Transport Canada

Last updated
Transport Canada
Transports Canada
Transport Canada - Transports Canada Logo.svg
Transport Canada HQ place de ville tower C.jpg
Place de Ville Tower "C", the headquarters of Transport Canada
Department overview
Formed1935 (as Department of Transport)
Type Department responsible for Transportation
Jurisdiction Canada
Headquarters330 Sparks St, Ottawa, ON K1A 0N5, Canada
45°25′9.8″N75°42′17.84″W / 45.419389°N 75.7049556°W / 45.419389; -75.7049556 Coordinates: 45°25′9.8″N75°42′17.84″W / 45.419389°N 75.7049556°W / 45.419389; -75.7049556
Employees5,066 (4,839 Indeterminate, 89 Term > 3 months, 138 Casual)
Minister responsible

Transport Canada (French : Transports Canada) is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations, policies and services of road, rail, marine and air transportation in Canada. It is part of the Transportation, Infrastructure and Communities (TIC) portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Omar Alghabra. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario. [1]



The Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine, and the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence (c. 1927 when it replaced the Air Board) under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation (air, water and land). He created a National Harbours Board and Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936.

Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway, airports and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail. Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, and the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations.

In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security.


Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada also has regional headquarters in:



TC Inspector.jpg

Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act , Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others. Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. [5] These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada.


The Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department also acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial (and territorial) transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways.

TC also manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. [6]

Killed victims per 100 000 peopleKilled victims per billion travelled km


Transport Canada's role in railways include:

Following allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country. Transport Canada, which is managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry, especially with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. [7] On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law which was a response to the Rail Freight Service Review's Final Report. [8]


Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada. These responsibilities include:

As of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergency Response (Oil pollution)

Transport Canada Marine Safety (TCMS) is the division under Transport Canada that maintains and enhances marine safety and work to protect life, health, property and the marine environment. This includes providing services that are mandated by acts and regulations such as certification for Canadian seafarers and related professionals. [9]


A TC Cessna 550 Citation II Transport Canada - Cessna 550 Citation II C-FJXN.jpg
A TC Cessna 550 Citation II

Transport Canada's role in aviation seems to be the most detailed. Until 1996, Transport Canada was responsible for both regulation of aviation and the operation of air traffic services, as well as the operation of most major airports. On November 1, 1996, these responsibilities were split: Transport Canada remains responsible for regulation (through the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) and Standards [10] ), and a new regulated non-profit company, NAV CANADA, took over responsibility for all civilian air traffic services. This change was (and remains) controversial within the private aviation sector because NAV CANADA began charging for services that were previously funded through a specific tax on aviation gasoline. The specific tax remains but separate charges are levied by NAV CANADA. In 2005, the United States was discussing a similar delegation of the FAA's air traffic services to an "arm's-length" government corporation.

During the 1990s, Transport Canada also began privatizing the operation of large airports, and divesting itself of small airports altogether (typically handing them over to municipalities). Following the 1994 National Airports Policy, Transport Canada retains ownership of most airports with 200,000 or more annual passenger movements, as well as the primary airports serving the federal, provincial, and territorial capitals, but leases most of these airports (which make up the National Airports System) to outside operators; currently, there are 26 airports in the system, of which 22 are operated by 21 Airport Authorities, an example of which is the Greater Toronto Airports Authority.

In 2003, Transport Canada launched its Electronic Collection of Air Transportation Statistics [11] program to collect passenger and cargo data in real-time from air carriers flying in Canada. ECATS will expand into the field of general aviation during 2008. Transport Canada also collects data on all accidents and incidents, no matter how minor, using the Civil Aviation Daily Occurrence Reporting System (CADORS). [12]

Transport Canada continues to be responsible for licensing pilots and other aviation specialists (such as dispatchers and mechanics) as well as registering and inspecting aircraft. It is also responsible for the safety certification and continuous safety oversight of most forms of commercial operations. These responsibilities are carried out by 6 regions, Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, Prairie & Northern, Pacific and the sixth region based in Ottawa (National Capital Region) is responsible for air operators operating international flights and certain types of large aeroplanes. The Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) are also under Transport Canada control.

The Canadian Air Transport Security Authority is a Crown corporation that reports to parliament through the Minister of Transport. [13] It is responsible for the protection of specific elements of the air transportation system – from passenger and baggage screening to screening airport workers. [13] In spring 2017 CATSA and the Canada Border Services Agency began their roll-out "as part of a broader effort to modernize and streamline clearance procedures at Canadian airports" of the self-service border clearance kiosks programme, under which Canadian travellers are subject to facial recognition technology upon re-entry to the country. It was expected that as a cost-cutting measure the programme was to reduce the number of civilian interactions with civil servants. [14]

Transport Canada Bell 407 Helicopter C-FMOT Bell 407, Transport Canada AN1021863.jpg
Transport Canada Bell 407 Helicopter C-FMOT

Civil Aviation Authority

Transport Canada's Civil Aviation (TCCA) Directorate is Canada's civil aviation authority. [15] It has existed since 1936, when civil aviation was transferred from the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence.

