Lincoln County, Oklahoma

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Lincoln County, Oklahoma
Chandler, Oklahoma USA - Route 66 Interpretive Center (National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Oklahoma) - panoramio.jpg
Map of Oklahoma highlighting Lincoln County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Oklahoma
Map of USA OK.svg
Oklahoma's location within the U.S.
Founded1891
Named for Abraham Lincoln [1]
Seat Chandler
Largest cityChandler
Area
  Total966 sq mi (2,502 km2)
  Land952 sq mi (2,466 km2)
  Water13 sq mi (34 km2), 1.4%
Population (est.)
  (2013)34,351
  Density35/sq mi (14/km2)
Congressional district 3rd
Time zone Central: UTC−6/−5

Lincoln County is a county in eastern Central Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,273. [2] Its county seat is Chandler. [3]

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

2010 United States Census 23rd national census of the United States, taken in 2010

The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.

Contents

Lincoln County is part of the Oklahoma City, OK Metropolitan Statistical Area. [4]

Oklahoma City State capital city in Oklahoma, United States

Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The county seat of Oklahoma County, the city ranks 27th among United States cities in population. The population grew following the 2010 Census, with the population estimated to have increased to 649,021 as of July 2018. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area had a population of 1,396,445, and the Oklahoma City-Shawnee Combined Statistical Area had a population of 1,469,124 residents, making it Oklahoma's largest municipality and metropolitan area by population.

Oklahoma City metropolitan area Metropolitan area in Oklahoma, United States

The Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area is an urban region in Central Oklahoma. It is the largest metropolitan area in the state of Oklahoma and contains the state capital and principal city, Oklahoma City. It is often known as the Oklahoma City Metro, Oklahoma City Metroplex, or Greater Oklahoma City in addition to the nicknames Oklahoma City is known for.

In 2010, the center of population of Oklahoma was in Lincoln County, near the town of Sparks. [5]

Center of population

In demographics, the centre of population of a region is a geographical point that describes a centrepoint of the region's population. There are several different ways of defining such a "centre point", leading to different geographical locations; these are often confused.

Sparks, Oklahoma Town in Oklahoma, United States

Sparks is a town in Lincoln County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 169 at the 2010 census, a 23.4 percent gain from 137 at the 2000 census. The center of population of Oklahoma is located in Sparks.

History

The United States purchased the large tract of land known as the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803. Washington Irving, Charles J. Latrobe, and Count Albert de Pourtalès accompanied Henry L. Ellsworth and others on an expedition in Indian Territory that may have passed through the far northwestern corner of the future Lincoln County. [1]

Washington Irving American writer, historian and diplomat

Washington Irving was an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories "Rip Van Winkle" (1819) and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" (1820), both of which appear in his collection The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. His historical works include biographies of Oliver Goldsmith, Islamic prophet Muhammad, and George Washington, as well as several histories of 15th century Spain that deal with subjects such as Alhambra, Christopher Columbus, and the Moors.

Indian Territory U.S. 17th-, 18th- and early-20th-century territory set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of the indigenous peoples of the Americas

As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War (1861–1865), the policy of the government was one of assimilation.

The Osage hunted on land that includes present-day Lincoln County until they ceded the area in an 1825 treaty to the federal government. The government then assigned the land to the Creek and the Seminoles after they were removed from the southeastern United States. After the Civil War in 1866, these tribes were forced to give up lands that included present-day Lincoln County in Reconstruction Treaties for siding with the Confederacy. [1]

Osage Nation Native American Siouan-speaking tribe in the United States

The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family. They migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, and the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy). The most studied and written about episode in U.S. history, the Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

The federal government then used the area to resettle the Sac and Fox, Potawatomi, Kickapoo and Ioway tribes. Established in 1870, the Sac and Fox agency, established on the eastern edge of the present-day county, was the first settlement in the area. [1]

Potawatomi Native American peoples

The Pottawatomi, also spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi, are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, and western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. The Potawatomi called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Odawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples.

Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma

The Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma is one of three federally recognized Kickapoo tribes in the United States. There are also Kickapoo tribes in Kansas, Texas, and Mexico. The Kickapoo are a Woodland tribe, who speak an Algonquian language. They are affiliated with the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas, the Kickapoo Tribe in Kansas, and the Mexican Kickapoo.

In 1890, the Jerome Commission negotiated with the tribes of the area such that they agreed to allotment of their reservation lands, except for the Kickapoo. Indian lands were allotted to individual tribal members and the excess were opened to white settlement in the Land Run of 1891. A separate land run was held later that year for the townsite of the predesignated county seat, Chandler. Lincoln County was organized and designated as County A. In 1895, the Kickapoo agreed to allotment and the land was claimed by settlers during the Land Run of 1895. [1]

The voters chose the name Lincoln County for County A in honor of President Abraham Lincoln, selecting it over the names Sac and Fox and Springer. [1]

Geography

Midwinter in the cross timbers of western Lincoln County. Native blackjack and little bluestem. Blackjack and little bluestem.png
Midwinter in the cross timbers of western Lincoln County. Native blackjack and little bluestem.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 966 square miles (2,500 km2), of which 952 square miles (2,470 km2) is land and 13 square miles (34 km2) (1.4%) is water. [6] The county is drained by the Deep Fork of the Canadian River. The eastern part of the county lies in the Cross Timbers and the Sandstone Hills, while the western part is in the Red Bed Plains. [1]

