Cimarron County, Oklahoma

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Cimarron County, Oklahoma
Boise City Courthouse.JPG
Cimarron County Courthouse in Boise City
Map of Oklahoma highlighting Cimarron County.svg
Location within the U.S. state of Oklahoma
Map of USA OK.svg
Oklahoma's location within the U.S.
Founded1907
Seat Boise City
Largest cityBoise City
Area
  Total1,841 sq mi (4,768 km2)
  Land1,835 sq mi (4,753 km2)
  Water6.1 sq mi (16 km2), 0.3%
Population (est.)
  (2013)2,335
  Density1.3/sq mi (0.5/km2)
Time zones Central: UTC−6/−5
Mountain: UTC−7/−6
Kenton (unofficially)
NASA satellite image of Cimarron County, August 2008 OKPanhand8-08.jpg
NASA satellite image of Cimarron County, August 2008

Cimarron County is the westernmost county in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,475, [1] making it the least-populous county in Oklahoma. Its county seat is Boise City. [2]

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Oklahoma State of the United States of America

Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans, and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

Contents

Located in the Oklahoma Panhandle, Cimarron County contains the only community in the state (Kenton) that observes the Mountain Time Zone. Black Rock Mesa, the highest point in the state, is in the northwest corner of the county. Throughout most of its history it has had both the smallest population and the lowest population density of any county in Oklahoma.

Oklahoma Panhandle panhandle in north-western Oklahoma

The Oklahoma Panhandle is the extreme northwestern region of the U.S. state of Oklahoma, consisting of Cimarron County, Texas County and Beaver County, from west to east. As with other salients in the United States, its name comes from the similarity of its shape to the handle of a pan.

Kenton, Oklahoma CDP in Oklahoma, United States

Kenton is a census designated place (CDP) in Cimarron County, Oklahoma, United States. From Kenton, it is approximately 155 miles (249 km) south to Amarillo, Texas, 237 miles (381 km) northwest to Colorado Springs, Colorado, 306 miles (492 km) northwest to Denver, Colorado, 314 miles (505 km) southwest to Albuquerque, New Mexico, and 361 miles (581 km) southeast to Oklahoma City, the nearest major population centers.

Mountain Time Zone time zone of North America

The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when standard time is in effect, and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time (UTC−06:00). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time at the 105th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. In the United States, the exact specification for the location of time zones and the dividing lines between zones is set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations at 49 CFR 71.

History

Cimarron County was created at statehood in 1907. Before the Oklahoma Organic Act was passed in 1890, the area had belonged to what was known as "No Man's Land," also referred to as the "Public Land Strip." This was a relatively lawless area, with no organized government, and several outlaws sought refuge within its borders. In 1890, the strip became known as Beaver County, Oklahoma Territory. Informally, it was known as the "Oklahoma Panhandle." There were only two communities in the strip. One, Carrizo, had 83 residents in 1890, while the other, Mineral City, had 93 residents. Otherwise, the land was used primarily by sheepherders from New Mexico. [3]

Oklahoma Organic Act

An Organic Act is a generic name for a statute used by the United States Congress to describe a territory, in anticipation of being admitted to the Union as a state. Because of Oklahoma's unique history,, an explanation of the Oklahoma Organic Act needs a historic perspective. In general, the Oklahoma Organic Act may be viewed as one of a series of legislative acts, from the time of Reconstruction, enacted by Congress in preparation for the creation of a unified State of Oklahoma. The Organic Act created Oklahoma Territory, and Indian Territory that were Organized incorporated territories of the United States out of the old "unorganized" Indian Territory. The Oklahoma Organic Act was one of several acts whose intent was the assimilation of the tribes in Oklahoma and Indian Territories through the elimination of tribal reservations and the elimination of the tribes' communal ownership of property.

Beaver County, Oklahoma County in the United States

Beaver County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,636. The county seat is Beaver. The name was given because of the presence of many beaver dams on the Beaver River, which runs through the area. It is located in the Oklahoma Panhandle.

Seven communities vied to become county seat after statehood: Boise City, Cimarron, Doby, Hurley and Willowbar. A county election in 1908 selected Boise City. [3]

Railroads came late to this part of Oklahoma. The Elkhart and Santa Fe Railway built a line from Elkhart, Kansas through Cimarron County in 1925. It completed the link into New Mexico in 1932. Service ended in 1942. The same company built a line from Colorado to Boise City in 1931 and extended it into Texas in 1937. This line still operates and in 2000 was part of the BNSF system. [3]

Elkhart, Kansas City and County seat in Kansas, United States

Elkhart is a city in and the county seat of Morton County, Kansas, United States. The south edge of the city is the Kansas-Oklahoma state border, and the city is 8.5 miles (13.7 km) from the Kansas-Colorado border. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 2,205.

Geography

Black Mesa, the highest point in Oklahoma, is in the northwestern corner of Cimarron County. Black Mesa, Oklahoma high point.jpg
Black Mesa, the highest point in Oklahoma, is in the northwestern corner of Cimarron County.
Highway 412 in Cimarron County Highway 412 In The Oklahoma Panhandle.JPG
Highway 412 in Cimarron County

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,841 square miles (4,770 km2), of which 1,835 square miles (4,750 km2) is land and 6.1 square miles (16 km2) (0.3%) is water. [4] It is the fourth-largest county in Oklahoma by area. It also has Oklahoma's highest point at 4,973 feet (1,516 m) (AMSL) on the Black Mesa.

