International aid related to the COVID-19 pandemic

Last updated

Contents

Due to its severity, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused countries to send aid, as part of the international responses and management regarding the pandemic. Types of materials aided includes (but are not limited to) masks, medical supplies, personal protective equipment, money, and test kits. It started with aid to China as the virus spreads primarily there, and then internationally as it spreads globally. The destination of the aid ranges from hospitals, COVID-19 healthcare workers, research on the vaccine, to societies vulnerable. People donating includes the government of said country, notable people, organizations and institutions, charities, as well as regular people.

Aid to China

Receive

Some Chinese students at American universities sent aid, including 50,000 N95 masks on 30 January. [1] [2] [3] The humanitarian aid organization Direct Relief sent 200,000 face masks and other personal protective equipment to the Wuhan Union Hospital the same day. [4] On 5 February, the Chinese foreign ministry said 21 countries (including Belarus, Pakistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Egypt, and Iran) had sent aid to China, [5] as well as Bill and Melinda Gates announcing a $100 million donation to the WHO to fund vaccine research and treatment efforts and protect "at-risk populations in Africa and South Asia." [6] Interaksyon said the Chinese government had donated 200,000 masks to the Philippines on 6 February after Philippine senator Richard Gordon shipped 3.16 million masks to Wuhan. [7] On 19 February, the Singapore Red Cross announced it would send $2.26 million worth of aid to China. [8]

Several countries donated masks, medical equipment or money to China, including Japan, [9] Turkey, Russia, [10] Malaysia, [11] Germany, [12] and Canada. [13] [14] The U.S. State Department said on 7 February it had facilitated the transportation of nearly 17.8 tons of medical supplies to China. [15] The same day, U.S. Secretary of State Pompeo announced a $100 million pledge to China and other countries to aid their fights against the virus, [16] though on 21 March China said it had not received epidemic funding from the U.S. government and reiterated that on 3 April.[ citation needed ] Several corporations have also donated money or medical equipment to China. [17]

Sent

China also aided the things needed as other countries have the virus spread faster and their country's graphs lowered. [18] They, along with Cuba and Russia, sent experts and medical equipment to Italy in order to fight their virus outbreak, [19] [20] with China sending three medical teams and donated more than forty tons of medical supplies to Italy. [21] Businessman Jack Ma sent 1.1 million testing kits, 6 million face masks, and 60,000 protective suits to Ethiopia for distribution by the African Union. [22] [23] He later sent 5,000 testing kits, 100,000 face masks and 5 ventilators to Panama. [24] However, in August 2020, a corruption scandal emerged over Ma's medical donations to Africa. [25]

Aid to other parts of the world

Abkhazia

Russia supplied some 500 COVID-19 test kits and sent soldiers to Abkhazia to support disinfection of public places.[ citation needed ]

Afghanistan

On March 14, Beijing says that they will be helping Afghanistan, However, it was later reported that China's medical equipment were not up to standard and put Afghanistan's fight against COVID-19 at risk. [26] The United Arab Emirates also sent aid, and arrived the day before China's aid arrived. [26] Uzbekistan announced that they would send aid for the five northern provinces of Afghanistan. [27] Several countries, as well as the European Union, proceeded sending aid. The World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and World Health Organization says that they would be helping. [28] Oppositely, Afghanistan contributed $1 million to the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) emergency fund. [29]

Bulgaria

The Bulgarian government is looking into import opportunities of chloroquine from China, [30] however exports of all quinine-based drugs were prohibited until further notice, and 35,000 doses of quinine-based Analgin for export have been diverted for domestic consumption. The government then negotiated the delivery of 171,429 packs of hydroxychloroquine sulfate and 30,000 packs of azithromycin from the China National Pharmaceutical Group. [31] The shipment was delivered; the cargo also included more than 1,600,000 masks and 50 ventilators. [32]

Cambodia

On 23 March, a team of seven specialist physicians from southern China's Guangxi with medical supplies, including ventilators, medical masks, protective suits, test kits, and infrared temperature sensors, had landed in Phnom Penh to assist tackling the pandemic. [33] [34] In April 2020, Vietnam donated Cambodia with $100,000 worth of medical supplies. [35]

Cuba

Cuba, along with Russia and China, sent medical supplies and experts to Italy to deal with its coronavirus outbreak. [19] [20]

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic, along with the Netherlands, Spain, Turkey and Georgia expressed concerns over Chinese-made masks and test kits, [36] which has been aided to several countries like Afghanistan.

