Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria

Last updated

Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, with the Grand Duchy of Kraków and the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Flag of Galicia-Lodomeria 1890-1918.svg
Flag (1890–1918)
Galitzia (1914).svg
Empire d'Autriche 1914 Galicie.png
Galicia and Lodomeria (red) within Austria-Hungary in 1914
Status Crown land of the Habsburg monarchy (1772–1804)
Crownland of the Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
Crownland of the Cisleithanian part of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
Capital Lemberg
Common languagesOfficial language:
Language of government(since 1867):
Minority language:
By census 1910:
Polish 58.6%
Ruthenian 40.2% [1]
Government Absolute Monarchy (1772–1860)
Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy (1860-1918)
 1772–1780 (first)
Maria Theresa
 1916–1918 (last)
Charles I
 1772–1774 (first)
J. A. von Pergen
 1917–1918 (last)
Karl Georg Huyn
Legislature Diet
August 5 1772
October 19, 1918
November 14, 1918
September 10, 1919
78,497 km2 (30,308 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Royal Banner of Stanislaw II of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Flag of Moldavia.svg Moldavia
Flag of the Duchy of Warsaw.svg Duchy of Warsaw
Flag of Krakow.svg Free City of Cracow
Flag of the common ministries of the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown (1896-1915).svg Transleithania
Second Polish Republic Flag of Poland.svg
West Ukrainian People's Republic Flag of Ukraine.svg
Republic of Tarnobrzeg POL Tarnobrzeg flag.svg
Duchy of Bukovina Flag of Bukowina.svg
Today part of Poland

The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, [lower-alpha 1] also known as Austrian Galicia or colloquially Austrian Poland, was a Habsburg constituent possession which covered the historical region of Galicia in Eastern Europe, within the Austrian Empire, later Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg monarchy. It encompassed regions that were acquired by the First Partition of Poland. In 1804 it became a crownland of the newly proclaimed Austrian Empire. From 1867 it was a crownland within the Cisleithanian or Austrian half of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. It maintained a degree of provincial autonomy. Its status remained unchanged until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918. [3] [4]


The domain was initially carved in 1772 from the south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. During the following period, several territorial changes occurred. In 1795 the Habsburg monarchy participated in the Third Partition of Poland and annexed additional Polish-held territory, that was renamed as West Galicia . That region was lost in 1809. Some other changes also occurred, by territorial expansion or contraction (1786, 1803, 1809, 1815, 1846, 1849). After 1849, borders of the crownland remained stable until 1918. [5] [6]

The name "Galicia" is a Latinized form of Halych, one of several regional principalities of the medieval Kievan Rus'. The name "Lodomeria" is also a Latinized form of the original Slavic name of Volodymyr, that was founded in the 10th century by Vladimir the Great. The title "King of Galicia and Lodomeria" was a late medieval royal title created by Andrew II of Hungary during his conquest of the region in the 13th century. Since that time, the title "King of Galicia and Lodomeria" was included among many ceremonial titles used by the kings of Hungary, thus creating the basis for later (1772) Habsburg claims. [7] In the aftermath of the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, the region was annexed by the Kingdom of Poland in the 14th century and remained in Poland until the 18th-century partitions.

As a result of border changes following World War II, the region of Galicia became divided between Poland and Ukraine. The nucleus of historic Galicia consists of the modern Lviv, Ternopil, and Ivano-Frankivsk regions of western Ukraine.

Ceremonial name

The name of the Kingdom in its ceremonial form, in English: Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Grand Duchy of Kraków with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, existed in all languages spoken there including German : Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien mit dem Großherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator; Polish : Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii wraz z Wielkim Księstwem Krakowskim i Księstwem Oświęcimia i Zatoru; Ukrainian : Королівство Галичини та Володимирії з великим князіством Краківським і князівствами Освенцима і Затору, romanized: Korolivstvo Halychyny ta Volodymyrii z velykym kniazivstvom Krakivskym i kniazivstvamy Osventsyma i Zatoru, and Hungarian : Galícia és Lodoméria királysága Krakkó nagyhercegségével és Auschwitz és Zator hercegséggel.


In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by the Habsburg monarchy in the First Partition of Poland. As such, the later Austrian region of Second Polish Republic which is today part of Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country. However, after the Third Partition of Poland, a large portion of the ethnically Polish lands to the west (New or West Galicia) was also added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term Galicia. Lviv (Lemberg in German) served as the capital of Austrian Galicia, which was dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was mostly Ukrainians. In addition to the Polish aristocracy and gentry who inhabited almost all parts of Galicia, and the Ukrainians in the east, there existed a large Jewish population, also more heavily concentrated in the eastern parts of the province.

During the first decades of Austrian rule, Galicia was firmly governed from Vienna, and many significant reforms were carried out by a bureaucracy staffed largely by Germans and Czechs. The aristocracy was guaranteed its rights, but these rights were considerably circumscribed. The former serfs were no longer mere chattels, but became subjects of law and were granted certain personal freedoms, such as the right to marry without the lord's permission. Their labour obligations were defined and limited, and they could bypass the lords and appeal to the imperial courts for justice. The eastern-rite Uniate Church, which primarily served the Ruthenians, was renamed the Greek Catholic Church to bring it on a par with the Roman Catholic Church; it was given seminaries, and eventually, a Metropolitan. Although unpopular with the aristocracy, among the common folk, Polish and Ukrainian/Ruthenian alike, these reforms created a reservoir of good will toward the emperor which lasted almost to the end of Austrian rule. At the same time, however, the Austrian Empire extracted from Galicia considerable wealth[ citation needed ] and conscripted large numbers of the peasant population into its armed services.

