Italian: Pontificio Seminario Romano Maggiore
|Founder||Pope Pius IV|
|Diocese of Rome|
|Rector||Gabriele Faraghini, jc|
The Pontifical Roman Major Seminary (Italian : Pontificio Seminario Romano Maggiore) is the major seminary of the Diocese of Rome. It is located at the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran. Since 2017, the rector of the seminary has been Gabriele Faraghini, a priest of the Little Brothers of Jesus Caritas. 
The Council of Trent in its 23rd session decreed the establishment of diocesan seminaries. The Roman Seminary was established by Pope Pius IV in 1565. Although its administration was entrusted to the Society of Jesus, and the pupils studied at the Collegio Romano, founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1551, these students were intended to serve as diocesan priests in Rome, rather than join the Jesuits.  Over the course of time the Roman Seminary occupied a number of different locations. 
The residence was changed several times before 1608, when they settled in the Palazzo Borromeo in the Via del Seminario (now 'Collegio Bellarmino', a residence for Jesuit priests, students at the Gregorian University). Each year, at Pentecost, a student delivered a discourse on the Holy Ghost in the papal chapel. 
After the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773, direction of the seminary was under the care of diocesan priests and installed in the Collegio Romano of the Jesuits. After the changes in 1798 the number of the students, generally about 100, came down to 9. Pope Pius VII restored the seminary which continued to occupy the Collegio Romano until 1824, when Pope Leo XII returned this building to the Jesuits and transferred the seminary to the Palazzo di Sant'Apollinare, formerly occupied by the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum; the seminary, however, retained its own schools comprising a classical course, and a faculty of philosophy and theology, to which in 1856 a course of canon law was added. The direction of the seminary and, as a rule, the chairs were reserved to the secular clergy. After the departure of the Jesuits in 1848 the seminary again removed to the Collegio Romano. 
The Roman Seminary included not only young men who had already decided to become priests, but also younger boys still not sure of their vocation, and while the training of the former concentrated on the need for study and the practice of strict piety, the second needed a different formation, with training and pious exercises appropriate to their age.
On 29 June 1913, Pope Pius X issued the Apostolic Constitution "In præcipuis", promulgating the new regulations concerning the training of the Roman and Italian clergy. The Roman Seminary was divided into major and minor sections. The major seminary merged with the Pontificio Seminario Pio and the Seminario Lombardo dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo and became the Pontificio Seminario Romano Maggiore (Pontifical Roman Major Seminary), with headquarters in a new building at the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran. The law department was transferred to the Collegio Leoniano, but remained a school of the Seminary. The minor seminary merged with the Vatican Seminary to form the Pontificio Seminario Romano Minore. The Lombardo was merged temporarily with the Roman Seminary from 1913 to 1920, when it was re-established as a separate college.
The Collegio Cerasoli with four burses for students of the Diocese of Bergamo endowed by Cardinal Cerasoli, is connected with the seminary. The students take part in the ceremonies in the church of the Seminario Pio.
Gregory XV, Clement IX, Innocent XIII, Clement XII, and John XXIII received part of their formation in this seminary.
During the Second World War, the Lateran and its related buildings provided a safe haven from the Nazis and Italian Fascists for numbers of Jews and other refugees. Among those who found shelter there were Alcide De Gasperi, Pietro Nenni, Giorgio Del Vecchio, and others. The Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul and the sixty orphan refugees they cared for were ordered to leave their convent on the Via Carlo Emanuele. The Sisters of Maria Bambina, who staffed the kitchen at the Pontifical Major Roman Seminary offered a wing of their convent. The grounds also housed Italian soldiers.  Fathers Vincenzo Fagiolo and Pietro Palazzini, vice-rector of the seminary, were recognized by Yad Vashem for their efforts to assistance Jews.  
On 28 October 1958, the election of Angelo Roncalli, a former pupil of the Roman Seminary, as Pope John XXIII was a source of joy for the seminary community. John XXIII expressed his appreciation and support for the Seminary by visiting it on 27 November 1958, just one month after his election as Pope.
In 2013 the enrollment was seventy seminarians.  The course of study is six years. The first two years correspond to philosophy studies oriented to self-understanding and discernment, and to understanding the self and the vocation. In the third year the seminarian takes the formal decision to enter Orders. In the remaining three years (lectorate, acolythate, diaconate) the role of the pastor is gradually emphasized. Twice a week students participate in pastoral activities in Rome in parishes, hospitals, prisons, and centers of assistance. 
The patroness of the Pontifical Major Roman Seminary is the Blessed Virgin Mary under the title Our Lady of Confidence. Pope John Paul II started the custom of a papal visit to the seminary on her feast day, the last Saturday before Lent. 
The Archbasilica Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist in the Lateran, also known as the Papal Archbasilica of Saint John [in] Lateran, Saint John Lateran, or the Lateran Basilica, is the Catholic cathedral church of the Diocese of Rome in the city of Rome, and serves as the seat of the bishop of Rome, the pope. The archbasilica lies outside of Vatican City proper, which is located approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to the northwest. Nevertheless, as properties of the Holy See, the archbasilica and its adjoining edifices enjoy an extraterritorial status from Italy, pursuant to the terms of the Lateran Treaty of 1929. Laterano (Lateran) comes from an ancient Roman family (gens), whose palace (domus) grounds occupied the site; the Lateran Palace was the primary residence of the pope until the Middle Ages.
The Pontifical Gregorian University is a higher education ecclesiastical school located in Rome, Italy.