Based in Ottawa, the Directorate has regional offices across Canada in geographical regions:

Air accident investigation

Prior to 1990, Transport Canada was responsible for aircraft incident investigation through:

After 1990, the role was transferred over to Transportation Safety Board of Canada.

Surveillance fleet

De Havilland Canada DHC-8-102 Dash 8 2736427 transport canada.jpg
De Havilland Canada DHC-8-102 Dash 8

Recent controversies

Transport Canada has been the centre of a number of controversies in recent years. In September 2009, the CBC's Fifth Estate produced a report "Riding on Risk", which detailed alleged mismanagement and cover-ups in Transport Canada. The story was sparked by a lost memory stick which was found by a journalism student. The memory stick contained many documents showing efforts by security inspectors to enforce aviation security regulations, and the perceived failure of management to do so. The CBC report also detailed the alleged reprisals — and fear of reprisals — against whistleblowers and other employees. [18]

Transport Canada's move to Safety Management Systems (SMS) in its regulation of civil aviation has been criticised. Whistleblower Hugh Danford, a former inspector at Transport Canada, went on record [19] criticizing this approach, indicating that it would increase risk to the flying public. Critics have warned that introducing SMS to the aviation sector is "a recipe for disaster". [20] However, the aviation accident rate in Canada declined over a number of years to 2008. [21]

The rail industry in Canada, which has had SMS since 2001 and is also regulated by Transport Canada, had shown a marked increase in accidents under this regulatory scheme to 2006. [22]

Several Transport Canada senior executives, including Assistant Deputy Minister, Safety and Security, Marc Grégoire, were sued in 2008 for reprisals against another whistleblower, Ian Bron. [23] who reported that the Marine Security framework was riddled with gaps. [24]

On 23 December 2013, it was revealed that a Transport Canada inspector had been dismissed for falsifying departmental reports. The identity of the guilty party was not revealed, because of a concern for his or her privacy. [25]

The Canadian Association of Journalists [26] nominated Transport Canada for its Secrecy Award for a second time in 2008, indicating that a bill to amend the Aeronautics Act will cause "a veil of secrecy [to] fall over all information reported by airlines about performance, safety violations, aviation safety problems and their resolution." [27]

In September 2009, Transport Canada was alleged to have fraudulently charged expenses to the non-existent Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project. [28] This story came to light after repeated efforts by access to information expert Ken Rubin, and repeated denials by the department that the incriminating documents existed or that any impropriety had occurred. [29]

Transport Canada was criticized in 2008 for its refusal to approve electrical cars manufactured in Canada. [30]

In 2017, Transport Canada proposed regulations for drones that were widely criticized. [31] [32]

As a result of the Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 crash and the Lion Air Flight 610 crash, which occurred five months prior to the Ethiopian crash, most airlines and countries began grounding the Boeing 737 MAX 8 (and in many cases all MAX variants) due to safety concerns, but Transport Canada declined to temporarily ground Boeing 737 Max 8 operating in Canada. [33] [34] However, on 13 March, Transport Canada reversed the decision and grounded all 737 MAX 8 and MAX 9 aircraft. [35] [36]

See also

The provinces and territories also have their own transportation departments, namely to deal with roads and vehicle licensing and regulations:

Related Research Articles

Transportation in Canada Overview of transportation in Canada

Transportation in Canada, the world's second-largest country in total area, is dedicated to having an efficient, high-capacity multimodal transport spanning often vast distances between natural resource extraction sites, agricultural and urban areas. Canada's transportation system includes more than 1,400,000 kilometres (870,000 mi) of roads, 10 major international airports, 300 smaller airports, 72,093 km (44,797 mi) of functioning railway track, and more than 300 commercial ports and harbours that provide access to the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans as well as the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway. In 2005, the transportation sector made up 4.2% of Canada's GDP, compared to 3.7% for Canada's mining and oil and gas extraction industries.

Federal Aviation Administration United States Government agency dedicated to civil aviation matters

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the largest modern transportation agency and a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, and the protection of U.S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization.

Aviation accidents and incidents Aviation occurrence involving serious injury, death, or destruction of aircraft

An aviation accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft, which takes place from the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until all such persons have disembarked, and in which a) a person is fatally or seriously injured, b) the aircraft sustains significant damage or structural failure, or c) the aircraft goes missing or becomes completely inaccessible. Annex 13 defines an aviation incident as an occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or could affect the safety of operation.

The Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) investigates civil aircraft accidents and serious incidents within the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and crown dependencies. The AAIB is a branch of the Department for Transport and is based in the grounds of Farnborough Airport, England.

