.9% stake for $7.8 million. [27]

Former headquarters in 2016 Bombardier Transportation Berlin headquarters facade.jpg
Former headquarters in 2016

In May 2015 the parent company Bombardier Inc. announced that it intended to split or spin-off Bombardier Transportation as a separate publicly traded company, while retaining control as the majority owner. [28] Lutz Bertling, president and CEO of Bombardier Transportation stated that a primary motivation for the sell off was to increase the company's financial flexibility, for potential acquisitions or consolidations, allowing the company to better compete with an anticipated Chinese presence in the European market. [29] An IPO was planned for late 2015. [30] In late 2015 the public investor Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (CDPQ) acquired a US$1.5 billion stake in Bombardier Transportation in the form of a bond/equity hybrid, with the shares returned to CDPQ dependent on the financial performance of the company. The investment initially representing a 30% stake - a valuation of $5 billion. The sale was required in part to continue the financing of the parent company's CSeries jet, a major cause of a $4.6billion loss for the parent company in 2015. [31] [32]

In late 2015 the National Railway Company of Belgium awarded a Bombardier/Alstom consortium a large €3.3 billion contract for 1,362 M7 doubledecker passenger rail vehicles, with a value to Bombardier of around €2.1 billion. [33]

In August 2016 Bombardier opened a 6,000 square metres (65,000 sq ft) production facility in Isando, Johannesburg, South Africa. The site was specialised for the production of electric traction equipment (Mitrac). [34]

In December 2016 citing a 'challenging market environment', Bombardier said that a 'strategic realignment' would put 'a strong focus on product standardisation and site specialisation in order to become more efficient and effective'. Up to 2,200 jobs are expected to go, with the German plants in Hennigsdorf, Görlitz and Bautzen reportedly most affected. [35]

By 2018, Bombardier was the 3rd largest rail-equipment manufacturer in the Western World and fourth globally, eclipsed by CRRC, Siemens and Alstom. [36] [37] [38]

Planned sale to Alstom SA

On February 13, 2020, the multi-national train maker Alstom SA, based in France, agreed to buy the Bombardier Transportation division and signed a Memorandum of Agreement to do so for between €5.8 billion and €6.2 billion. The deal required approval by Alstom shareholders at a meeting to be held in October 2020 and approval by European regulators. Bombardier's major shareholder, Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, had already agreed to the sale. [39] [40]

Products and services

Metro rolling stock

MBTA Red Line train (Boston Subway) RedLineCharlesMGH.jpg
MBTA Red Line train (Boston Subway)
CTA 5000 (Chicago, Illinois) 20150302 27 CTA Green Line L @ Cermak McCormick Place.jpg
CTA 5000 (Chicago, Illinois)
R142 car (NYC Subway) NYCSubway6476.jpg
R142 car (NYC Subway)
London Underground 2009 Stock (Victoria Line) London Underground 2009 Stock front.jpg
London Underground 2009 Stock (Victoria Line)
Delhi Metro broad gauge train, manufactured by Bombardier. DMRC Bombardier.jpg
Delhi Metro broad gauge train, manufactured by Bombardier.
Toronto TR subway car Toronto Rocket.JPG
Toronto TR subway car
Bombardier Innovia Metro 300 car at Vancouver Skytrain Bombardier ART Mark III - Skytrain - Stadium.jpg
Bombardier Innovia Metro 300 car at Vancouver Skytrain

Bombardier's standard metro vehicles are the mid-sized fully automated and driverless Bombardier Innovia Metro with the option for linear induction motor propulsion or a conventional rotary motor, and the high-capacity customizable Movia Metro, which is powered by conventional motors and can also be fully automated. In addition, Bombardier has produced many custom metro models not based on either model.

Mainline Trains


Trams and light rail vehicles


LRC locomotive VIA 6917 at Newtonville, ON on October 5, 1987 (22815421456).jpg
LRC locomotive

Bombardier's locomotives are mostly linked to their acquisition of Adtranz and Montreal Locomotive Works, as well as joint venture with Alstom. Via the acquisition of Adtranz, Bombardier was able to obtain some cornerstone technologies, such as the three-phase drive technology developed by plant in Mannheim, which is the worldwide center of competence for the development of locomotives.

TRAXX electric locomotive BLS 485 006.jpeg
TRAXX electric locomotive

Other than the LRC, all other locomotives were based on European designs.

