Garfield County, Oklahoma

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Garfield County, Oklahoma
Garfield County Courthouse front.jpg
Garfield County Courthouse
Map of Oklahoma highlighting Garfield County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Oklahoma
Map of USA OK.svg
Oklahoma's location within the U.S.
Founded1893
Named for James A. Garfield
Seat Enid
Largest cityEnid
Area
  Total1,060 sq mi (2,745 km2)
  Land1,058 sq mi (2,740 km2)
  Water1.6 sq mi (4 km2), 0.2%
Population (est.)
  (2013)62,267
  Density57/sq mi (22/km2)
Congressional district 3rd
Time zone Central: UTC−6/−5
Website www.garfieldok.com
The county courthouse in 1908. Enid Courthouse 1908.png
The county courthouse in 1908.

Garfield County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 60,580. [1] Enid is the county seat and largest city within Garfield County. [2] The county is named after President James A. Garfield. [3]

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Contents

Garfield County comprises the Enid, OK Metropolitan Statistical Area. [4]

Prior to the Land Run of 1893, Garfield County was named O County and was part of the Cherokee Outlet, occupied by the Cherokee people following the Treaty of New Echota and the Cherokee trail of tears. [5] Historically, the area was a hunting ground for the Wichita, Osage, and Kiowa tribes.

Land Run of 1893

The Land Run of 1893, also known as the Cherokee Outlet Opening or the Cherokee Strip Land Run, marked the opening to settlement of the Cherokee Outlet in Oklahoma's fourth and largest land run. It was part of what would later become the U.S. state of Oklahoma in 1907.

Cherokee Outlet

The Cherokee Outlet, or Cherokee Strip, was located in what is now the state of Oklahoma in the United States. It was a sixty-mile (97 km) wide parcel of land south of the Oklahoma-Kansas border between the 96th and 100th meridians. The Cherokee Outlet was created in 1836. The United States forced the Cherokee Nation of Indians to cede to the United States all lands east of the Mississippi River in exchange for a reservation and an "outlet" in Indian Territory. At the time of its creation, the Cherokee Outlet was about 225 miles (360 km) long. The cities of Enid, Woodward, and Ponca City would later be founded within the boundaries of what had been the Cherokee Outlet.

Treaty of New Echota treaty

The Treaty of New Echota was a treaty signed on December 29, 1835, in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and representatives of a minority Cherokee political faction, the Treaty Party.

The Chisholm Trail, stage coach lines, mail routes, and railroads passed through stations at Buffalo Springs and Skeleton, today known as Bison and Enid. [6] [7] Railroad development in the county began four years prior to the land opening. Enid became a central hub within the county. [8] Historical railroads included Enid and Tonkawa Railway, Enid and Anadarko Railway, Blackwell, Enid and Southwestern Railway, Enid Central Railway and the Denver, Enid and Gulf Railroad.

Chisholm Trail

The Chisholm Trail was a trail used in the post-Civil War era to drive cattle overland from ranches in Texas to Kansas railheads. The trail was established by Delaware scout and cattle rancher Black Beaver and his friend Jesse Chisholm who was a merchant. The southern terminus was a trading post near the Red River, and the Northern terminus was a trading post near Kansas City, Kansas. Both trading posts were owned by Chisholm.


The Enid and Tonkawa Railway Company' was incorporated on March 20, 1899, under the laws of the territory of Oklahoma. The company constructed a railroad line from North Enid, Oklahoma, to Billings, Oklahoma. The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad purchased the company on December 22, 1899. Rock Island completed the line from North Enid to Tonkawa, Oklahoma.

The Enid and Anadarko Railway Company' was incorporated on March 9, 1901 under the laws of the territory of Oklahoma by M.A. Low, J.C. Marshall, I.G. Conkling, H.D. Crossley and S.H. Thompson. The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway purchased the Enid and Anadarko Railway on October 21, 1903.

Geography

Early map of Garfield County. Garfield county.jpg
Early map of Garfield County.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,060 square miles (2,700 km2), of which 1,058 square miles (2,740 km2) is land and 1.6 square miles (4.1 km2) (0.2%) is water. [9] Several creeks run through the county, including Black Bear, Boggy, Red Rock, Rock, Skeleton, and Turkey. [8]

Wheat is a major part of the Garfield County economy. Its county seat, Enid, is named the Wheat Capital of Oklahoma. Garfield County Oklahoma Wheat.jpg
Wheat is a major part of the Garfield County economy. Its county seat, Enid, is named the Wheat Capital of Oklahoma.

Adjacent counties

Grant County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Grant County is a county located on the northern border of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,527. Its county seat is Medford. Originally designated as part of the Cherokee Outlet, it was named County L in Oklahoma Territory at the time of its opening to non-Indian settlement. A county election renamed it for U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant.

Noble County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Noble County is located in the north central part of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,561. Its county seat is Perry. It was part of the Cherokee Outlet in Indian Territory until Oklahoma Territory was created in 1890, and the present county land was designated as County P. After the U. S. government opened the area to non-Indian settlement in 1893, it was renamed Noble County for John Willock Noble, then the United States Secretary of the Interior.

Logan County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Logan County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,848. Its county seat is Guthrie.