Chronology of political history (1815–1914)     
  • 1815: Treaty of Vienna. Fifth partition of Poland. Kraków proclaimed a republic.
  • 1817: Estates of Galicia created by Austria.
  • 1846: Peasants' rising. Kraków annexed to Galicia.
  • 1848: Revolution in Vienna. Formation of first Polish National Committees in Galicia. First open demands for constitutional rights. On May 2, the Supreme Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Council established.
  • 1859: Austria defeated at Magenta and Solferino.
  • 1860: October Constitution with promise of autonomy.
  • 1861: February Constitution adopted. First Galician Diet.
  • 1866: Austro-Prussian War.
  • 1867: Dual Monarchy established.
  • 1868: "Galician Resolution" submitted to the Emperor. Administration begins to pass into Polish hands.
  • 1873: Introduction of direct voting for Reichsrat elections.
  • 1896: Extension of the suffrage.
  • 1907: Universal suffrage introduced.
  • 1914: Enlargement and reorganization of the Diet. [8]

From 1815 to 1860

In 1815, as a result of decisions of the Congress of Vienna, the Lublin area and surrounding regions (most of the New or West Galicia) were ceded by the Austrian Empire to Congress Poland (Kingdom of Poland), which was ruled by the Tsar, and the Ternopil Region, including the historical region of Southern Podolia, was returned to the Austrian Empire by Russia, which had held it since 1809. The large city of Kraków and surrounding territory, formerly also part of New or West Galicia, became the semi-autonomous Free City of Kraków under supervision of the three powers sharing rule over Poland (i. e., Austria, Russia, and Prussia).

Physical map of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, 1849-1918 Map of the Kingdom of Galicia, 1914.jpg
Physical map of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, 1849–1918

The 1820s and 1830s were a period of bureaucratic rule overseen from Vienna. Most administrative positions were filled by German-speakers, including German-speaking Czechs. After the failure of the November insurrection in Russian Poland in 1830–31, in which a few thousand Galician volunteers participated, many Polish refugees arrived in Galicia. The latter 1830s were rife with Polish conspiratorial organizations whose work culminated in the unsuccessful Galician insurrection of 1846, which was easily put down by the Austrians with the help of a Galician peasantry that remained loyal to the emperor. The insurrection occurred in the western, Polish-populated part of Galicia. Polish manorial gentry supported or were sympathetic to barely concealed plans for an uprising to establish an independent Polish state, but peasants on the manorial estates of western Galicia, reduced to misery by poor harvests, saw little advantage for themselves in a free Poland and seized the opportunity to rise against the institution of serfdom, killing many of the estate owners. With the collapse of the uprising for a free Poland, the city of Kraków lost its semi-autonomy and was integrated into the Austrian Empire under the title of a Grand Duchy, and for practical purposes was made part of Galicia by the Austrian authorities. [9]

In the same period, a sense of national awakening began to develop among the Ruthenians in the eastern part of Galicia. A circle of activists, primarily Greek Catholic seminarians, affected by the romantic movement in Europe and the example of fellow Slavs elsewhere, especially in eastern Ukraine under the Russians, began to turn their attention to the common folk and their language. In 1837, the so-called Ruthenian Triad led by Markiian Shashkevych, published Rusalka Dnistrovaia (The Nymph of the Dniester), a collection of folksongs and other materials in vernacular Ukrainian (then called rusynska, Ruthenian). Alarmed by such democratism, the Austrian authorities and the Greek Catholic Metropolitan banned the book.

In 1848, revolutionary actions broke out in Vienna and other parts of the Austrian Empire. In Lviv, a Polish National Council, and then later, a Ukrainian, or Ruthenian Supreme Council were formed. Even before Vienna had acted, the remnants of serfdom were abolished by the Governor, Franz Stadion, in an attempt to thwart the revolutionaries. Moreover, Polish demands for Galician autonomy were countered by Ruthenian demands for national equality and for a partition of the province into an Eastern, Ruthenian part, and a Western, Polish part. Eventually, Lviv was bombarded by imperial troops and the revolution put down completely.

A decade of renewed absolutism followed, but to placate the Poles, Count Agenor Goluchowski, a conservative representative of the eastern Galician aristocracy, the so-called Podolians, was appointed Viceroy. He began to Polonize the local administration and managed to have Ruthenian ideas of partitioning the province shelved. He was unsuccessful, however, in forcing the Greek Catholic Church to shift to the use of the western or Gregorian calendar, or among Ruthenians generally, to replace the Cyrillic alphabet with the Latin alphabet.

Constitutional experiments

Galician slaughter (Polish "Rzez galicyjska") by Jan Lewicki (1795-1871) Galician slaughter in 1846.PNG
Galician slaughter (Polish "Rzeź galicyjska") by Jan Lewicki (1795–1871)

In 1859, following Austro-Hungarian military defeat in Italy, the Empire entered a period of constitutional experiments. In 1860, the Vienna Government, influenced by Agenor Goluchowski, issued its October Diploma, which envisioned a conservative federalization of the empire, but a negative reaction in the German-speaking lands led to changes in government and the issuing of the February Patent which watered down this de-centralization. Nevertheless, by 1861, Galicia was granted a legislative assembly, the Diet of Galicia and Lodomeria (Sejm in Polish). Although at first pro-Habsburg Ukrainian and Polish peasant representation was considerable in this body (about half the assembly), and the pressing social and Ukrainian questions were discussed, administrative pressures limited the effectiveness of both peasant and Ukrainian representatives and the diet became dominated by the Polish aristocracy and gentry, who favoured further autonomy. This same year, disturbances broke out in Russian Poland and to some extent spilled over into Galicia. The diet ceased to sit.

By 1863, an open revolt broke out in Russian Poland and from 1864 to 1865 the Austro-Hungarian government declared a state of siege in Galicia, temporarily suspending civil liberties.

The year 1865 brought a return to federal ideas along the lines suggested by Goluchowski and negotiations on autonomy between the Polish aristocracy and Vienna began once again.

Meanwhile, the Ruthenians felt more and more abandoned by Vienna and among the Old Ruthenians grouped around the Greek Catholic Cathedral of Saint George, there occurred a turn towards Russia. The more extreme supporters of this orientation came to be known as Russophiles. At the same time, influenced by the Ukrainian language poetry of the central Ukrainian writer, Taras Shevchenko, an opposing Ukrainophile movement arose which published literature in the Ukrainian/Ruthenian language and eventually established a network of reading halls. Supporters of this orientation came to be known as Populists [ citation needed ], and later, as Ukrainians. Almost all Ruthenians, however, still hoped for national equality and for an administrative division of Galicia along ethnic lines.