The properties of the Holy See are regulated by the 1929 Lateran Treaty signed with the Kingdom of Italy. Although part of Italian territory, some of them enjoy extraterritoriality similar to those of foreign embassies.
The Lateran Palace, formally the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran, is an ancient palace of the Roman Empire and later the main papal residence in southeast Rome.
The Roman College was a school established by St. Ignatius of Loyola in 1551, just 11 years after he founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). It quickly grew to include classes from elementary school through university level and moved to several successive locations to accommodate its burgeoning student population. With the patronage of Pope Gregory XIII, the final seat of the Roman College was built in 1584 near the center of Rome's most historic Pigna district, on what today is called Piazza del Collegio Romano, adding the church of St. Ignatius in 1626, and a renowned observatory in 1787. The college remained at this location for 286 years until the revolutionary Capture of Rome in 1870.
The Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, or simply Collegium Germanicum, is a German-speaking seminary for Catholic priests in Rome, founded in 1552. Since 1580 its full name has been Pontificium Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum de Urbe. It is located on the Via di San Nicola da Tolentino.
Pietro Palazzini was an Italian Cardinal, who helped to save the lives of Jewish people in World War II. He was consecrated bishop by the pope in 1962 and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1973. He has been commemorated by Yad Vashem. From 1980 to 1988, Cardinal Palazzini was Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.
The Pontificio Collegio Filippino, officially named the Pontificio Collegio Seminario de Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buen Viaje, is a college for diocesan priests from the Philippines studying at pontifical universities in Rome, Italy.
The Pontifical Lateran University, also known as Lateranum, is a pontifical university based in Rome. The university also hosts the central session of the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and Family. The university is known as "The Pope's University". Its Grand Chancellor is the Vicar General to the Holy Father for the Diocese of Rome. As of 2014 the Pontifical Lateran university had students from more than a hundred countries. It is also sometimes also known as the Pontifical University of Apollinaire.
Our Lady of Confidence, also known as La Madonna della Fiducia or Our Lady of Trust, is a venerated image of the Blessed Virgin Mary enshrined at the Lateran Basilica. The feast of Our Lady of Confidence falls on the last Saturday prior to Lent.
Vincenzo Fagiolo was an Italian cardinal and President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts from 1990 until 1994.
The Roman Colleges, also referred to as the Pontifical Colleges in Rome, are institutions established and maintained in Rome for the education of future ecclesiastics of the Catholic Church. Traditionally many were for students of a particular nationality. The colleges are halls of residence in which the students follow the usual seminary exercises of piety, study in private, and review the subjects treated in class. In some colleges there are special courses of instruction but the regular courses in philosophy and theology are given in a few large central institutions, such as Pontifical Urbaniana University, the Pontifical Gregorian University, the Pontifical Lateran University, and the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.
The Pontifical Latin American College is one of the Roman Colleges of the Roman Catholic Church, for students from Central and South America. A pontifical college in Rome is a hostel for student priests who pursue higher ecclesiastical studies in various Church universities and institutes.
The Diocese of Rome, also called the Vicariate of Rome, is the ecclesiastical district under the direct jurisdiction of the Pope, who is Bishop of Rome and hence the supreme pontiff and head of the worldwide Catholic Church. As the Holy See, the papacy is a sovereign entity with diplomatic relations, and civil jurisdiction over the Vatican City State located geographically within Rome. The Diocese of Rome is the metropolitan diocese of the Province of Rome, an ecclesiastical province in Italy. The first bishop of Rome was Saint Peter in the first century. The incumbent since 13 March 2013 is Pope Francis.
Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare is a former pontifical university in Rome, named after St. Apollinaris of Ravenna. Its facilities are now occupied by the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross.
Pope Pius XII's response to the Roman razzia, or mass deportation of Jews, on October 16, 1943 is a significant issue relating to Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust. Under Mussolini, no policy of abduction of Jews had been implemented in Italy. Following the capitulation of Italy in 1943, Nazi forces invaded and occupied much of the country, and began deportations of Jews to extermination camps. Pius XII protested at diplomatic levels, while several thousand Jews found refuge in Catholic networks, institutions and homes across Italy, including in Vatican City and Pope Pius' Summer Residence. The Catholic Church and some historians have credited this rescue in large part to the direction of Pope Pius XII. However, historian Susan Zuccotti researched the matter in detail and discovered that although the pope was aware of the Holocaust, he did not issue a rescue order. Zuccotti states that there is "considerable evidence of papal disapproval of the hiding of Jews and other fugitives in Vatican properties."
Augusto Paolo Lojudice is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who has been Archbishop of Siena-Colle di Val d'Elsa-Montalcino since 2019. He was named Bishop of Montepulciano-Chiusi-Pienza in July 2022.
The Pontifical Lombard Seminary of Saints Ambrose and Charles in Urbe is an ecclesiastical institution that serves as a residence for and trains diocesan priests who have been sent to Rome by their bishop to pursue an advanced degree or follow a specialized course of study at one of the pontifical universities there.
Francesco Bertoglio was an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who was Rector of the Pontifical Lombard Seminary in Rome for more than twenty-five years and later Auxiliary Bishop of Milan. During World War II he sheltered dozens of Jews and political refugees and helped them evade capture by the Nazis.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Roman Colleges". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
More information on the Seminary (Pontificio Seminario Romano Maggiore) and its history is available at its website in Italian @ http://www.seminarioromano.it/ and in English translation @ https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=http://www.seminarioromano.it/&ei=W9AAT4X2L8HX0QGdspC5Ag