Eriteria

Diaspora communities have been sending large volumes of money to support relief efforts in the country. For example, Eritrean Americans have sent at least US$4 million, according to the US embassy in Eritrea. [37]

Greece

The Hellenic Ministry of Health has formed a 3-member committee responsible for the review and employment of all the donations in support of the National Healthcare System during the COVID-19 pandemic. On 7 May, Health Minister Vasilis Kikilias announced that donations worth about 90 million euros came from organizations, companies and individuals, as well as other states such as China and the United Arab Emirates. 40 million euros were for medical equipment (ICU monitors, ventilators, ICU beds), another 24.2 million euros were for personal protective equipment (face masks, surgical aprons, protective uniforms, medical οvershoes) and there were another 12.5 million euros in cash deposits.[ citation needed ]

Grenada

As part of preventing wide spread of the virus in its country, testing such as antibody tests were made available by the help of St. George's University and Venezuela, [38] making prime minister of Grenada Keith Mitchell confident on future projections showing low numbers of cases. [39] However, the wish did not came true when a new patient (codenamed Case 15) was tested positive for the virus, [40] and was confirmed to be part of a community spread days later [41]

Due to the pandemic, Grenada also faces an economy drop. On March 20, 2020, the government announced a stimulus package to provide income support to small businesses, suspension of various taxes, and unemployment benefits to eligible citizens, which took about a month to fully roll out, [42] which were a rapid loan of US$22.4 million from the IMF, in a package aimed at the Eastern Caribbean countries of Dominica, Grenada, and St. Lucia. [43]

India

Indonesia

President Joko Widodo asked the United States for medical equipment, including ventilators via phone call to President Donald Trump, to which President Trump, on April 24, responded he will provide and also reiterated the intent to strengthen economic cooperation between the two. [44] [45]

Italy

Albanian physicians arrive in Fiumicino Airport in Rome in April 2020 Medici Albanesi Covid-19.jpg
Albanian physicians arrive in Fiumicino Airport in Rome in April 2020

Russia

Russia is one of the several countries to send aid to China during its peak of outbreak. [10] It also helped Italy along with Cuba and China in the midst of their peak of outbreak. [19] [20]

Vietnam

The Vietnamese community in the Ústí nad Labem region raised CZK 140,000 for a donation of a ventilator to a hospital in Ústí nad Labem. [46]

United Arab Emirates

The UAE began production of Hayat-Vax, a locally manufactured version of China's Sinopharm vaccine, in March 2021. Current plans include the production of 2 million doses per month, a majority of which will be exported to low-income countries, particularly Africa and the Middle East, under the WHO's COVAX scheme. [47] [48] By being produced in the UAE, Hayat-Vax is believed to be able to “resolve many of the issues plaguing public acceptance of other vaccines” in Middle Eastern countries. [48]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Strategic National Stockpile (SNS), originally called the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile (NPS), is the United States' national repository of antibiotics, vaccines, chemical antidotes, antitoxins, and other critical medical supplies. As its website states:

"The Strategic National Stockpile's role is to supplement state and local supplies during public health emergencies. Many states have products stockpiled, as well. The supplies, medicines, and devices for life-saving care contained in the stockpile can be used as a short-term stopgap buffer when the immediate supply of adequate amounts of these materials may not be immediately available."

COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in the UK

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019. The virus reached the UK in late January 2020. As of 12 August 2021, there had been more than 6.1 million confirmed cases and 120,701 deaths among people who had recently tested positive – the world's twenty-second-highest death rate by population and the second-highest death toll in Europe after Russia. There has been some disparity between the outbreak's severity in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – health in the UK is devolved, with each constituent country having its own publicly-funded healthcare system operated by devolved governments.