Galician autonomy

The Galician Sejm (parliament) in Lviv Sejm Galicyjski.jpg
The Galician Sejm (parliament) in Lviv

In 1866, following the Battle of Sadova and the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the Austro-Hungarian empire began to experience increased internal problems. In an effort to shore up support for the monarchy, Emperor Franz Joseph began negotiations for a compromise with the Magyar nobility to ensure their support. Some members of the government, such as the Austro-Hungarian prime minister Count Belcredi, advised the Emperor to make a more comprehensive constitutional deal with all of the nationalities that would have created a federal structure. Belcredi worried that an accommodation with the Magyar interests would alienate the other nationalities. However, Franz Joseph was unable to ignore the power of the Magyar nobility, and they would not accept anything less than dualism between themselves and the traditional Austrian élites.

Finally, after the so-called Ausgleich of February 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into a dualist Austria-Hungary. Although the Polish and Czech plans for their parts of the monarchy to be included in the federal structure failed, a slow yet steady process of liberalisation of Austrian rule in Galicia started. Representatives of the Polish aristocracy and intelligentsia addressed the Emperor asking for greater autonomy for Galicia. Their demands were not accepted outright, but over the course of the next several years a number of significant concessions were made toward the establishment of Galician autonomy.

From 1873, Galicia was de facto an autonomous province of Austria-Hungary with Polish and, to a lesser degree, Ukrainian or Ruthenian, as official languages. The Germanisation had been halted and the censorship lifted as well. Galicia was subject to the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy, but the Galician Sejm and provincial administration had extensive privileges and prerogatives, especially in education, culture, and local affairs.

These changes were supported by many Polish intellectuals. In 1869 a group of young conservative publicists in Kraków, including Józef Szujski, Stanisław Tarnowski, Stanisław Koźmian and Ludwik Wodzicki, published a series of satirical pamphlets entitled Teka Stańczyka ( Stańczyk's Portfolio). Only five years after the tragic end of the January Uprising, the pamphlets ridiculed the idea of armed national uprisings and suggested compromise with Poland's enemies, especially the Austrian Empire, concentration on economic growth, and acceptance of the political concessions offered by Vienna. This political grouping came to be known as the Stanczyks or Kraków Conservatives. Together with the eastern Galician conservative Polish landowners and aristocracy called the "Podolians", they gained a political ascendency in Galicia which lasted to 1914. This shift in power from Vienna to the Polish landowning class was not welcomed by the Ruthenians, who became more sharply divided between Ukrainophiles, who looked to Kyiv and the common people for historic connection, and Russophiles who stressed their connections to Russia. [10]

Both Vienna and the Poles saw treason among the Russophiles and a series of political trials eventually discredited them. Meanwhile, by 1890, an agreement was worked out between the Poles and the "Populist" Ruthenians or Ukrainians which saw the partial Ukrainianization of the school system in eastern Galicia and other concessions to Ukrainian culture. Possibly as a result of this agreement, Ukrainian language students rose sharply in number. [11] Thereafter, the Ukrainian national movement spread rapidly among the Ruthenian peasantry and, despite repeated setbacks, by the early years of the twentieth century this movement had almost completely replaced other Ruthenian groups as the main rival for power with the Poles. Throughout this period, the Ukrainians never gave up the traditional Ruthenian demands for national equality and for partition of the province into a western, Polish half, and an eastern, Ukrainian half. Starting with the election of September 1895, Galicia became known for its "bloody elections" as the Austrian prime minister Count Kasimir Felix Badeni proceeded to rig the election results while having policemen beat those voters were not voting for the government at the poll stations. [12]

The Great Economic Emigration

Beginning in the 1880s, a mass emigration of the Galician peasantry occurred. The emigration started as a seasonal one to Germany (newly unified and economically dynamic) and then later became a Trans-Atlantic one with large-scale emigration to the United States, Brazil, and Canada.

Caused by the backward economic condition of Galicia where rural poverty was widespread, the emigration began in the western, Polish populated part of Galicia and quickly shifted east to the Ukrainian inhabited parts. Poles, Ukrainians, Jews, and Germans all participated in this mass movement of countryfolk and villagers. Poles migrated principally to New England and the midwestern states of the United States, but also to Brazil and elsewhere; Ruthenians/Ukrainians migrated to Brazil, Canada, and the United States, with a very intense emigration from Western Podolia around Ternopil to Western Canada; and Jews emigrated both directly to the New World and also indirectly via other parts of Austria-Hungary. The vast majority of the Ukrainians and Poles who went to Canada prior to 1914 came from either Galicia or the neighboring Bukovina province of the Austrian empire. [13] In 1847, 1849, 1855, 1865, 1876 and 1889, there were famines in Galicia that led to thousands starving to death, which increased the sense that life in Galicia was hopeless and inspired people to leave in search of a better life in the New World. [13] Adding to the exodus were the inheritance laws in Galicia adopted in 1868 which stated that the land should be equally divided amongst the sons of a peasant, which owning to the tendency of Galician peasants to have large families led to the land being divided into so many small holdings as to make farming uneconomical. [14]

A total of several hundred thousand people were involved in this Great Economic Emigration which grew steadily more intense until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. The war put a temporary halt to emigration which never again reached the same proportions. The Great Economic Emigration, especially the emigration to Brazil, the "Brazilian Fever" as it was called at the time, was described in contemporary literary works by the Polish poet Maria Konopnicka, the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko, and many others. Some states in south of Brazil have a large percentage of their population formed by direct descendants of these Ruthenian/Ukrainian immigrants.

When it comes to social relations, most especially between peasants and landlords, the area was the most undeveloped in the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Galician peasantry was always living at the verge of starvation. This led the Polish peasants to call the area "Krolestwo Goloty i Glodomerji" i.e. "The Kingdom of Bareness and Starvation". Tsar Alexander II had officially banned serfdom and liberated the serfs in the Russian Empire in the 1870s and enacted legislation to protect the serfs. But in Galicia the serfs could be coerced or forced through predatory practices back into serfdom by the affluent Polish merchant class and local nobility a condition which lasted until the start of World War I.

