Southwestern Oklahoma

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The Antelope Hills of Southwest Oklahoma in the distance AntelopeHills.jpg
The Antelope Hills of Southwest Oklahoma in the distance
Wichita Mountains Narrows Wichita Mountains Narrows.jpg
Wichita Mountains Narrows

Southwest Oklahoma is a geographical name for the southwest portion of the state of Oklahoma, typically considered to be south of the Canadian River, extending eastward from the Texas border to a line roughly from Weatherford, to Anadarko, to Duncan. Geologically, the region is defined by a failed continental rift known as the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen. The austere nature of the prairie landscape with intermittent island ranges has made it a favorable place for artists and photographers alike. For tourism purposes, the Oklahoma Tourism and Recreation Department has designated Southwestern Oklahoma as Great Plains Country, and defined it to consist of 14 counties including Roger Mills, Custer, Beckham, Washita, Caddo, Kiowa, Greer, Harmon, Jackson, Comanche, Tillman, Cotton, Stephens, and Jefferson counties. [1]

Contents

American Bison Wichita Mountains Bison.jpg
American Bison

Anchored by Lawton, its largest city, Southwest Oklahoma's other important urban centers include Elk City, Clinton, Weatherford, Walters, Altus, and Duncan.

History

One section of the 1890 Organic Act established that a lawsuit should be filed to clarify the boundary between Oklahoma and Texas. [2] The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1896 that what had been considered part of Texas would now be part of Oklahoma Territory. [2] The area makes up the southwestern corner of Oklahoma and today consists of Beckham County, Harmon County, Jackson County, and Greer County. [2]

Another portion of Southwestern Oklahoma was opened up through the Land Run of 1892. Land formerly owned by the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes became Oklahoma Territory and today includes Blaine County, Dewey County, Custer County, and Roger Mills County and Washita County. [3]

Geography

A canyon in the Wichita Mountains near Lawton. Wichita Canyon.jpg
A canyon in the Wichita Mountains near Lawton.

Consisting of grassland and gently rolling hills, Southwest Oklahoma is atypical to the rest of the Great Plains region of the United States, as it is less dry than adjacent West Texas and contains many geographic features which further differentiates the unique climate. The area has a humid subtropical climate, receiving anywhere from about 20 inches of precipitation annually in the far west, to 35 inches annually in the eastern section. [4] Monsoon-like rains are common in the spring months, while periods of drought can occur throughout other parts of the year.

The region has several small, sky island mountain ranges, the largest of which being the Wichita Mountains, considered by geologists to be one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world. [5]

Mount Sheridan Mount Sheridan, Oklahoma.jpg
Mount Sheridan

The region is known for its many rare, relic plant species, acting as the northern and western boundaries for many iconic plant species such as the escarpment live oak, nolina, bigtooth maple, and sugar maple.

Significant geographic landmarks include the Black Kettle National Grassland, the Taovayan Valley, the Wichita Mountains, the Antelope Hills, and the Quartz Mountains.

Climate

Southwestern Oklahoma has a humid subtropical climate with frequent variations in weather. [6]

The average mean temperature for Southwestern Oklahoma is 61.9 °F (16.6 °C). The summers have an average 21 days with temperatures 100 °F (37.8 °C) and above. [7] The area averages eight days that fail to rise above freezing. [7] The region receives about 31.6 inches (800 mm) of precipitation. [7]

Typically in late April through early June, Southwestern Oklahoma is prone to severe weather which can include tornadoes. [8] Notably in 1957, an F4 tornado and again in 1979 an F3 tornado struck the southern region of Lawton. [9]

Wichita Mountains - Oklahoma (5339668791).jpg

Economy

Southwestern Oklahoma's economy is anchored in the United States Armed Forces and agriculture, manufacturing, and energy industries. Two military bases, Fort Sill in Lawton and Altus Air Force Base east-northeast of Altus, Oklahoma, are large employers in the region. Cattle is a major agricultural product of the region. Wind farms and oil and gas companies are other major employers in the region.

Education

Southwestern Oklahoma is home to both public and private primary and secondary schools, though there are fewer private schools than in other parts of the state, such as Oklahoma City and Tulsa.

The Oklahoma public school system is known for its pre-kindergarten education. The National Institute for Early Education Research rated it first in the United States with regard to standards, quality, and access to pre-kindergarten education in 2004, calling it a model for early childhood education. [10] In 2004, the state ranked 36th in the nation for the relative number of adults with high school diplomas, though at 85.2 percent, it had the highest rate among southern states. [11] [12]

Private schools in the Southwestern Oklahoma include Western Oklahoma Christian School in Clinton and Corn Bible Academy in Corn.

Cameron University is the largest four-year, public university in Southwestern Oklahoma. [13] The university has an average fall enrollment of 6,000 students with 70 endowed faculty positions. [14]

The region is also home to Southwestern Oklahoma State University, a public university with locations in Weatherford and Sayre. It was placed at Tier 1 in the category "Regional Universities (West)" in the 2011 U.S. News & World Report. [15] SWOSU has 15 nationally accredited academic programs—the most among Oklahoma's senior regional universities.

The Comanche Nation College in Lawton provides lower division programs.

The region is also served by the Great Plains Technology Center and Western Technology Center, both of which are part of the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education System.

Related Research Articles

Washita County, Oklahoma U.S. county in Oklahoma

Washita County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,629. Its county seat is New Cordell. The county seat was formerly located in Cloud Chief. The county was created in 1891.

