Garibald I of Bavaria

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Garibald I (also Garivald; Latin : Garibaldus; born 540) was Duke (or King) of Bavaria from 555 until 591. [1] He stands at the head of the Agilolfings and the Bavarian Dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of the Lombards.

Agilolfings noble family

The Agilolfings were a noble family that ruled the Duchy of Bavaria on behalf of their Merovingian suzerains from about 550 until 788. A cadet branch of the Agilolfings also ruled the Kingdom of the Lombards intermittently from 616 to 712. They are mentioned as the leading dynasty in the Lex Baiuvariorum. Their Bavarian residence was at Regensburg.

Kingdom of the Lombards former country

The Kingdom of the Lombards also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy, was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century. The king was traditionally elected by the highest-ranking aristocrats, the dukes, as several attempts to establish a hereditary dynasty failed. The kingdom was subdivided into a varying number of duchies, ruled by semi-autonomous dukes, which were in turn subdivided into gastaldates at the municipal level. The capital of the kingdom and the center of its political life was Pavia in the modern northern Italian region of Lombardy.

Contents

Biography

After the death of the Merovingian king Theudebald of Austrasia, his successor Chlothar I had "begun to have intercourse with" [2] his widow Waldrada (531–572), daughter of the Lombard king Wacho. Chlothar's bishops objected, so he gave Waldrada to Garibald to marry in 556. Not only did this grant Garibald prestige, but it created lasting political ties between the Bavarii and the Lombards of Pannonia and Bohemia. This would have consequences after the Lombards moved into Italy in 568.

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for three centuries in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul and the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. The semi legendary Merovech was supposed to have founded the Merovingian dynasty, but it was his famous grandson Clovis I who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule.

Theudebald King of Rhiems

Theudebald or Theodebald, son of Theudebert I and Deuteria, was the king of Metz, Rheims, or Austrasia—as it's variously called—from 547 or 548 to 555.

Austrasia

Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian Kingdom of the Franks during the 6th to 8th centuries. It was centred on the Meuse, Middle Rhine and the Moselle rivers, and was the original territory of the Franks, including both the so-called Salians and Rhineland Franks, which Clovis I conquered after first taking control of the bordering part of Roman Gaul, now northern France, which is sometimes described in this period as Neustria.

Some time before 585, the Merovingian court attempted to bind Duke Garibald more closely to their interests by arranging a marriage between his daughter Theodelinda and King Childebert II of Austrasia. At the same time the Merovingians were attempting to normalise relations with Authari, the Lombard king, by arranging a marriage between Childebert's sister and Authari. Both these proposals fell through. The offended Authari was engaged to Theodelinda in 588. Fearing an anti-Frankish axis, the Franks sent an army into Bavaria. Garibald's children Gundoald and Theodelinda fled to Italy. Authari married Theodelinda in May 589 and named his brother-in-law, Gundoald, Duke of Asti. In 590, the Franks invaded Lombardy with help from Byzantium, but were defeated.

Theodelinda Queen of Italy (589–616)

Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards, was the daughter of duke Garibald I of Bavaria.

Childebert II King of Austrasia

Childebert II (c.570–595) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia from 575 until his death in 595, as the eldest son of Sigebert I, and the king of Burgundy from 592 to his death, as the adopted son of his uncle Guntram.

Authari 6th-century Lombard king

Authari was king of the Lombards from 584 to his death. He was considered as the first Lombard king to have adopted some level of "Roman-ness" and introduced policies that led to drastic changes particularly in the treatment of the Romans and Christianity.

In 591, Childebert normalised relations with the Lombards and Bavarii. After King Authari died in 590, the Lombard dukes asked Theodelinda to marry again. She chose Authari's cousin Agilulf as her husband, and he was accepted as the next king. They then negotiated a peace with Childebert which lasted for decades. According to Paulus Diaconus, peace with Bavaria was restored when Childebert named Tassilo rex (king). It is unknown whether Garibald was deposed or died. Nor is it clear what Tassilo's relationship to Garibald was; though if not his son, he was certainly a close relation.

Agilulf Lombard king

Agilulf called the Thuringian, was a duke of Turin and king of the Lombards from 591 until his death.

Tassilo I was King of Bavaria from 591 to his death. According to Paul the Deacon, he was appointed as Bavarian rex by Childebert II, Frankish king of Austrasia, in 591, ending the war with the Franks. The war began during the reign of Tassilo's predecessor, Garibald I, when Garibald concluded a marriage alliance with the Lombards. We do not know whether Garibald died or was deposed. Nor do we know Tassilo's exact relationship to Garibald, though we can assume Tassilo was a close relation if not his son. The fact that Childebert named Tassilo king shows Frankish control over the Bavarian state.

Sources

Gregory of Tours Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours

Gregory of Tours was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum, better known as the Historia Francorum, a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Notes

  1. Paul the Deacon (1907), History of the Langobards (Historia Langobardorum), William Dudley Foulke, trans. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania), III, x, calls him "king of the Bavarians". The mid-thirteenth-century Series Ducum Bavariæ calls him Garibaldus rex, see Cawley, Charles (August 2012), BAVARIA, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, [ self-published source ][ better source needed ].
  2. "History of the Franks" IV.9, by Gregory of Tours
Preceded by
New creation
Duke of Bavaria
555–591
Succeeded by
Tassilo I

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Chlothar II King of Neustria

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Wacho was king of the Lombards before they entered Italy from an unknown date until his death in 539. His father was Unichis. Wacho usurped the throne by assassinating his uncle, King Tato. Tato's son Ildchis fought with him and fled to the Gepids where he died. Wacho had good relations with the Franks.

The Bavarian dynasty was those kings of the Lombards who were descended from Garibald I, the Agilolfing duke of Bavaria. They came to rule the Lombards through Garibald's daughter Theodelinda, who married the Lombard king Authari in 588. The Bavarians were really a branch of the Agilolfings, and were themselves two branches: the branch descended in the female line through Garibald's eldest child and daughter, Theodelinda, and the branch descended from Garibald's eldest son Gundoald. Of the first branch, only Adaloald, Theodelinda's son by her second husband, whom she had chosen to be king, Agilulf, reigned, though her son-in-law Arioald also ruled. Through Gundoald, six kings reigned in succession, broken only by the usurper Grimuald, who married Gundoald's granddaughter:

Waldrada (531–572), widow (firstly) of Theudebald, King of Austrasia, reputed mistress (secondly) of Chlothar I, King of the Franks, was the daughter of Wacho, King of the Lombards and his second wife called Austrigusa or Ostrogotha, a Gepid.

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Gundoald was a Bavarian nobleman of the Agilolfing family, a son of Duke Garibald I and Walderada, and the Duke of Asti from sometime around 589.

Euin, also Ewin or Eoin, was the first Lombard Duke of Trent during the Rule of the Dukes, an interregnum (575–585) during which the Kingdom of Italy was ruled by its regional magnates, the dukes of the thirty or so cities. Euin participated in several significant wars during his long reign. The primary source for his career is Paul the Deacon's Historia Langobardorum.

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