At the time of these emigrations in the 1890s many Polish and Ukrainian liberals saw Galicia as a Galician Piedmont as a Polish Piedmont and a Ukrainian Piedmont. Because Italians had started their liberation from Austrian rule in the Italian Piedmont these Ukrainian and Polish nationalists felt that the liberation of their two countries would begin in Galicia.

In spite of almost 750,000 persons emigrating across the Atlantic from 1880 to 1914 Galicia's population increased by 45% between 1869 and 1910. [15]

First World War and Polish-Ukrainian conflict

During the First World War Galicia saw heavy fighting between the forces of Russia and the Central Powers. The Imperial Russian Army overran most of the region in 1914 after defeating the Austro-Hungarian Army in a chaotic frontier battle in the opening months of the war. They were in turn pushed out in the spring and summer of 1915 by a combined German and Austro-Hungarian offensive.

The Siege of Przemysl in 1915 Szturm Twierdzy Przemysl A. Ritter von Meissl.jpg
The Siege of Przemyśl in 1915

In late 1918 Eastern Galicia became a part of the restored Republic of Poland, which absorbed the Lemko-Rusyn Republic. The local Ukrainian population briefly declared the independence of Eastern Galicia as the West Ukrainian People's Republic. During the Polish-Soviet War the Soviets tried to establish the puppet-state of the Galician SSR in East Galicia, the government of which after couple of months was liquidated.

The fate of Galicia was settled by the Peace of Riga on March 18, 1921, giving all of Galicia to the Second Polish Republic. Although never accepted as legitimate by some Ukrainians, it was internationally recognized with significant French support on May 15, 1923. [16] The French support for Polish rule of ethnically Ukrainian eastern Galicia and its oil resources in the Borysław-Drohobycz basin were rewarded by Warsaw allowing significant French investment to pour into the Galician oil industry. [15] The Poles had convinced the French that since less than 25% of the ethnic Ukrainians were literate before the Great War and Ukrainians were novices in governing themselves, only the Poles, not the Ukrainians, would be able to administer eastern Galicia and its precious oil assets. [15]

The Ukrainians of the former eastern Galicia and the neighbouring province of Volhynia made up about 12% of the population of the Second Polish Republic, and were its largest minority. As Polish government policies were unfriendly towards minorities, tensions between the Polish government and the Ukrainian population grew, eventually giving the rise to the militant underground Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.

Administrative divisions

Administrative divisions in 1777-1782 CarteNouvelledesRoyaumesdeGalizieetLodomerie large.jpg
Administrative divisions in 1777-1782

Soon after the first partition of Poland the newly acquired Polish territories (see First Partition of Poland) which were known as Kreise (Voivodeship in Poland) were restructured in November 1773 into 59 Kreisdistriktes (Land districts), while the Kreise were abolished. Some former voivodeships were incorporated completely, while most of them only partially. Among them were the former voivodeships of Belz, Red Ruthenia, Cracow, Lublin, Sandomierz, and Podolie. Also during the Russo-Turkish War in 1769, the northwestern territory of Moldavia (renamed Bukovina) was occupied by the Russian Empire which ceded it in 1774 to the Austrian Empire as a "token of appreciation".

Major cities and towns

Administrative division

The Kingdom was split into numerous counties (powiats) which in 1914 were about 75. [17] Besides Lviv (Lwów in Polish) being the capital of the Kingdom, Kraków was considered as the unofficial capital of the western part of Galicia and the second most important city in the region.

Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Galicia, 1914 Galicia administrative1914.jpg
Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Galicia, 1914

Other administrative entities

West Galicia

West Galicia was part of the Kingdom from 1795 to 1809, until 1803 as a separate administrative unit.

Bukovina District

Bukovina was part of the Kingdom from 1775 to 1849 (after 1849: Duchy of Bukovina).

Free City of Kraków

Kraków was a condominium with Prussia and Russia from 1815 to 1846, part of the Kingdom from 1846.


After the partition of Poland the region was government by an appointed governor, later a vice-regent. During the war time the office of vice-regent was supplemented by a military-governor. In 1861 a regional assembly was established, the Sejm of the Land, which initially due to lack of adequate administrative building was located in the building of the Skarbek Theatre until 1890.


The Vice-regency Office in Lviv Government House in Lviv.jpg
The Vice-regency Office in Lviv

List of vice-regents since 1900:

Political parties and public organizations


  • Chief Ruthenian Council (May 2, 1848 – 1851), headed by Gregory Yakhimovich and later by Mykhailo Kuzemsky. It consisted of 30 members.
  • Ruthenian Council (Lviv) (1870–1814)
  • Ruthenian Congress (May 23, 1848) was an oppositional political formation to the Chief Ruthenian Council to which belong such personalities as Ivan Vahylevych, Julian Lawriwskyj, Leon Sapieha, and others.
  • Ukrainian National Democratic Party (1899–1919) was created in place of the People's Council (1885–1899), eventually becoming part of the Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance (UNDO)
  • Ukrainian Radical Party (1890–1939)
  • Christian-Social Party (1896–1930), until 1911 was called as Catholic-Ruthenian People's Union, in 1930 it split when some members joined UNDO, while others created Ukrainian Catholic People's Party.
  • Ukrainian Social Democratic Party (1899–1939), was created by some members of the Ukrainian Radical Party and in 1924 partially merged with Communist Party of Western Ukraine (1919–1938)
  • Ukrainian General Council (1914–1916), initially as the Chief Ukrainian Council, was a national political bloc of most of the Ukrainian parties. It laid foundation for creating the Ukrainian state in the West Ukraine.


  • Ukrainian Forum (Besida) (until 1928 Ruthenian Forum) (1861–1939), a forum-type association created by Julian Lawriwskyj based on the Lviv intelligentsia circle, "Young Rus". The organization established its own Ukrainian-based professional theater (1864–1924).
  • Prosvita (1868–present)
  • Shevchenko Scientific Society (1873–present)
  • Ruthenian Triad (1833–1843), literary organization discontinued after the death of Markiyan Shashkevych
  • Academic Society (Hromada) (1882–1921), until 1896 as Brotherhood
  • Academical Circle (1874–1877)
  • Sokół and Sokil sport organization created in light of the European Sokol movement
  • Sich and Plast
  • Luh, a fireman society
  • Riflemen's Association


In 1773, Galicia had about 2.6 million inhabitants in 280 cities and markets and approx. 5,500 villages. There were nearly 19,000 noble families with 95,000 members (about 3% of the population). The "non-free" accounted for 1.86 million, more than 70% of the population. A small number were full farmers, but by far the overwhelming number (84%) had only smallholdings or no possessions.