Black Mesa (Oklahoma) mesa in the U.S. states of Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma

Black Mesa is a mesa in the U.S. states of Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. It extends from Mesa de Maya, Colorado southeasterly 28 miles (45 km) along the north bank of the Cimarron River, crossing the northeast corner of New Mexico to end at the confluence of the Cimarron River and Carrizo Creek near Kenton in the Oklahoma panhandle. Its highest elevation is 5,705 feet (1,739 m) in Colorado. The highest point of Black Mesa within New Mexico is 5,239 feet (1,597 m). In northwestern Cimarron County, Oklahoma, Black Mesa reaches 4,973 feet (1,516 m), the highest point in the state of Oklahoma. The plateau that formed at the top of the mesa has been known as a "geological wonder" of North America. There is abundant wildlife in this shortgrass prairie environment, including mountain lions, butterflies, and the Texas horned lizard.

The northern part of the county is drained by the Cimarron River, which flows eastward, then turns north into Kansas, The southern part is drained by the North Canadian River (also called the Beaver River). The man-made Lake Carl Etling lies inside Black Mesa park. [3]

The Boise City Airport is located approximately four miles north of Boise City.

Major highways

Adjacent states and counties

Cimarron County is the only county in the United States that borders four states: Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas. [3] As a result, Cimarron County is the only county in the United States to border at least five counties from five different states (one from each of the four aforementioned states, plus one in Oklahoma and a second county in Texas).

A location 300 yards (270 m) east of US 287-385 and 1.75 miles (2.82 km) south of the Cimarron River is the only place in the US less than 27 miles (43 km) from five different states: 26.99 miles (43.44 km) from Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas and 7 miles (11 km) from Colorado. [5]

National protected area

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1910 4,553
1920 3,436−24.5%
1930 5,40857.4%
1940 3,054−43.5%
1950 4,58950.3%
1960 4,496−2.0%
1970 4,145−7.8%
1980 3,648−12.0%
1990 3,301−9.5%
2000 3,148−4.6%
2010 2,475−21.4%
Est. 20162,162 [6] −12.6%
U.S. Decennial Census [7]
1790-1960 [8] 1900-1990 [9]
1990-2000 [10] 2010-2013 [1]
Farmer and two sons during a dust storm in Cimarron County, April 1936 Farmer walking in dust storm Cimarron County Oklahoma2.jpg
Farmer and two sons during a dust storm in Cimarron County, April 1936

As of the 2010 census, there were 2,475 people, 1,047 households, and 705 families residing in the county. The population density was 2 people per square mile (1/km²). There were 1,587 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile (0/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 84.7% White, 0.2% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 12.1% from other races, and 1.8% from two or more races. 20.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race (16.4% Mexican, 1.4% Spanish, 0.2% Salvadoran). [12] [13]

There were 1,257 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.40% were married couples living together, 6.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.90% were non-families. 29.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the county, the population was spread out with 27.60% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 23.40% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, and 18.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.30 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $30,625, and the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had a median income of $24,327 versus $18,110 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,744. About 13.90% of families and 17.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.20% of those under age 18 and 10.10% of those age 65 or over.

Politics

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results [14]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 89.3%9636.6% 714.2% 45
2012 90.4%1,0829.6% 115
2008 88.0%1,11912.0% 152
2004 87.1%1,24212.9% 184
2000 82.9%1,23015.3% 2271.8% 27
1996 67.8%98624.8% 3617.4% 108
1992 59.4%96524.3% 39516.3% 264
1988 70.0%1,15328.5% 4701.5% 24
1984 79.2%1,42020.0% 3590.8% 15
1980 77.1%1,40420.5% 3732.4% 44
1976 46.4% 87251.2%9622.4% 45
1972 71.6%1,35017.1% 32311.3% 212
1968 53.8%1,12220.9% 43625.3% 527
1964 58.3%1,22541.8% 878
1960 65.4%1,31634.6% 696
1956 56.5%1,05343.5% 812
1952 67.1%1,43832.9% 705
1948 42.1% 65057.9%894
1944 52.1%82247.3% 7460.7% 11
1940 45.4% 84153.4%9891.2% 23
1936 29.1% 55570.3%1,3420.7% 13
1932 23.2% 57176.9%1,895
1928 66.0%1,13932.8% 5661.2% 20
1924 41.2% 58647.3%67211.5% 164
1920 53.5%63039.5% 4657.1% 83
1916 30.9% 23850.2%38718.9% 146
1912 37.0% 26348.2%34214.8% 105
Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of January 15, 2019 [15]
PartyNumber of VotersPercentage
Democratic 34721.61%
Republican 1,10368.68%
Others1569.71%
Total1,606100%

Economy

The county economy has been largely based on cattle ranching and agriculture throughout its history. Wheat and grain sorghum are the most important crops. The Dust Bowl devastated the county during the 1930s, and the deluges of 1942-1945 destroyed what was left; the economy had to be completely rebuilt. Oil and natural gas production became important in the 1960s, and a gas plant near Keyes began producing helium in 1959. In 2000, Cimarron County had the ninth largest per capita income of all Oklahoma counties. [3]

Communities

City

Town

Census-designated places

Other unincorporated places

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Young, Norma Gene. "Cimarron County," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, 2009. Accessed March 28, 2015.
  4. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
  5. From United States Geological Survey sources, an area one mile southwest of Goshen, MA is 27.3 miles (43.9 km) from five different states, second to this Cimarron County location.
  6. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  7. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
  8. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
  9. Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
  10. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
  11. Oklahoma's True Grit Dust Bowl Family, 77 Years Later; 405 Magazine.
  12. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved May 15, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  13. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved May 7, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  15. "Oklahoma Registration Statistics by County" (PDF). OK.gov. January 15, 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-27.

Further reading

Coordinates: 36°44′N102°31′W / 36.74°N 102.52°W / 36.74; -102.52