Kiowa County, Oklahoma U.S. county in Oklahoma

Kiowa County is a county located in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,446. Its county seat is Hobart. The county was created in 1901 as part of Oklahoma Territory. It was named for the Kiowa people.

Jackson County, Oklahoma U.S. county in Oklahoma

Jackson County is a county located in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,446. Its county seat is Altus. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the county was named for two historical figures: President Andrew Jackson and Confederate General Stonewall Jackson. One source states that the county was named only for the former President, while an earlier source states it was named only for General Stonewall Jackson.

Custer County, Oklahoma U.S. county in Oklahoma

Custer County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,469. Its county seat is Arapaho. The county was named in honor of General George Armstrong Custer.

Comanche County, Oklahoma U.S. county in Oklahoma

Comanche County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 124,098, making it the fourth-most populous county in Oklahoma. Its county seat is Lawton. The county was created in 1901 as part of Oklahoma Territory. It was named for the Comanche tribal nation.

Caddo County, Oklahoma U.S. county in Oklahoma

Caddo County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,600. Its county seat is Anadarko. Created in 1901 as part of Oklahoma Territory, the county is named for the Caddo tribe who were settled here on a reservation in the 1870s. Caddo County is immediately west of the seven-county Greater Oklahoma City metro area, and although is not officially in the metro area, it has many economic ties in this region.

Lawton, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma

Lawton is a city in, and the county seat of, Comanche County, in the State of Oklahoma. Located in southwestern Oklahoma, about 87 mi (140 km) southwest of Oklahoma City, it is the principal city of the Lawton, Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the 2010 census, Lawton's population was 96,867, making it the fifth-largest city in the state.

Weatherford, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Weatherford is a city in Custer County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 10,833 at the 2010 census.

Altus, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Altus is a city and the county seat in Jackson County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 19,813 at the 2010 census, a loss of 7.7 percent compared to 21,454 at the 2000 census.

Lake Altus-Lugert lake of the United States of America

Lake Altus-Lugert, also known as Lake Altus and Lake Lugert is a reservoir located on the North Fork Red River, about 17 miles (27 km) north of Altus, Oklahoma on the former site of the town of Lugert, Oklahoma. The river is the boundary between Greer County and Kiowa County, Oklahoma. The lake is used for fishing, boating, swimming, and irrigation. This is also the principal water supply for Altus.

Quartz Mountains

The Quartz Mountains are an extension of the Wichita Mountains in the far southwestern part of the state of Oklahoma. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the range was originally formed about 550 million years ago as a "failed continental rift". It was uplifted about 300 million years ago and has since weathered into its current condition. The unique geography provides cover for the most northerly population of live oak, quercus fusiformis. This rare oak is generally regarded as the most cold hardy evergreen oak.

The Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribal Nations are a united, federally recognized tribe of Southern Arapaho and Southern Cheyenne people in western Oklahoma.

The History of Lawton, Oklahoma refers to the history of the southwestern Oklahoma city of Lawton, Oklahoma. Lawton's history starts with opening of American Indian reservation lands in the early 1900s and has seen population and economic growth throughout the 20th Century due to its proximity with Fort Sill.

A Wind Advisory is generally issued by the National Weather Service of the United States when there are sustained winds of 31–39 miles per hour (50–63 km/h) and/or gusts of 46–57 miles per hour (74–92 km/h) over land. The product is site specific, but winds of this magnitude occurring over an area that frequently experiences such wind speeds will not trigger a wind advisory.

Richard Darby is an American lawyer and an Associate Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court. On April 5, 2018, Governor Mary Fallin appointed Darby to the Oklahoma Supreme Court to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Joseph M. Watt.

References

  1. "Counties & Regions". Oklahoma Tourism and Recreation Department (Travel Promotion Division). Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 Heisch, John D., "Old Greer County," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture Archived 2010-05-31 at the Wayback Machine (accessed June 17, 2010).
  3. Reggio, Michael H., "Cheyenne-Arapaho Land Opening Archived 2015-01-19 at the Wayback Machine ," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture Archived 2010-05-31 at the Wayback Machine (accessed June 17, 2010).
  4. Nationalatlas.gov (accessed May 1, 2010)
  5. "Refuge History". U.S. fish and Wildlife Service. USFWS. 2006. p. 1. Archived from the original (web) on 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2007-03-15.
  6. "Oklahoma's Climate: an Overview" (pdf). University of Oklahoma. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  7. 1 2 3 "Climatography of the United States NO. 20 19712000:Lawton, OK" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  8. Rodger Edwards, Storm Prediction Center. "Tornado Climatology" . Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  9. National Weather Service - Norman. "Comanche County, OK Tornadoes (1875–2009)" . Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  10. "Superintendent Garrett announces Oklahoma No. 1 in Pre-Kindergarten". Oklahoma State Department of Education. 2004-11-19. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  11. "High school diploma or higher, by percentage by state". Statemaster.com. 2004. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  12. "Missouri and the Nation". University of Missouri. 2007-02-09. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  13. Cameron University. "Academic Information". Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  14. Cameron University. "CU Fast Facts" . Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  15. Southwestern Oklahoma State University | Best College | US News. Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. (accessed October 6, 2013)

Coordinates: 34°30′N98°30′W / 34.5°N 98.5°W / 34.5; -98.5