People of East Galicia Pokuttia 1.jpg
People of East Galicia
Map of a region where Ruthenians and Russians lived in the Austrian Empire - Galicia and Hungarian Russia (Carpathian Ruthenia) - by Dmitry Vergun Zarubezhnaia Rus.jpg
Map of a region where Ruthenians and Russians lived in the Austrian Empire – Galicia and Hungarian Russia (Carpathian Ruthenia) – by Dmitry Vergun
Until 1918, Choral Synagogue of Drohobych had been the central synagogue of Galicia and Lodomeria Drohobych Synagogue2018.jpg
Until 1918, Choral Synagogue of Drohobych had been the central synagogue of Galicia and Lodomeria

No country of the Austrian monarchy had such a varied ethnic mix as Galicia: Poles, Ruthenians, Germans (Galician Germans), Armenians, Jews, Hungarians, Romani people, Lipowaner, etc. The Poles were mainly in the west, with the Ruthenians (Ukrainians) predominant in the eastern region (Ruthenia).

The Jews of Galicia had immigrated in the Middle Ages from Germany and mostly spoke Yiddish as their first language. German-speaking people were more commonly referred to as "Saxons" or "Swabians", even though most of them did not come from Saxony or Swabia (cf. Transylvanian Saxons and Danube Swabians). There were also some Mennonites who mostly came originally from Switzerland, but spoke a dialect of Palatine German which is close to Pennsylvania German. With inhabitants who had a clear difference in language such as with the Saxons or the Roma identification was less problematic, but widespread multilingualness blurred the borders again.

It is however possible to make a clear distinction in religious denominations: the majority of the Poles were Latin Catholics, while the Ruthenians were mostly Greek Catholics. The Jews, who represented the third largest religious group, were mostly traditional in their religious observance which later developed into Orthodox Judaism. The Jewish community had a strong sense of Galician identity and called themselves Galitzianer to distinguish themselves from the other Ashkenazi communities of Eastern Europe. [18] The Jewish community of Galicia was largely Orthodox or Hasidic in 1772 and many regarded the reforms introduced by the Emperor Joseph II such as the introduction of conscription as a form of oppression, leading the Galitzianer to split between the Orthodox and Hasidic communities committed to the traditional values vs. the "modernizers" who wanted to change. [18]

The average life expectancy was 27 years for men and 28.5 years for women, as compared to 33 and 37 in Bohemia, 39 and 41 in France and 40 and 42 in England. Also the quality of life was much lower as Galicia was the poorest province in the Austrian empire. [18] The yearly consumption of meat did not exceed 10 kg (22 lb) per capita, as compared to 24 kg (53 lb) in Hungary and 33 in Germany. This was mostly due to much lower average income. In 2014, The Economist reported: "Poverty in Galicia in the 19th century was so extreme that it had become proverbial—the region was called Golicja and Glodomeria, a play on the official name (Galicja i Lodomeria) and goly (naked) and glodny (hungry)." [18]

In 1888 Galicia extended over 78,550 square kilometres (30,328 sq mi) and had a population of about 6.4 million people, including 4.8 million peasants (75% of the whole population). The population density, at 81 people per square kilometre, was higher than that of France (71 inhabitants/km2) or Germany. The population rose to 7.3 million in 1900 and to 8 million in 1910. [19]

Religions demographics
(per the December 1910 census)
Roman Catholic3,731,56946.5%
Greek Catholic (Uniates)3,379,61342.1%


Galicia was economically the least developed part of Austria and received considerable transfer payments from the Vienna government. Its level of development was comparable to or higher than that of Russia and the Balkans, but well behind Western Europe.

The first detailed description of the economic situation of the region was prepared by Stanislaw Szczepanowski (1846–1900), a Polish lawyer, economist and chemist who in 1873 published the first version of his report titled Nędza galicyjska w cyfrach (The Galician Poverty in Numbers). Based on his own experience as a worker in the India Office, as well as his work on development of the oil industry in the region of Boryslav and the official census data published by the Austro-Hungarian government, he described Galicia as one of the poorest regions in Europe.

Statistics indicate the Galicia and Lodomeria was poorer than areas west of it. The average income per capita did not exceed 53 Rhine guilders (RG), as compared to 91 RG in the Kingdom of Poland, 100 in Hungary and more than 450 RG in England at that time. Also the taxes were relatively high and equalled to 9 Rhine guilders a year (c. 17% of yearly income), as compared to 5% in Prussia and 10% in England. Also the percentage of people with higher income was much lower than in other parts of the Monarchy and Europe: the luxury tax, paid by people whose yearly income exceeded 600 RG, was paid by 8 people in every 1,000 inhabitants, as compared to 28 in Bohemia and 99 in Lower Austria. Despite high taxation, the national debt of the Galician government exceeded 300 million RG at all times, that is approximately 60 RG per capita.

All in all, the region was used by the Austro-Hungarian government mostly as a reservoir of cheap workforce and recruits for the army,[ citation needed ] as well as a buffer zone against Russia. It was not until early in the 20th century that heavy industry started to be developed, which would be comparable to much of Russia and the Balkans. Even then it was mostly connected to war production. The biggest state investments in the region were the railways and the fortresses in Przemyśl, Kraków and other cities. Industrial development was mostly connected to the private oil industry started by Robert Doms and to the Wieliczka salt mines, operational since at least the Middle Ages.


In 1880, industry in Galicia was at a low level. In 1857 Galicia had 102,189 persons or 2.2% of the population worked in industry. By 1870 that number had risen to 179,626, or 3.3% of the population.