COVID-19 pandemic in India Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in India

The COVID-19 pandemic in India is a part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. As of 17 August 2021, according to official figures, India has the second-highest number of confirmed cases in the world with 32.2 million reported cases of COVID-19 infection and the third-highest number of COVID-19 deaths at 432,079 deaths. However these figures exhibit severe under-reporting.

The COVID-19 pandemic in Serbia is a current outbreak of the disease COVID-19 in Serbia caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. Its first case in Serbia was reported on 6 March 2020, and confirmed by Minister of Health Zlatibor Lončar, the case was a 43-year-old man from Bačka Topola who had travelled to Budapest.

The COVID-19 pandemic in Armenia is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The virus was confirmed to have reached Armenia on 1 March 2020 when its first case was reported. It has spread to all of the regions (marz) of Armenia and has caused 4,400 deaths.

COVID-19 pandemic in Cuba Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Cuba

The COVID-19 pandemic in Cuba is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The virus was confirmed to have spread to Cuba on 11 March 2020 when three Italian tourists tested positive for the virus.

Flattening the curve Public health strategy

Flattening the curve is a public health strategy to slow down the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The curve being flattened is the epidemic curve, a visual representation of the number of infected people needing health care over time. During an epidemic, a health care system can break down when the number of people infected exceeds the capability of the health care system's ability to take care of them. Flattening the curve means slowing the spread of the epidemic so that the peak number of people requiring care at a time is reduced, and the health care system does not exceed its capacity. Flattening the curve relies on mitigation techniques such as hand washing, use of face masks and social distancing.

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Somalia on 16 March 2020 when the first case was confirmed in Mogadishu. The Somali Prime Minister, Hassan Ali Khaire announced that the government has set aside five million dollars to deal with the disease. The Somali Medical Association is concerned that the death toll in the country will be huge and that Somalia will not be able to recover from the economic effects due to poor working relations between central government and federal states which leads to lack of control by central government, as well and the lack of healthcare infrastructure. It has also been speculated that President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed may use the pandemic as an excuse to postpone elections. There have also been concerns over freedom of the press following arrests and intimidation of journalists who have been covering the pandemic in Somalia.

Shortages of medical materials, manufacturing and consumer goods caused by the COVID-19 pandemic quickly became a major issue worldwide, as did interruptions to the global supply chain, which has challenged supply chain resilience across the globe. Shortages of personal protective equipment, such as medical masks and gloves, face shields, and sanitizing products, along with hospital beds, ICU beds, oxygen therapy equipment, ventilators, and ECMO devices were reported in most countries.

Operation Broadshare British military operation to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic

Operation Broadshare is the code name for the British military operation to address the COVID-19 pandemic overseas, primarily in the British Overseas Territories (BOTs) and British overseas military bases. The operation runs in parallel to a similar military operation in the United Kingdom, named Operation Rescript.

Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2020 Sequence of major events in a virus pandemic

This article documents the chronology of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2020, which originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Some developments may become known or fully understood only in retrospect. Reporting on this pandemic began in December 2019.

COVID-19 pandemic in Tajikistan Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Tajikistan

The COVID-19 pandemic in Tajikistan is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The virus was confirmed to have spread to Tajikistan when its index cases, in Dushanbe and Khujand, were confirmed on 30 April 2020.