Major highways

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1890 22,076
1900 10,037−54.5%
1910 33,050229.3%
1920 37,50013.5%
1930 45,58821.6%
1940 45,484−0.2%
1950 52,82016.1%
1960 52,9750.3%
1970 55,3654.5%
1980 62,82013.5%
1990 56,735−9.7%
2000 57,8131.9%
2010 60,5804.8%
Est. 201662,603 [10] 3.3%
U.S. Decennial Census [11]
1790-1960 [12] 1900-1990 [13]
1990-2000 [14] 2010-2013 [1]
Age pyramid for Garfield County, Oklahoma. USA Garfield County, Oklahoma age pyramid.svg
Age pyramid for Garfield County, Oklahoma.

As of the census [15] of 2000, there were 57,813 people, 23,175 households, and 15,805 families residing in the county. The population density was 55 people per square mile (21/km²). There were 26,047 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile (10/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 88.65% White, 3.26% Black or African American, 2.11% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.49% Pacific Islander, 2.02% from other races, and 2.62% from two or more races. 4.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 23,175 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.20% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.80% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, and 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $33,006, and the median income for a family was $39,872. Males had a median income of $29,921 versus $20,791 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,457. About 10.50% of families and 13.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.70% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over.

Politics

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of January 15, 2019 [16]
PartyNumber of VotersPercentage
Democratic 7,16023.56%
Republican 18,47260.79%
Others4,75315.64%
Total30,385100%
Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results [17]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 73.7%16,00920.3% 4,3976.0% 1,304
2012 76.2%15,17723.8% 4,733
2008 75.5%17,06724.5% 5,545
2004 76.0%17,68524.0% 5,586
2000 68.7%14,90230.2% 6,5431.1% 238
1996 53.6%11,71234.4% 7,50412.0% 2,625
1992 51.4%13,09526.4% 6,72022.3% 5,670
1988 64.8%15,24834.3% 8,0671.0% 223
1984 76.9%19,64222.4% 5,7300.6% 162
1980 72.5%17,98923.0% 5,7184.5% 1,121
1976 60.5%14,20238.2% 8,9691.3% 303
1972 79.1%19,34818.6% 4,5572.3% 564
1968 62.0%14,37025.0% 5,80213.0% 3,011
1964 54.7%12,29745.3% 10,175
1960 69.3%14,86030.7% 6,582
1956 69.4%15,34830.6% 6,769
1952 71.4%17,58928.6% 7,047
1948 55.8%10,35244.3% 8,217
1944 58.5%11,21141.1% 7,8790.3% 65
1940 52.6%10,79246.6% 9,5440.8% 166
1936 39.8% 7,45759.5%11,1420.7% 124
1932 38.8% 6,83761.2%10,773
1928 77.8%12,74821.4% 3,5030.9% 141
1924 56.3%7,52428.4% 3,79115.4% 2,054
1920 60.9%6,61133.8% 3,6715.3% 576
1916 48.4%2,85439.8% 2,34711.8% 694
1912 50.7%2,90041.1% 2,3538.2% 466

Economy

Primary industries in Garfield County are agriculture and livestock. Historically, crops have included wheat, corn, oats, sorghum, Kaffir corn, and alfalfa. [8] In addition, oil and gas and flour milling have proved fruitful for the county. The county seat of Enid, Oklahoma has the most grain storage capacity in the United States and one of the largest grain elevators in the world. Vance Air Force Base is also a major employer in the area of both soldiers and civilians.

Communities

Cities

Towns

Census-designated place

Other unincorporated places

NRHP sites

The Garfield County Courthouse, one of many Garfield County sites on the National Register of Historic Places, is located in downtown Enid, Oklahoma. The Garfield County Courthouse in Enid.jpg
The Garfield County Courthouse, one of many Garfield County sites on the National Register of Historic Places, is located in downtown Enid, Oklahoma.

The following sites in Garfield County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:

Covington
Enid
Hunter

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Covington, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Covington is a town in Garfield County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 527 at the 2010 census.

Douglas, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Douglas is a town in Garfield County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 32 at the 2010 census.

Fairmont, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Fairmont is a town in Garfield County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 134 at the 2010 census, a decrease from 147 at the 2000 census.

Garber, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Garber is a city in Garfield County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 822 at the 2010 census. The city is named after Martin Garber, father of Milton C. Garber, former U.S. congressman, Enid mayor, newspaper editor, and judge. The land was previously part of the Cherokee Outlet, until the U.S. government declared it open to non-Indian settlement in 1893.

North Enid, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

North Enid is a town in Garfield County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 860 at the 2010 census. The town is served by the Chisholm school district. North Enid was the original railroad town site in the Enid–Pond Creek Railroad War.

Waukomis, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Waukomis is a town in Garfield County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 1,286 at the 2010 census, an increase of 2.0 percent from 1,261 in 2000.

References

  1. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 134.
  4. "Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. July 15, 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 10, 2016. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  5. Turner, Alvin O. Cherokee Outlet Opening, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society, 2009. Accessed April 4, 2015.
  6. Fulbright, Jim, Hell on Rails: Oklahoma Towns at War with the Rock Island Railroad, Wild West Magazine, December 2007
  7. Dortch, Steven D. The Chisholm Trail, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society, 2009, Accessed April 4, 2015.
  8. 1 2 3 Wilson, Linda D. Garfield County, Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, Oklahoma Historical Society, 2009. Accessed April 4, 2015.
  9. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  10. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  11. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  12. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  13. Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  14. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  15. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  16. "Oklahoma Registration Statistics by County" (PDF). OK.gov. January 15, 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-27.
  17. Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-03-29.

Coordinates: 36°23′N97°47′W / 36.38°N 97.78°W / 36.38; -97.78