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The CureVac COVID-19 vaccine (abbreviated CVnCoV) was a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by CureVac N.V. and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI).The vaccine showed inadequate results in its Phase III trials with only 47% efficacy.
On 16 June 2021,CureVac said its vaccine showed 47% efficacy from its Phase IIb/III trial. Later, the final result data showed an efficacy of 48% against symptomatic disease in all age groups and, for people aged 18 to 60 years, an efficacy of 53% against symptomatic disease, 77% against moderate and severe disease and 100% against hospitalization and death, as no cases were detected in the study. This was based on interim analysis of 134 COVID cases in its Phase III study conducted in Europe and Latin America. The final analysis for the trials requires a minimum of 80 additional cases.
The efficacy is approximately 77% against moderate and severe disease, 100% against hospitalizations and 53% in people aged 18 to 60 years.
CVnCoV is an mRNA vaccine that encodes the full-length, pre-fusion stabilized coronavirus spike protein, and activates the immune system against it.CVnCoV technology does not interact with the human genome. CVnCoV uses unmodified RNA, unlike the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 vaccine, which both use nucleoside-modified RNA.
Manufacturing of mRNA vaccines can be performed rapidly in high volume,including use of portable, automated printers ("RNA microfactories") for which CureVac has a joint development partnership with Tesla.
mRNA vaccines require stringent cold chain refrigeration throughout manufacturing, distribution and storage. 5 °C (41 °F) and relatively simplified cold chain requirements that facilitate up to three months of storage and distribution to world regions that do not have specialized ultracold equipment.The CureVac technology for CVnCoV uses a non-modified, more natural mRNA less affected by hydrolysis, enabling storage at
CureVac has a European-based network to accelerate manufacturing of CVnCoV, if proven safe and effective, for production of up to 300 million doses in 2021 and 600 million doses in 2022.An estimated 405 million doses will be provided to EU states.
In June 2020, CureVac was launched for phase I trial with 280 participants.In August, CureVac was launched for phase II trials with 674 participants. In November, CureVac reported results of a Phase I-II clinical trial that CVnCoV (active ingredient zorecimeran) was well-tolerated, safe, and produced a robust immune response.
In December 2020, CureVac began a Phase III clinical trial of CVnCoV with 36,500 participants.Bayer will provide clinical trial support and international logistics for the Phase III trial, and may be involved in eventual manufacturing should the vaccine prove to be safe and effective. In February 2021, the EU's CHMP started a rolling review of CVnCoV. In April 2021, the same procedure began in Switzerland.
In June 2021, CureVac announced that the vaccine's efficacy against symptomatic disease is 48%.The company said the high number of variants in circulation may explain the low efficacy, but some scientists attribute the result to insufficient immunogenicity due to the use of unmodified mRNA (the Pfizer–BioNTech and Moderna vaccines use uracil-modified mRNA) or the dose being too low (12 µg, compared to 30 µg for Pfizer–BioNTech and 100 µg for Moderna). Neutralizing antibody levels in CureVac recipients were about the same as those in convalescence, but much lower than those seen in recipients of Pfizer–BioNTech or Moderna. The modified mRNA induces potent antibodies and other protective immune responses and circumvents the body's inflammatory reactions. Unmodified mRNA inhibits immunogenicity by triggering the production of interferons that block the generation of T helper cells, which direct B cells to produce antibodies. CureVac attempted to evade immune detection by altering the RNA sequence in a way that does not affect the coded protein, but structural differences in the non-coding regions might have affected immunogenicity. Unmodified mRNA may have decreased tolerability, leading to the adoption of a lower dose, but studies of the Pfizer–BioNTech and Moderna vaccines found only modest gains at higher doses. A next-generation vaccine from CureVac in collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline, also using unmodified mRNA, is more stable inside cells and produces higher levels of neutralizing antibodies in animals.
The manufacturer currently markets the vaccine under the name CVnCoV.Zorecimeran is the proposed international nonproprietary name (pINN).
CureVac N.V. is a German biopharmaceutical company that develops therapies based on messenger RNA (mRNA). Legally domiciled in the Netherlands and headquartered in Tübingen, Germany, the company was founded in 2000 by Ingmar Hoerr (CEO), Steve Pascolo (CSO), Florian von der Mulbe (COO), Günther Jung, and Hans-Georg Rammensee. CureVac had approximately 240 employees in November 2015 and 375 in May 2018.
Moderna, Inc., is a pharmaceutical and biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts that focuses on RNA therapeutics, primarily mRNA vaccines. These vaccines use a copy of a molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA) to produce an immune response.
An mRNAvaccine is a type of vaccine that uses a copy of a molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA) to produce an immune response. The vaccine delivers molecules of antigen-encoding mRNA into immune cells, which use the designed mRNA as a template to build foreign protein that would normally be produced by a pathogen or by a cancer cell. These protein molecules stimulate an adaptive immune response that teaches the body to identify and destroy the corresponding pathogen or cancer cells. The mRNA is delivered by a co-formulation of the RNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles that protect the RNA strands and help their absorption into the cells.
A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID-19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread, severity, and death caused by COVID-19.
The Moderna COVID‑19 vaccine, codenamed mRNA-1273 and sold under the brand name Spikevax, is a COVID-19 vaccine developed by American company Moderna, the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). It is authorized for use in people aged twelve years and older in some jurisdictions and for people eighteen years and older in other jurisdictions to provide protection against COVID-19 which is caused by infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It is designed to be administered as two or three 0.5 mL doses given by intramuscular injection at an interval of at least 28 days apart.