Oil and natural gas industry

Rail lines of Galicia before 1897 Galicia 1897 1.jpg
Rail lines of Galicia before 1897

Near Drohobych and Boryslav in Galicia, significant oil reserves were discovered and developed during the mid 19th and early 20th centuries. [20] [21] The first European attempt to drill for oil was in Bóbrka in western Galicia in 1854. [20] [21] By 1867, a well at Kleczany, in Western Galicia, was drilled using steam to about 200 meters. [20] [21] On December 31, 1872, a railway line linking Borysław (now Boryslav) with the nearby city of Drohobycz (now Drohobych) was opened. American John Simon Bergheim and Canadian William Henry McGarvey came to Galicia in 1882. [22] [lower-alpha 2] In 1883, their company, MacGarvey and Bergheim, bored holes of 700 to 1,000 meters and found large oil deposits. [20] In 1885, they renamed their oil developing enterprise the Galician-Karpathian Petroleum Company (German : Galizisch-Karpathische Petroleum Aktien-Gesellschaft), headquartered in Vienna, with McGarvey as the chief administrator and Bergheim as field engineer, [lower-alpha 3] and built a huge refinery at Maryampole near Gorlice, in the southeast corner of Galicia. [22] Considered the biggest, most efficient enterprise in Austro-Hungary, Maryampole was built in six months and employed 1000 men. [22] [lower-alpha 4] Subsequently, investors from Britain, Belgium, and Germany established companies to develop the oil and natural gas industries in Galicia. [20] This influx of capital caused the number of petroleum enterprises to shrink from 900 to 484 by 1884, and to 285 companies manned by 3,700 workers by 1890. [20] However, the number of oil refineries increased from thirty-one in 1880 to fifty-four in 1904. [20] By 1904, there were thirty boreholes in Borysław of over 1,000 meters. [20] Production increased by 50% between 1905 and 1906 and then trebled between 1906 and 1909 because of unexpected discoveries of vast oil reserves of which many were gushers. [15] By 1909, production reached its peak at 2,076,000 tons or 4% of worldwide production. [20] [21] Often called the "Polish Baku", the oil fields of Borysław and nearby Tustanowice accounted for over 90% of the national oil output of the Austria-Hungary Empire. [15] [20] [23] From 500 residents in the 1860s, Borysław had swollen to 12,000 by 1898. [15] In 1909, Polmin with headquarters in Lviv was established for the extraction and distribution of natural gas. At the turn of the century, Galicia was ranked fourth in the world as an oil producer. [20] [lower-alpha 5] This significant increase in oil production also caused a slump in oil prices. [15] A very rapid decrease in oil production in Galicia occurred just before the Balkans conflicts.

Galicia was the Central Powers' only major domestic source of oil during the Great War. [15]



Until 1849, Galicia and Lodomeria was a single province with Bukovina and used the blue-red flag (consisting of two horizontal stripes: the upper one was blue, the lower one was red).

In 1849, Bukovina was given an independent status from that of Galicia-Lodomeria and kept the blue-red flag. Galicia was given a new flag consisting of three horizontal stripes being blue, red and yellow.

That flag remained in use until 1890, when Galicia-Lodomeria received a new flag consisting of two horizontal stripes being red and white. It remained in use until the dissolution of the Kingdom of Galicia-Lodomeria in 1918 and is displayed in Ströhl's Oesterreichisch-ungarische Wappenrolle (1898).



The Kingdom was divided into three major military districts centered in Kraków, Lviv, and Przemyśl. Local military used a specialized language for communication known as Army Slav. One of the major army units was the 1st Army consisting of 1st (Kraków), 5th (Pressburg), and 10th (Przemyśl) Corps.

Selected units (1914); command language German

Eight out of 11 Lancer regiments were located in Galicia (see Uhlan)

The 13th Galicia Lancer Regiment at the Battle of Custoza Ulanen 13.jpg
The 13th Galicia Lancer Regiment at the Battle of Custoza

One Dragoon regiment

Shako of the Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848 Shako of Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848.PNG
Shako of the Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848
Rudolf Barracks in Krakow Krakau Rudolf Kas.jpg
Rudolf Barracks in Kraków

10 Infantry regiments

Two Artillery divisions

Five Feldjäger battalions (Military Police)


The memory of Galicia

Boundaries of modern states overlaid on the kingdom's boundaries Galicia Esri map.png
Boundaries of modern states overlaid on the kingdom's boundaries

In 2014, the Polish historian Jacek Purchla stated that there were two ways of remembering Galicia, namely as an idyllically innocent multi-cultural land, of a simpler and better time compared to the present vs. the Austrian view of Galicia as a Halb-Asien ("half-Asia") as Austrian officials always regarded Galicia as "a barbaric place inhabited by strange people of questionable personal hygiene". [18] Galicia was always considered in Vienna to be a colony in need of being "civilized", and as a result, the Austrians never considered Galicia to be a part of Austria proper. [18] Both the Polish and Ukrainian communities of Galicia saw the province as their "Piedmont" where plans for an independent Polish or Ukrainian state were broached, making the memory of Galicia under Austrian rule a central part of Polish and Ukrainian national memories. [18] In 2014, Purchla stated: "The latest proof of the political significance of the Galician heritage has been the contribution of its Ukrainian parts to the success of the Maidan [revolution] this year and last year". [18] Starting in the late 19th century, about 2 million Galician Jews immigrated to the United States, and amongst the descendants of the Galitzianer in the United States that the memory of Galicia as either a lost paradise or as a backward province to escape from is kept alive. [18] The Economist reported: "In Europe, Galicia is a central element of Poles’ national identity and of Ukrainians’ search for a European identity." [18]