The Jack Ma Foundation (JMF) has been since 2014 the philanthropic arm of the Chinese activities of Jack Ma.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on international relations

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected international relations and caused diplomatic tensions, as well as resulted in a United Nations Security Council resolution demanding a global ceasefire. Some scholars have argued that the pandemic necessitates a significant rethinking of existing approaches to international relations, with a greater focus on issues such as health diplomacy, the politics of crisis, and border politics. Others have argued that the pandemic is unlikely to lead to significant changes in the international system. Diplomatic relations have been affected due to tensions around trade and transport of medicines, diagnostic tests and hospital equipment for coronavirus disease 2019. Leaders of some countries have accused other countries for not containing the disease effectively and resulting in the uncontrolled spread of the virus. Developing nations in Latin America and Africa cannot find enough materials for testing for coronavirus disease, partly because the United States and countries in Europe are outspending the resources. Generally, it is mentioned that diplomacy and its practice have been facing some adjustments. Muzaffar S. Abduazimov mentions that currently diplomatic practice experiencing "six major trends caused by the pandemic, namely: acceleration of ICTs penetration; reappraisal of information security; ensuring the reliability of public diplomacy; further diversification of responsible duties; the growing role of psychology; and, the emergence of the hybrid diplomatic etiquette and protocol."

Philippine government response to the COVID-19 pandemic Actions by the Philippine government on COVID-19 pandemic

Both the national government and local governments have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines with various declarations of emergency, closure of schools and public meeting places, lockdowns, and other restrictions intended to slow the spread of the virus.

Events in the year 2020 in the Comoros.

United States responses to the COVID-19 pandemic Actions by the United States regarding the COVID-19 pandemic

The United States' response to the COVID-19 pandemic with consists of various measures by the medical community; the federal, state, and local governments; the military; and the private sector. The public response has been highly polarized, with partisan divides being observed and a number of concurrent protests and unrest complicating the response.

Respirator diplomacy of Taiwan refers to the exchange of masks between Taiwan and other countries, aimed to help Global Coronavirus Response.

The Government of Malaysia along with various non governmental organisations (NGOs), companies, and foreign governments introduced various financial aid and relief programs in response to the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. In 27 March 2020, Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin introduced an economic stimulus package known as the Prihatin worth RM250 billion.