AD5-nCOV, trade-named Convidecia, is a single-dose viral vector vaccine for COVID-19 developed by CanSino Biologics. It conducted its Phase III trials in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Pakistan, Russia, and Saudi Arabia with 40,000 participants.
BioNTech SE is a German biotechnology company based in Mainz that develops and manufactures active immunotherapies for patient-specific approaches to the treatment of diseases. It develops pharmaceutical candidates based on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for use as individualized cancer immunotherapies, as vaccines against infectious diseases and as protein replacement therapies for rare diseases, and also engineered cell therapy, novel antibodies and small molecule immunomodulators as treatment options for cancer.
CoronaVac, also known as the Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine, is an inactivated virus COVID-19 vaccine developed by the Chinese company Sinovac Biotech. It was Phase III clinical trialled in Brazil, Chile, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Turkey and relies on traditional technology similar to other inactivated-virus COVID-19 vaccines, such as the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine, another Chinese vaccine, and Covaxin, an Indian vaccine. CoronaVac does not need to be frozen and both the final product and the raw material for formulating CoronaVac can be transported refrigerated at 2–8 °C (36–46 °F), temperatures at which flu vaccines are kept.
The Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, sold under the brand name Comirnaty, is an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine developed by the German biotechnology company BioNTech and for its development collaborated with American company Pfizer, for support with clinical trials, logistics, and manufacturing. It is authorized for use in people aged five years and older in some judrisdictions, twelve years and older in some jurisdictions, and for people sixteen years and older in other jurisdictions, to provide protection against COVID-19, caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The vaccine is given by intramuscular injection. It is composed of nucleoside-modified mRNA (modRNA) encoding a mutated form of the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which is encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles. Initial advice indicated that vaccination required two doses given 21 days apart, but the interval was later extended to up to 42 days in the US, and up to four months in Canada.
A nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (modRNA) is a synthetic messenger RNA (mRNA) in which some nucleosides are replaced by other naturally modified nucleosides or by synthetic nucleoside analogues. modRNA is used to induce the production of a desired protein in certain cells. An important application is the development of mRNA vaccines, of which the first authorized were COVID-19 vaccines.
ZF2001, trade-named Zifivax or ZF-UZ-VAC-2001, is an adjuvanted protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine developed by Anhui Zhifei Longcom in collaboration with the Institute of Microbiology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The vaccine candidate is in Phase III trials with 29,000 participants in China, Ecuador, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan.
COVID-19's caused virus, SARS-CoV-2, was isolated in late 2019. Its genetic sequence was published on 11 January 2020, triggering an urgent international response to prepare for an outbreak and hasten development of a preventive COVID-19 vaccine. Since 2020, vaccine development has been expedited via unprecedented collaboration in the multinational pharmaceutical industry and between governments. By June 2020, tens of billions of dollars were invested by corporations, governments, international health organizations, and university research groups to develop dozens of vaccine candidates and prepare for global vaccination programs to immunize against COVID‑19 infection. According to the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), the geographic distribution of COVID‑19 vaccine development shows North American entities to have about 40% of the activity, compared to 30% in Asia and Australia, 26% in Europe, and a few projects in South America and Africa.
EpiVacCorona is a peptide-based vaccine against COVID-19 developed by the VECTOR center of Virology. It consists of three chemically synthesized peptides that are conjugated to a large carrier protein. This protein is a fusion product of a viral nucleocapsid protein and a bacterial MBP protein. The third phase of a clinical trial, which should show whether the vaccine is able to protect people from COVID-19 or not, was launched in November 2020 with more than three thousand participants.
SCB-2019 is a protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine developed by Clover Biopharmaceuticals using an adjuvant from Dynavax technologies. Positive results of Phase I trials for the vaccine were published in The Lancet and the vaccine completed enrollment of 29,000 participants in Phase II/III trials in July 2021. In September 2021, SCB-2019 announced Phase III results showing 67% efficacy against all cases of COVID-19 and 79% efficacy against all cases of the Delta variant. Additionally, the vaccine was 84% effective against moderate cases and 100% effective against hospitalization.
ARCoV, also known as the Walvax COVID-19 vaccine, is an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Walvax Biotechnology, Suzhou Abogen Biosciences, and the PLA Academy of Military Science. It is approved for Phase III trials in China, Mexico, Indonesia, and Nepal.
NDV-HXP-S is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by a team led by Jason McLellan at the University of Texas at Austin, together with groups from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine Research Center, based on an improved spike protein central to its resilience and efficacy.
Sputnik Light is a single dose COVID-19 vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. It consists of the first dose of the Sputnik V vaccine, which is based on the Ad26 vector, and it can be stored at a normal refrigerator temperature of 2–8 °C (36–46 °F). The institute says this version would be ideally suited for areas with acute outbreaks, allowing more people to be vaccinated quickly. It will also be used as a third (booster) dose for those who received Sputnik V at least 6 months earlier.
ARCT-154, also known as VBC-COV19-154 in Vietnam, is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Arcturus Therapeutics. For its development, Arcturus collaborated with Vinbiocare, a Vietnamese company, for support with clinical trials and manufacturing.
COVID-19 vaccine clinical research uses clinical research to establish the characteristics of COVID-19 vaccines. These characteristics include efficacy, effectiveness and safety. 24 vaccines are authorized for use by national governments, including six approved for emergency or full use by at least one WHO-recognised stringent regulatory authority; while five are in Phase IV. 204 vaccines are undergoing clinical trials that have yet to be authorized. Nine clinical trials consider heterologous vaccination courses.
Proposed INN: zorecimeran
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