See also


  1. German: Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien, [ˈkøːnɪkˌʁai̯ç ɡaˈliːtsi̯ən ʊnt lodoˈmeːʁiən] ; Polish: Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii, [kruˈlɛstfɔ ɡaˈlits.ji i lɔdɔˈmɛrji] ; Ukrainian: Королівство Галичини та Володимирії, romanized: Korolivstvo Halychyny ta Volodymyrii; Latin: Rēgnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae
  2. William McGarvey helped develop a rig in the 1860s or 1870s which made his Canadian drilling technology and Canadian drillers famous around the world. John Simon Bergheim and William Henry McGarvey had unsuccessfully searched for oil in Germany under the Continental Oil Company of which McGarvey was the director. They left Germany and began their first drilling in Galicia during 1882 under the company name of MacGarvey and Bergheim. [22]
  3. Just after the turn of the century, Bergheim was killed in a taxicab accident in London, England, leaving McGarvey to carry on alone. [22]
  4. Later, Bergheim and McGarvey bought a number of small oil-producing and refining operations and acquired the Apollo Oil Company of Budapest. [22]
  5. In 1909, first in the world for oil production was the United States with 183,171,000 barrels, the Russian Empire was second with 65,970,000 barrels, and the Austria-Hungary Empire was third with 14,933,000 barrels per year due to its significant oil reserves discoveries between 1905 and 1909. [15] [24]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Przemyśl</span> Place in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland

Przemyśl is a city in southeastern Poland with 58,721 inhabitants, as of December 2021. In 1999, it became part of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship; it was previously the capital of Przemyśl Voivodeship.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Red Ruthenia</span> Historic region in Central and Eastern Europe

Red Ruthenia or Red Rus' , is a term used since the Middle Ages for the south-western principalities of the Kievan Rus', namely the Principality of Peremyshl and the Principality of Belz. Nowadays the region comprises parts of western Ukraine and adjoining parts of south-eastern Poland. It has also sometimes included parts of Lesser Poland, Podolia, Right-bank Ukraine and Volhynia. Centred on Przemyśl (Peremyshl) and Belz, it has included major cities such as: Chełm, Zamość, Rzeszów, Krosno and Sanok, as well as Lviv and Ternopil.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cisleithania</span> Non-Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary

Cisleithania, officially The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, was the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania. This name for the region was a common, but unofficial one.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Galicia (Eastern Europe)</span> Historical region in Central Europe

Galicia is a historical and geographic region spanning what is now southeastern Poland and western Ukraine. It covers much of such historic regions as Red Ruthenia and Lesser Poland.

Ternopil Oblast Oblast (region) of Ukraine

Ternopil Oblast, is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. Its administrative center is Ternopil, through which flows the Seret, a tributary of the Dniester. Population: 1,030,562


Lodomeria is a derivative name (Latinized) of Volodymyr which was a name of a Ruthenian duchy, the Principality of Volhynia a western Kievan Rus' principality founded by the Rurik dynasty in 987 and centered in the region of Volhynia, straddling the borders of modern-day Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. The duchy of Volodymyr arose in the course of the 12th century along with the duchy of Halitch (Halicz).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Belz</span> City in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine

Belz is a small city in Lviv Oblast of Western Ukraine, near the border with Poland, located between the Solokiya river and the Richytsia stream. Belz hosts the administration of Belz urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Its population is approximately 2,229 .

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Polish–Ukrainian War</span> 1918-19 conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces

The Polish–Ukrainian War, from November 1918 to July 1919, was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces. The conflict had its roots in ethnic, cultural and political differences between the Polish and Ukrainian populations living in the region, as Poland and both Ukrainian republics were successor states to the dissolved Russian and Austrian empires. The war started in Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and spilled over into Chełm Land and Volhynia (Wołyń) regions formerly belonging to the Russian Empire, which were both claimed by the Ukrainian State and the Ukrainian People's Republic. Poland re-occupied the disputed territory on 18 July 1919.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western Ukraine</span> Western territories of Ukraine

Western Ukraine or West Ukraine is the territory of Ukraine linked to the former Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, which was part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Austrian Empire, Austria-Hungary and the Second Polish Republic, and came fully under the control of Russia only in 1939, following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. There is no universally accepted definition of the territory's boundaries, but the contemporary Ukrainian administrative regions or Oblasts of Chernivtsi, Ivano-Frankovsk, Lviv, Ternopil and Transcarpathia are nearly always included and the Lutsk and Rivne Oblasts are usually included. It is less common to include the Khmelnytski and, especially, the Vinnytsia and Zhytomyr Oblasts in this category. It includes several historical regions such as Transcarpathia, Halychyna including Pokuttia, most of Volhynia, northern Bukovina, and western Podolia. Less often the Western Ukraine includes areas of eastern Volhynia, Podolia, and small portion of northern Bessarabia.

Galician Jews Subgroup of ethnic Jews in present-day Western Ukraine

Galician Jews or Galitzianers (Yiddish:גאַליציאַנערס) are members of the subgroup of Ashkenazi Jews originating in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, from contemporary western Ukraine and from south-eastern Poland. Galicia proper, which was inhabited by Ruthenians, Poles and Jews, became a royal province within Austria-Hungary after the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century. Galician Jews primarily spoke Yiddish.

The Battle of Przemyśl - a struggle for the control over the city of Przemyśl in former Austro-Hungarian Galicia and local river crossings on the San river, between Ukrainian and Polish militias and regular troops, from 2 to 12 November 1918, during the Polish-Ukrainian War.

History of Lviv Aspect of history

Lviv is an administrative center in western Ukraine with more than a millennium of history as a settlement, and over seven centuries as a city. Prior to the creation of the modern state of Ukraine, Lviv had been part of numerous states and empires, including, under the name Lwów, Poland and later the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; under the name Lemberg, the Austrian and later Austro-Hungarian Empires; the short-lived West Ukrainian People's Republic after World War I; Poland again; and the Soviet Union. In addition, both the Swedes and the Ottoman Turks made unsuccessful attempts to conquer the city.

Galician Russophilia or Moscophiles were participants in a cultural and political movement largely in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Austria-Hungary. This ideology emphasized that since the Eastern Slavic people of Galicia were descendants of the people of Kievan Rus' (Ruthenians), and followers of Eastern Christianity, they were thus a branch of the Russian people. The movement was part of the whole Pan-Slavism that was developing in the late 19th century. Russophilia was largely a backlash against Polonisation and Magyarisation that was largely blamed on the landlords and associated with Roman Catholicism.

Austrian Partition

The Austrian Partition comprise the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired by the Habsburg monarchy during the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century. The three partitions were conducted jointly by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, resulting in the complete elimination of the Polish Crown. Austria acquired Polish lands during the First Partition of 1772, and Third Partition of Poland in 1795. In the end, the Austrian sector encompassed the second-largest share of the Commonwealth's population after Russia; over 2.65 million people living on 128,900 km2 of land constituting formerly south-central part of the Republic.

