La Junta Indians

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La Junta Indians is a collective name for the various Indians living in the area known as La Junta de los Rios ("the confluence of the rivers": the Rio Grande and the Conchos River) on the borders of present-day West Texas and Mexico. In 1535 Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca recorded visiting these peoples while making his way to a Spanish settlement. They cultivated crops in the river floodplains, as well as gathering indigenous plants and catching fish from the rivers. They were part of an extensive trading network in the region. As a crossroads, the area attracted people of different tribes.

Rio Grande River forming part of the US-Mexico border

The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States and flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles (3,051 km) in the late 1980s, though course shifts occasionally result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is either the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America.

Texas State of the United States of America

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U.S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.

Mexico Country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Contents

In the eighteenth century, the Spanish set up missions in the area and the Native Americans gradually lost their tribal identifications. After suffering severe population losses through infectious disease, the Spanish slave trade, and attacks by raiding Apache and Comanche, the La Junta Indians disappeared. Some intermarried with Spanish soldiers and their descendants became part of the Mestizo population of Mexico; others merged with the Apache and Comanche; still others departed to work on Spanish haciendas and in silver mines.

The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers. The Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures.

Comanche Plains native North American tribe whose historic territory consisted of eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and northwest Texas

The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma.

Mestizo race

Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America and the Philippines that originally referred to a person of combined European and Indigenous American descent, regardless of where the person was born. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category in the casta system that was in use during the Spanish Empire's control of its American and Asian colonies. Nowadays though, particularly in Spanish America, mestizo has become more of a cultural term, with culturally mainstream Latin Americans regarded or termed as mestizos regardless of their actual ancestry and with the term Indian being reserved exclusively for people who have maintained a separate indigenous ethnic identity, language, tribal affiliation, etc. Consequently, today, the vast majority of Spanish-speaking Latin Americans are regarded as mestizos.

Setting

The Rio Grande and the Conchos River unite near the present-day cities of Presidio, Texas, and Ojinaga, Mexico. The Conchos is more than twice as large as the Rio Grande, but below the confluence the river is known as the Rio Grande. The area was named La Junta by Spanish explorers for the confluence, or junction, of rivers. A mile-wide floodplain extends from La Junta 35 miles upstream to Ruidosa and 18 miles downstream to Redford on the Rio Grande; it extends up the Rio Conchos 30 miles to Cuchillo Parado. The floodplain supports a thick growth of reeds, mesquite, willows, and groves of cottonwood trees.

Presidio, Texas City in Texas, United States

Presidio is a city in Presidio County, Texas, United States. It stands on the Rio Grande, on the opposite side of the U.S.–Mexico border from Ojinaga, Chihuahua. The name originates from the Spanish and means "jail". The population was 4,167 at the 2000 census, and had increased to 4,426 as of the 2010 US census.

La Junta is located at the confluence of the Conchos River and the Rio Grande. The Conchos River is the larger of the two. Conchos basin map.png
La Junta is located at the confluence of the Conchos River and the Rio Grande. The Conchos River is the larger of the two.

Two terraces rise 20 and 60 feet above the floodplain. Only desert vegetation grows on the terraces. The La Junta Indians lived on the terraces and used the floodplain for agriculture, fishing, hunting, and gathering wild foods. Rugged mountains ring the river valley and terraces. [1] La Junta is near the center of the Chihuahua Desert and receives an average of 10.8 inches (270 mm) of precipitation annually. Lengthy droughts are common. Summers are very hot and winters are mild, although freezes are frequent. [2]

Prehistory

The abundant water, plant, and animal life attracted indigenous peoples to the La Junta region for thousands of years. Settled village life, with agriculture supplementing traditional hunting and gathering, began by 1200 A.D. [3] Archaeologists suggest that La Junta was settled as an expansion southeastward of the Jornada Mogollon culture and people who lived around present-day El Paso, Texas, 200 miles up the Rio Grande. It may also have been influenced by Casas Grandes, a notable prehistoric Indian civilization of the late 14th century located 200 miles west in present-day Mexico. Its people built complex communities with multi-story buildings and used highly developed irrigation systems to support agriculture.

Indigenous peoples Ethnic group descended from and identified with the original inhabitants of a given region

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region (sedentary) or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world.

Mogollon culture ethnic group

Mogollon culture is an archaeological culture of Native American peoples from Southern New Mexico and Arizona, Northern Sonora and Chihuahua, and Western Texas, a region known as Oasisamerica.

El Paso, Texas City in Texas, United States

El Paso is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, in the far western part of the state. The 2017 population estimate for the city from the U.S. Census was 683,577. Its metropolitan statistical area (MSA) covers all of El Paso and Hudspeth counties in Texas, and has a population of 844,818.