Major highways

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1900 27,007
1910 34,77928.8%
1920 33,406−3.9%
1930 33,7381.0%
1940 29,529−12.5%
1950 22,102−25.2%
1960 18,783−15.0%
1970 19,4823.7%
1980 26,60136.5%
1990 29,2169.8%
2000 32,0809.8%
2010 34,2736.8%
Est. 201635,129 [7] 2.5%
U.S. Decennial Census [8]
1790-1960 [9] 1900-1990 [10]
1990-2000 [11] 2010-2013 [2]
Age pyramid for Lincoln County, Oklahoma, based on census 2000 data. USA Lincoln County, Oklahoma age pyramid.svg
Age pyramid for Lincoln County, Oklahoma, based on census 2000 data.

As of the census [12] of 2000, 32,080 people, 12,178 households, and 9,121 families resided in the county. The population density was 34 people per square mile (13/km²). There were 13,712 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile (6/km²). The county's racial makeup was 86.43% White, 2.46% Black or African American, 6.57% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, and 3.82% from two or more races. 1.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 12,178 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.50% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.10% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the county, the population was spread out with 27.40% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males.

The county's median household income was $31,187, and the median family income was $36,310. Males had a median income of $28,647 versus $20,099 for females. The county's per capita income was $14,890. About 11.10% of families and 14.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.90% of those under age 18 and 12.10% of those age 65 or over.

Government and politics

Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of January 15, 2019 [13]
PartyNumber of VotersPercentage
Democratic 5,93330.61%
Republican 10,73555.38%
Unaffiliated2,71614.01%
Total19,384100%
Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results [14]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 77.4%10,85417.3% 2,4305.3% 741
2012 74.5%9,55325.5% 3,273
2008 74.9%10,47025.1% 3,504
2004 71.5%10,14928.5% 4,041
2000 63.1%7,38735.4% 4,1401.5% 174
1996 47.1%5,24339.0% 4,33213.9% 1,547
1992 42.8%5,31531.4% 3,90425.8% 3,204
1988 59.7%6,40939.3% 4,2251.0% 106
1984 72.3%8,08827.0% 3,0200.7% 81
1980 63.3%6,06433.7% 3,2313.0% 290
1976 46.4% 4,42952.2%4,9881.4% 133
1972 75.0%6,51222.1% 1,9192.9% 254
1968 47.4%3,85528.4% 2,30424.2% 1,969
1964 43.3% 3,85456.7%5,046
1960 62.9%5,52837.1% 3,255
1956 56.1%4,99343.9% 3,909
1952 58.7%5,77841.3% 4,071
1948 44.2% 3,89855.8%4,913
1944 54.9%4,80144.7% 3,9100.3% 28
1940 54.2%6,26945.5% 5,2710.3% 34
1936 47.8% 5,45251.8%5,9030.5% 52
1932 31.5% 3,50568.6%7,641
1928 70.7%6,11827.8% 2,4051.5% 126
1924 51.2%4,22039.8% 3,2839.0% 739
1920 59.2%5,26133.6% 2,9807.2% 640
1916 41.7%2,38739.4% 2,25818.9% 1,081
1912 44.2%2,45938.4% 2,13717.4% 969

United States Congress

SenatorsNamePartyFirst ElectedLevel
 Senate Class 1 Jim Inhofe Republican 1994Senior Senator
 Senate Class 2 James Lankford Republican 2014Junior Senator
RepresentativesNamePartyFirst Elected
 District 3 Frank Lucas Republican 1994

Oklahoma Senate

DistrictNamePartyFirst ElectedHometown
 28 Jason Smalley Republican 2014 Stroud

Oklahoma House of Representatives

DistrictNamePartyFirst ElectedHometown
 32Kevin Wallace Republican 2014 Wellston

Economy

The county economy has largely depended on agriculture. Cotton almost immediately became the dominant crop after white settlement. During the first decade of the twentieth century, Lincoln County was one of the top two counties producing cotton in Oklahoma. By the end of the Great Depression the economy had become more diversified. Oil furnished one-third of county tax revenue, and cattle raising and pecan growing became important income sources. By the turn of the 21st Century, the county economy had diversified and was based primarily on professional services, small businesses, and service industries. [1]

Communities

1905 map of Lincoln County showing locations of many of the old communities, post offices, and railroad stops which no longer exist. Lincoln Co OK 1905.png
1905 map of Lincoln County showing locations of many of the old communities, post offices, and railroad stops which no longer exist.

Cities

Towns

Unincorporated communities

Notable people

NRHP sites

The following sites in Lincoln County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mullins, William H. "Lincoln County - Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture". Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  2. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  3. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  4. "County Profiles". www.greateroklahomacity.com. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  5. "Centers of Population by State: 2010". United State Census Bureau. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  6. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  7. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  8. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  9. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  10. Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  11. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  12. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  13. "Oklahoma Registration Statistics by County" (PDF). OK.gov. January 15, 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-27.
  14. Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-03-29.

Coordinates: 35°42′N96°53′W / 35.70°N 96.88°W / 35.70; -96.88