Passenger carriages

Via LRC coach VIA1.JPG
Via LRC coach
Multi-level car NJ Transit Multilevel 7014 on Train 6651.jpg
Multi-level car
Comet III car NJTR 5003 on Train 3896.jpg
Comet III car

Regular-speed multiple-unit trains

Talent DMU Talent 644 Duisdorf Stellwerk.jpg
Talent DMU
Electrostar constructed for South Africa's Gautrain Gautrain-in-depot-retouched.JPG
Electrostar constructed for South Africa's Gautrain

High-speed trains

Acela Express train AmtrakAcela2035atNewHavenUnion.jpg
Acela Express train

People movers

Bombardier also supplies propulsion units, train-control systems, bogies, and other parts, and maintains train fleets.


In addition to manufacturing a wide variety of passenger rail vehicles and locomotives, Bombardier Transportation provides services for commuter train providers.


Bombardier Transportation has production facilities or product development in:

Deutsche Bahn

In early 2013, Deutsche Bahn announced that it was suing Bombardier for €350 million because of some serious defects in trains used on the suburban S-Bahn rail network in Berlin. This was in addition to the €160 million it was asking for from Bombardier because of problems with more than 200 regional trains operating in southern Germany and problems with the brakes in regional and local trains in Munich. [59] The matter was settled out of court in March 2015. Lutz Bertling, head of Bombardier's transportation division at the time, confirmed the two firms had come to an agreement, saying: "The settlement is a positive signal for our future cooperation." [60]


In January 2015, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) reported [61] [62] [63] that South Korea's Special Investigation Unit for anti-corruption produced a report accusing Bombardier Transportation of corruption in the pursuit of the 2004 contract to build an 18 km elevated Light Rapid Transit (LRT) rail system called the Everline connecting the Giheung Station on the Bundang (Yellow Line) of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway system to a large amusement park named Everland, via Yongin, the 12th largest city in South Korea, about 30 km from central Seoul.

The investigation report alleges that Bombardier provided gifts and trips to Canada for civil servants and politicians involved in the contract decision, which was based on revenue expected from an inflated estimate of 180,000 passengers per day using the service. It also alleges that Bombardier created a $2-million slush fund for the Canadian citizen Kim Hak-Pil, a high-ranking Bombardier executive in South Korea. Bombardier has consistently denied the corruption allegations, stating that "They were not pleasure trips. There is a need to convince the people that our technology works well.... If it had been corruption, they would have charged us." The statute of limitations has now expired, due to lack of evidence according to Bombardier.

Everline operation has been financially troubled since construction was completed in 2010. [64] The system remained dormant until service began in 2013 [65] while the line owner successfully negotiated with the city of Yongin a minimum revenue guarantee of 29.5 billion KRW [66] per year regardless of passenger load. [67] This is said to be a serious burden for the city because ridership is reported to have risen to only about 20,000 passengers per day on the 30 carriages, or about a quarter of the maximum possible capacity of the fleet in a 12-hour day. A reason suggested for this is the fare of 1100 KRW (about US$1 in 2015); it is impossible to pay for Everline trips via a transfer surcharge on a connecting subway ticket. A 2014 web page [68] of a Seoul tour service retailer makes no mention of the Everline among the suggested modes of bus transport between Seoul and Everland. A lawyer who filed legal action on behalf of the citizens of Yongin is reported to have provided details about Bombardier's pursuit of the contract. He said that "between 2003 and 2005, Bombardier funded three luxurious trips to Canada to each of 37 people" including 18 Yongin city councillors on so-called "LRT field trips". [61] [62]

Two Toronto Flexity streetcars passing through Bolton, Ontario - late - on their way from Thunder Bay to Toronto on December 7, 2018. TorontoFlexityStreetcarsOnCPTrainBolton2018Dec07.jpg
Two Toronto Flexity streetcars passing through Bolton, Ontario – late – on their way from Thunder Bay to Toronto on December 7, 2018.

Toronto Transit Commission

On 16 October 2015, the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) announced that it has asked its board to consider legal action against Bombardier. TTC staff is recommending that the TTC board "commence legal action, or make a claim allowed for already in the contract, of $50 million for late delivery" against Bombardier. Bombardier had committed to delivering 67 custom-built Flexity Outlook streetcars to the TTC by October 2015 for its streetcar system, but only 10 were in service at the time. [69] [70]

On 28 October 2015, the TTC board voted in favour of a lawsuit against Bombardier "for at least $50 million to recoup lost costs", according to Chair Josh Colle, because of the company's failure to deliver the additional new streetcars. [71]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Bombardier Innovia APM people mover

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