Based on recent research of architectural styles and mortuary practices, scholars believe that the people of La Junta may have been indigenous to the area. Between 1450 and 1500 many of the Jornada Mogollon settlements in western Texas were abandoned, possibly because of drought that made agriculture infeasible. The inhabitants possibly reverted to a hunter-gatherer culture that has left few traces in the archaeological record. The settlements at La Junta apparently survived the drought, although changes in the types of dwellings occurred and distinctive, locally produced pottery became common—or more common. [4]

The architectural styles of the houses and mortuary practices differ from the Mogollon. Most of the pottery at La Junta from prehistoric times is Jornada Mogollon, but archeologists believe that it was imported by trading rather than locally produced. La Junta eventually produced its own distinct style of pottery, although perhaps not until about 1500 A.D. The La Junta people, although influenced by the Mogollon culture, may have been a different linguistic and ethnic group. [5]

Research on bones and teeth indicates that the La Junta people continued to be dependent on hunting and gathering even after they became settled villagers and adopted agriculture. Researchers were surprised to learn that the peoples received less than 25 percent of their subsistence from maize; the rest came from game and wild foods. This is in contrast to typical agricultural cultures in which people received the majority of nutrition from cultivated crops. [6]

Little of their language, or languages, was recorded; scholars have not agreed on the language of the La Junta people. The most common guess is that they spoke Uto-Aztecan, but Kiowa–Tanoan and Athapaskan (Apache) have also been suggested. As the La Junta people lived at a crossroads in the desert, they may have been different ethnic groups who spoke multiple languages. For instance, the nomadic Jumano were frequent visitors and trading partners; they may also have been part-time residents of the area and were known to be ethnically distinct from the full-time villagers. [7]

Given the limited amount of land suitable for agriculture and the austere environment, scholars estimate a population of 3,000 or 4,000 people at La Junta. But, the Spanish explorer Antonio de Espejo estimated the area's population at more than 10,000. The modern scholar Howard G. Applegate has calculated that the resources were sufficient to support such a population, [8] but others disagree. The population during the year probably varied, as many of the Indians were semi-nomadic. The Spanish referred to the various peoples at La Junta as Amotomancos, Otomoacos, Abriaches, Julimes, and Patarabueyes. They were sometimes collectively called Jumano, although that name may more properly apply to the nomadic buffalo hunters who also frequented La Junta. [9]

Spanish encounters

Cabeza de Vaca's route. La Junta is the area of the confluence of the Conchos River and the Rio Grande. Expedition Cabeza de Vaca Karte.png
Cabeza de Vaca's route. La Junta is the area of the confluence of the Conchos River and the Rio Grande.

The Spanish castaway Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca probably passed through or near La Junta in 1535 on his way to a Spanish settlement. He reported encountering "the people of the cows" and said they were "people with the best bodies that we saw and the greatest liveliness." [10] These were likely the Jumano, buffalo-hunting Indians who lived further north and east along the Pecos and Concho rivers, and traded and wintered in the La Junta region. Cabeza de Vaca described the area as well populated and agricultural, although with little good land. The Indians had not planted corn for the previous two years because of drought. De Vaca noted that they put hot stones in gourds to cook their food. They were not described as using pottery; like other nomadic peoples, they found it too heavy to be easily carried. (The Indians did not adopt horses from the Spanish until the 17th century.) [11]

In the 1580s, two small Spanish expeditions, that of Chamuscado and Rodriguez and the later Antonio de Espejo, passed through La Junta. They reported that the men were "handsome" and the women "beautiful," although "naked and barbarous people." [12] The Indians lived in low, flat-roofed houses; grew corn, squash and beans; and hunted and fished along the river. They gave the Spaniards well-tanned deer and buffalo skins. The expeditions' descriptions of La Junta indicated a more settled agricultural people than those described 50 years earlier by Cabeza de Vaca. [13]

They wrote that the houses at La Junta resembled

those of the Mexicans ... The natives built them square. They put up forked posts and in those they place rounded timbers the thickness of a man's thigh. Then they add stakes and plaster them with mud. Close to the houses they have granaries built of willow ... where they keep their provisions and harvest of mesquite and other things. [14]

This type of house is called a jacal . The floors of the houses were usually dug about 18 inches below ground level, which helped protect against temperature extremes. [14] [15] Built on terraces above the river, their towns had populations averaging about 600 people.