References

  1. "Students mobilize aid for Hubei province in China following coronavirus outbreak". The Tufts Daily. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  2. "Student organizations at Penn State rally to help Wuhan | Penn State University". news.psu.edu. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  3. "Stanford for Wuhan sends medical supplies to coronavirus victims". The Stanford Daily. 7 February 2020. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  4. Staff (28 January 2020). "Direct Relief Rushes Facial Masks to China to Fight Coronavirus Spread". Direct Relief. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  5. "21 countries send aid to coronavirus-hit China". armenpress.am. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  6. Voytko, Lisette. "Bill And Melinda Gates Donate $100 Million To Coronavirus Vaccine Research And Treatment". Forbes. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  7. Madarang, Catalina Ricci S. (6 February 2020). "Should we thank China for face mask donation when Filipinos donated first?". Interaksyon. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  8. hermesauto (19 February 2020). "Coronavirus: Singapore Red Cross to send $2.3m worth of aid to China, steps up local outreach to seniors". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  9. "日本民间捐100万口罩驰援武汉". www.guancha.cn. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  10. 1 2 "Medical supplies from Russia arrive in virus-hit Wuhan - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  11. "Coronavirus: Malaysia to donate 18 million medical gloves to China | The Star". www.thestar.com.my. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  12. "Germany lifts citizens from Wuhan; gives China 10,000 protective suits". South China Morning Post. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  13. Canada, Global Affairs (9 February 2020). "Canada supports China's ongoing response to novel coronavirus outbreak". gcnws. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  14. "21 countries donate medical supplies to China: spokesperson - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  15. "The United States Announces Assistance To Combat the Novel Coronavirus". United States Department of State. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  16. Guzman, Joseph (7 February 2020). "US pledges $100 million to help fight coronavirus in China". TheHill. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  17. Staff, MedTech Intelligence (26 February 2020). "U.S. Companies Donate Nearly $27 Million in Medical Products to Aid in COVID-19 Outbreak in China". MedTech Intelligence. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  18. Penney, Joe (18 March 2020). "As the U.S. Blames China for the Coronavirus Pandemic, the Rest of the World Asks China for Help". The Intercept. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  19. 1 2 3 "Coronavirus pandemic: Russia, Cuba, China send aid to Italy". France 24. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  20. 1 2 3 "China sends medical supplies, experts to help Italy battle coronavirus". Reuters. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  21. "China send third group of medical experts to Italy". Xinhua Net 新華網. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  22. "Jack Ma Foundation donates masks, testing kits to Africa for". Daily Monitor. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  23. Anita Patrick. "Rwanda's Kagame thanks Jack Ma for 'huge shot in the arm' after receiving donation of test kits". CNN. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  24. "Gobierno de China dona a Panamá pruebas para detección del COVID-19". TVN (in Spanish). 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  25. Yusuf, Mohammed (21 August 2020). "Kenya Police Fire Tear Gas at COVID-19 Corruption Protesters". Voice of America . Retrieved 8 January 2021. People have asked very relevant questions as to donations from Jack Ma, where are they? And now we are hearing some of them were taken to Tanzania, and some of them were brought to Kenya. That in itself is enough to infuriate the public that you are arresting for having no mask
  26. 1 2 Najibullah, By. "Substandard Chinese medical equipment threatens Afghanistan's coronavirus fight". Salaam Times. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  27. "China's Medical Supply Shipment Arrives in Kabul". TOLOnews. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  28. "Govt Will Provide 50k Testing Kits for Coronavirus". TOLOnews. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  29. Basu, Nayanima (21 March 2020). "After Nepal, Bhutan, now Afghanistan & Maldives pledge support to SAARC COVID-19 fund". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  30. "Медикаменти срещу COVID-19: Ще помогне ли хлорохинът и ще го ползваме ли у нас". Dnes.dir.bg. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  31. "Купуваме от Китай лекарства за лечение на коронавируса за над 1 млн. лева". Dnes.dir.bg. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  32. "Командир Жасмина Христова и екипажът ѝ доставиха първата пратка медицински материали от Китай". Dnes.dir.bg. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  33. chivorn. "Chinese Doctors and Medical Supplies to Fight Covid-19 Arrive in Phnom Penh". FRESH NEWS. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  34. "Chinese medical experts arrive in Cambodia to help fight outbreak | The Star". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  35. VnExpress. "Vietnam supports Laos, Cambodia with $200,000 medical equipment in Covid-19 fight - VnExpress International". VnExpress International – Latest news, business, travel and analysis from Vietnam. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  36. Chakraborty, Barnini (30 March 2020). "Netherlands becomes latest country to reject China-made coronavirus test kits, gear". Fox News. Archived from the original on 19 December 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  37. Mafotsing, Line (14 May 2020). "Covid-19 and Eritrea's Response". Kujenga Amani. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  38. Venezuela Lends To Grenada's Fight Against COVID-19, archived from the original on 19 December 2020, retrieved 26 August 2020
  39. "No community spread of Covid-19 in Grenada | NOW Grenada". 14 April 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  40. COVID-19 Update Statement by Minister for Health , retrieved 26 August 2020
  41. Ministry Of Health Press Conference, April 25th 2020, archived from the original on 19 December 2020, retrieved 26 August 2020
  42. "Grenadians begin receiving stimulus payments | NOW Grenada". 30 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  43. "IMF Executive Board Approves US$65.6 Million in Disbursements to Dominica, Grenada, and St. Lucia to Address COVID-19 Pandemic". IMF. Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  44. "Trump says U.S. sending ventilators, coronavirus help to Latin America, Asia". Reuters. 24 April 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  45. Post, The Jakarta. "Trump agrees to send Indonesia medical supplies following call with Jokowi". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  46. Vorlíček, Janni (23 March 2020). "Vietnamská komunita se složila na plicní ventilátory pro ústeckou nemocnici". Ústecký deník (in Czech). Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  47. "UAE launches COVID-19 vaccine production with China's Sinopharm". Reuters. 29 March 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  48. 1 2 Stevens, Colin (17 May 2021). "Hayat-Vax: will the UAE-produced vaccine stem the Middle East Covid tide?". EU Reporter. Retrieved 8 June 2021.