Galician Railway of Archduke Charles Louis

The Imperial and Royal privileged Galician Railway of Archduke Charles Louis was a privately owned railway company in the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia operating during the time of the partitions of Poland in the second half of the 19th century. The company was managed by Prince Leon Sapieha, under a license granted to him by Emperor Francis Joseph I on 7 April 1858.

Krakovets is an urban-type settlement in Yavoriv Raion, Lviv Oblast, in western Ukraine. It lies on the Polish-Ukrainian border, roughly half way between Lviv in Ukraine and Kraków in Poland on the European route E40, hosting the Korczowa-Krakovets border crossing. Krakovets belongs to Yavoriv urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. The population was estimated at 1,147 .

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Diet of Galicia and Lodomeria</span> Regional parliament of Galicia within Austria 1861–1918

The Diet of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and of the Grand Duchy of Cracow was the regional assembly of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, a crown land of the Austrian Empire, and later Austria-Hungary. In the history of the Polish parliaments, it is considered the successor of the former sejm walny, or general sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and also of the sejmik, or local councils, in the territories of the Austrian Partition. It existed from 1861 until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918.

With the arrival of the Hungarians into the heart of the Central European Plain around 899, Slavic tribes of Vistulans, White Croats, and Lendians found themselves under Hungarian rule. In 955 those areas north of the Carpathian Mountains constituted an autonomous part of the Duchy of Bohemia and remained so until around 972, when the first Polish territorial claims began to emerge. This area was mentioned in 981, when Vladimir the Great of Kievan Rus' claimed the area on his westward way. In the 11th century the area belonged to Poland, then reverted to Kievan Rus'. However, at the end of the 12th century the Hungarian claims to the principality turned up. Finally Casimir III of Poland annexed it in 1340–1349. Low Germans from Prussia and Middle Germany settled parts of northern and western Galicia from the 13th to 18th centuries, although the vast majority of the historic province remained independent from German and Austrian rule.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Imperial and Royal Uhlans</span>

Together with the Dragoons and Hussars, the Imperial and Royal Uhlans, made up the cavalry of the Austro-Hungarian Army from 1867 to 1918, both in the Common Army and in the Austrian Landwehr, where they were known as the Imperial-Royal Landwehr Uhlans.

Bogusław Shashkevych

Bogusław Shashkevych was a Ukrainian major of the Ukrainian Galician Army, commander of the 9th UGA Infantry Brigade, and later the 21st and 4th UGA Infantry Brigades who served in World War I and the Polish–Ukrainian War.


  1. Anstalt G. Freytag & Berndt (1911). Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an der österreichischen Mittelschulen. Vienna: K. u. k. Hof-Kartographische. "Census December 31st 1910"
  2. Unofficially was called as Rynsky or Zoloty Rynsky. Handbook on history of Ukraine.
  3. Magocsi 1983, p. 92-115.
  4. Wolff 2010, p. 1-11.
  5. Magocsi 1983, p. 116-173.
  6. Wolff 2008, p. 277-300.
  7. Wolff 2004, p. 818-840.
  8. Prothero, G W (1920). Austrian Poland. Peace handbooks. Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section: H.M. Stationery Office, London, via World Digital Library. p. 14. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  9. Prothero, G W (1920). Austrian Poland. Peace handbooks. Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section: H.M. Stationery Office, London, via World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
  10. Ronald Grigor Suny, Michael D. Kennedy (2001). Intellectuals and the Articulation of the Nation. University of Michigan. p. 138. ISBN   9780472088287.
  11. Börries Kuzmany (2017). Brody: A Galician Border City in the Long Nineteenth Century. BRILL. p. 210. ISBN   9789004334847.
  12. Prymak, Thomas M. (2015). Gathering a Heritage: Ukrainian, Slavonic, and Ethnic Canada and the USA. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 56. ISBN   978-1442665507.
  13. 1 2 Prymak, Thomas M. (2015). Gathering a Heritage: Ukrainian, Slavonic, and Ethnic Canada and the USA. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 80. ISBN   978-1442665507.
  14. Prymak, Thomas M. (2015). Gathering a Heritage: Ukrainian, Slavonic, and Ethnic Canada and the USA. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 49. ISBN   978-1442665507.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Frank, Allison (June 29, 2006). "Galician California, Galician Hell: The Peril and Promise of Oil Production in Austria-Hungary". Washington, D.C.: Office of Science and Technology Austria (OSTA). Archived from the original on May 9, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  16. French: Les Alliés reconnaissent à la Pologne la possession de la Galicie, Chronologie des civilisations, Jean Delorme, Paris, 1956.
  17. Map of the Kingdom with its county division (Lenius, Brian. "Genealogical Gazetteer of Galicia" 2nd ed. Anola, Canada. 1993) Archived 2012-02-18 at the Wayback Machine
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "A successful Austrian invention". The Economist. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  19. "Austria-Hungary: historical demographical data of the administrative division prior to 1918". Populstat. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Schatzker, Valerie; Erdheim, Claudia; Sharontitle, Alexander. "Petroleum in Galicia". Drohobycz Administrative District: History. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  21. 1 2 3 4 Golonka, Jan; Picha, Frank J. (2006). The Carpathians and Their Foreland: Geology and Hydrocarbon Resources. American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). ISBN   9780891813651.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Creswell, Sarah; Flint, Tom. "William H. McGarvey (1843–1914)". Professional Engineers Ontario. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  23. Thompson, Arthur Beeby (1916). Oil-field Development and Petroleum Mining. Van Nostrand.
  24. Schwarz, Robert (1930). Petroleum-Vademecum: International Petroleum Tables (VII ed.). Berlin and Vienna: Verlag für Fachliteratur. pp. 4–5.
  25. Magocsi 1983, p. 106.
  26. Subtelny, Orest. "Ukraine: a history (Gazette de Leopol)". p. 283.(in English)
  27. Subtelny, Orest. "Ukraine: a history (Zoria Halytska)". p. 248.(in English)


Further reading