The people grew crops on the floodplains below their towns, planting in areas moistened by overflow from the rivers or near ephemeral streams. Agriculture under such conditions is risky; the people also depended on gathering wild foods such as mesquite, prickly pears, and agaves. They caught catfish in the rivers. Some of the La Junta Indians journeyed to the Great Plains 150 or more miles northeast to hunt buffalo or trade for buffalo meat with the nomadic Jumano. [16]

The Spanish found the Rio Grande Valley well-populated north to present-day El Paso, Texas. Beyond there, they encountered no people until the Pueblo settlements fifteen days' travel upriver from El Paso. Above La Junta they encountered peoples later called the Suma and Manso Indians. They seem to have been less agricultural and more nomadic than the people of La Junta. [17]

Based on the development of their weapons and shields, warfare between the La Junta Indians and their neighbors seemed common. Spanish explorers described composite bows strengthened with buffalo sinews and "excellent shields" of buffalo hide. [18]

Slave raids at La Junta by the Spanish may have begun as early as 1563; at about the same time that Apache Indians began raiding from the north. The Spanish transported captured La Junta Indians to work as laborers in the silver mines of Parral, Chihuahua. [19]

Later history

After the Spanish found shorter routes to travel north to their colonies in New Mexico, they bypassed La Junta. It became a quiet backwater of little interest except to slavers and priests. In the 17th century, the accumulated losses due to Eurasian infectious diseases, and Apache and Spanish raids caused the population to diminish.

In 1683, Juan Sabeata, a Jumano, re-ignited Spanish interest in La Junta. He appealed to the governor in El Paso to send priests to the area, saying that the Indians wanted to become Christian. Sabeata also asked the Spanish to help the La Junta to defend against the Apache. [20] Four priests and several soldiers were assigned to La Junta, arriving to find that the Indians had already built thatched-roof churches for them. The Spanish appointed Sabeata as governor and La Junta became temporarily prominent as a regional trade center, but Sabeata could not gain Spanish assistance to combat the Apache.

When the Indians all over northern Mexico revolted in 1689 to protest the continuing slave trade, the missions in La Junta were closed. The Spanish tried to reestablish a foothold there; a party visited in 1715, when they found the population had declined to 2,100. They did not build a fort and mission until 1760. By this time the La Junta Indians had further declined in number. Many of the survivors soon left the area, discouraged by the harshness of Spanish rule, continuing Apache raids, and a new threat from the Comanche, who had moved south from Colorado. Some La Junta Indians were forcibly transported to work in the silver mines of Parral; others intermarried with Spanish soldiers and their descendants became part of the Mestizo population; and still others joined their former enemies, the Apache and the Comanche. [21]

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References

  1. Kelley, J. Charles, "The Historic Indian Pueblos of La Junta de Los Rios," New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. 27, No, 4, Oct 1952, 258-260
  2. "Monthly Temperatures for Presidio, Texas", The Weather Channel, accessed Nov 29, 2010
  3. "La Junta de los Rios: Villagers of the Chihuahuan Desert Rivers", Texas Beyond History, 2007, University of Texas at Austin, accessed Nov 29, 2010
  4. Miller, Myles R. and Kenmotsu, Nancy A. "Prehistory of the Jornada Mogollon and Eastern Trans-Pecos Regions of West Texas," In Perttula, Timothy, The Prehistory of Texas. College Station: Texas A & M U Press, 2004, pp. 258-260
  5. "La Junta de los Rios: La Junta Reconsidered", Texas Beyond History, 2007, University of Texas at Austin, accessed Nov 29, 2010
  6. "La Junta de los Rios: New Insights", Texas Beyond History, 2007, University of Texas at Austin, accessed Nov 29,2010
  7. Riley, Carroll L. The Frontier People: The Greater Southwest in the Protohistoric Period. Albuquerque: U of NM Press, 1987, p. 297-298
  8. Applegate, Howard G. "The Demography of La Junta de los Rios del Norte y Conchos," The Journal of Big Bend Studies, Vol IV, 1972, pp. 43-73
  9. Riley (1987), "The Frontier People", pp. 293-296
  10. Kreiger, Alex D. We Came Naked and Barefoot: The Journey of Cabeza de Vaca across North America. Austin: U of TX Press, 2002, pp. 86-87
  11. Kreiger (2002), "We Came Naked", pp. 86-87
  12. Hammond, George P. and Rey, Agapito, The Rediscovery of New Mexico, 1580-1594. Albuquerque: U of NM Press, 1996, pp. 73-75, 169, 216-220
  13. Hammond and Rey (1996), Rediscovery of New Mexico, pp. 73-75, 169, 216-220
  14. 1 2 Riley (1997), "The Frontier People", 301
  15. Hammond and Rey (1996), "Rediscovery of New Mexico", 75
  16. Riley (1997), "The Frontier People", 298-300
  17. Hammond and Rey (1996), "Rediscovery of New Mexico", pp. 216-220
  18. Riley (1997), "The Frontier People", p. 306
  19. "Texas Beyond History", http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/junta/encounters.html, accessed 25 February 2015
  20. Hickerson, Nancy Parrott. The Jumanos: Hunters and Traders of the South Plains, Austin: U of Texas Press, 1994, pp. 128-130
  21. "La Junta de los Rios: Spanish Frontier" [ permanent dead link ], Texas Beyond History, 2007, University of Texas at Austin, Accessed Nov 30, 2010