The Minister of Transport is a Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet. The minister is responsible for overseeing the federal government's transportation regulatory and development department, Transport Canada, as well as Canada Post, the Saint Lawrence Seaway, Nav Canada, and the Port Authority system. Since 12 January 2021, the position has been held by Omar Alghabra of the Liberal Party.

The following list outlines the structure of the Government of Canada.

Transportation Safety Board of Canada

The Transportation Safety Board of Canada, officially the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board is the agency of the Government of Canada responsible for advancing transportation safety in Canada. It is accountable to Parliament directly through the President of the Queen’s Privy Council and the Minister of Intergovernmental and Northern Affairs and Internal Trade. The independent agency investigates accidents and makes safety recommendations in four modes of transportation: aviation, rail, marine and pipelines.

Silk Way Airlines is an Azerbaijani private cargo airline with its head office and flight operations at Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku. It operates freight services linking Europe and Asia, United States and Africa, as well as services for government and non-governmental organisations.

KF Cargo

Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter trading as KF Cargo and Kelowna Flightcraft trading as KF Maintenance and Engineering is a cargo airline based in Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada. It operates long term cargo charters for couriers and freight companies, forest fire patrols, and aircraft sales and leasing in Canada and worldwide. It also provides maintenance and aircraft manufacturing services.

Calm Air

Calm Air International LP. is a full service airline, offering passenger, charter and freight services in northern Manitoba and the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut. It is owned by Exchange Income Corporation with its main base in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Canadian Air Transport Security Authority

The Canadian Air Transport Security Authority is the Canadian Crown Corporation responsible for security screening of people and baggage and the administration of identity cards at the 89 designated airports in Canada. CATSA is answerable to Transport Canada and reports to the Government of Canada through the Minister of Transport.

Sunwing Airlines

Sunwing Airlines Inc. is a Canadian low-cost airline headquartered in the Etobicoke district of Toronto, Ontario.

The Ministry of Civil Aviation of Government of India is the nodal Ministry responsible for the formulation of national policies and programmes for development and regulation of Civil Aviation and for devising and implementing schemes for the orderly growth and expansion of civil air transport. Its functions also extend to overseeing airport facilities, air traffic services and carriage of passengers and goods by air. The Ministry also administers implementation of the Aircraft Act, 1934, Aircraft Rules, 1937 and is administratively responsible for the Commission of Railways Safety.

Flair Airlines Low-cost airline of Canada

Flair Airlines is a Canadian low-cost airline headquartered in Edmonton, Alberta, with its main hub at the Edmonton International Airport. The company operates scheduled domestic passenger services and charters in Canada, USA, and internationally.

Canadian Transportation Agency

The Canadian Transportation Agency is an independent administrative tribunal of the Government of Canada that makes decisions relating to federally regulated modes of transportation. Its headquarters are in the Jules Léger Building (South) in Terrasses de la Chaudière, Gatineau, Quebec.


Enerjet is a charter airline with its headquarters at Calgary International Airport in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It transports oil sand workers to job sites in Alberta, and contracts out to tour and holiday operators. The airline commenced operations in the fall of 2008.

Ministry of Transport (Malaysia)

The Ministry of Transport, abbreviated MOT, is a ministry of the Government of Malaysia that is responsible for transport: road transport, civil aviation, marine, road safety, port authority, railway assets, maritime, air accident investigation, logistic, maritime safety, shipping, rail transport, airport, airline.

Boeing 737 MAX groundings Worldwide grounding of the Boeing 737 MAX following two fatal crashes in five months

The Boeing 737 MAX passenger airliner was grounded worldwide between March 2019 and December 2020 – longer in many jurisdictions – after 346 people died in two crashes, Lion Air Flight 610 on October 29, 2018 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 on March 10, 2019. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) resisted grounding the aircraft until March 13, when it received evidence of accident similarities. By then, most other regulators had already grounded the aircraft. By March 18, all 387 aircraft were banned from service.

Boeing 737 MAX certification

The Boeing 737 MAX was certified in March 2017 by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). After two fatal crashes, Lion Air Flight 610 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, global regulators grounded the MAX in March 2019. Both crashes were linked to the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS), a new flight control law.

Chrono Aviation

Chrono Aviation Inc., and its wholly owned subsidiary Chrono Jet Inc., is a charter airline headquartered at Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport. It operates aircraft in passenger, cargo and combi roles. It has bases at Montreal Saint-Hubert Longueuil Airport, Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport and Rimouski Aerodrome. It has over 265 employees.


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  3. "Our Deputy Minister" . Retrieved 1 May 2016.
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  16. "Aviation Photo Search".
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  31. "Flying your drone safely and legally".
  32. "Canadian recreational drone users have basically been grounded".
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