Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on retail

Last updated

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a sharp economic toll on the retail industry worldwide as many retailers and shopping centers were forced to shut down for months due to mandated stay-at-home orders. As a result of these closures, online retailers received a major boost in sales as customers looked for alternative ways to shop and the effects of the retail apocalypse were exacerbated. [1] A number of notable retailers filed for bankruptcy including Ascena Retail Group, Debenhams, Arcadia Group, Brooks Brothers, GNC, J. C. Penney, Lord & Taylor and Neiman Marcus.



South Africa



A social distancing sign in an Atlantic Superstore in Nova Scotia, Canada. Social distancing Signs at Atlantic Superstore (50001082706).jpg
A social distancing sign in an Atlantic Superstore in Nova Scotia, Canada.

United States

The United States has had multiple closures attributed to the pandemic and the ensuing recession. As of August 3, 2020, 43 retailers based in the USA have filed for bankruptcy according to CNBC. [9]

March 2020

Bare shelves due to panic buying at the Giant supermarket in Franklin Farm, Virginia in March 2020 2020-03-13 22 34 45 Bare shelves due to panic buying in the Giant supermarket at the Franklin Farm Village Shopping Center in the Franklin Farm section of Oak Hill, Fairfax County, Virginia during the COVID-19 corona virus pandemic.jpg
Bare shelves due to panic buying at the Giant supermarket in Franklin Farm, Virginia in March 2020
  • In the weeks leading up to lockdowns, panic buying of products such as hand sanitizer, toilet paper, and canned foods led to shortages of these items nationwide. [10] [11]
  • USA based Apple Inc. announced it would temporarily close all stores globally outside of China on March 14. [12] On the same day, Urban Outfitters, Verizon, and T-Mobile all announced their intentions to temporarily close stores as well. [13]
  • The USA's largest retailer, Walmart significantly reduced its hours across the nation. Known for its 24-hour store operations, the company initially announced the stores would be open from 6 am to 11 pm on March 14. However, on March 19, Walmart announced stores would be open from 7 am to 8:30 pm until further notice to allow employees time to clean and stock products. [14] [15]
  • Westfield Group announced all 32 of their shopping mall properties would be temporarily closing on March 19 except for essential stores. [16]
  • CEO of Kroger, Rodney McMullen, announced that due to increased coronavirus demand, 10,000 job openings were available across their stores. [17]
  • The retail and entertainment complex American Dream faced a series of setbacks due to the pandemic. Initially scheduled for March 19, the grand opening of the complex was indefinitely delayed. [18] Retailer GNC pulled out of the project following the pandemic, with other retailers like The Children's Place, Forever 21, and Victoria's Secret possibly withdrawing their plans as well. [19] In June, contractors for the mall claimed they were owed $13 million for unpaid work. [20] The mall would eventually open on October 1, 2020. [21]
  • GameStop received criticism for saying it was "an essential business" in states where only essential retailers were to stay open. On March 22, Gamestop closed its stores after outcry from employees. [22]
  • In March, Hobby Lobby left stores open even as many nonessential retailers shut down. The founder reportedly told his employees he had received a message from God that informed his decision to keep stores open. [23]
  • On March 31, Walmart announced it would supply its employees with masks and gloves and take employees' temperatures before shifts. [24]
  • Simon Property Group, the largest shopping mall operator in the United States, furloughed 30% of its staff on March 31. [25]

April 2020

A closed dining area in March 2020 at the Concord Mall in Wilmington, Delaware during the COVID-19 pandemic. Boscovs - Concord Mall Wilmington, DE March 2020.jpg
A closed dining area in March 2020 at the Concord Mall in Wilmington, Delaware during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Shortly following Walmart's announcement for employees, on April 2, Lowe's and Target announced they would also be providing masks and gloves for their employees. [26]
  • Bloomberg News reported that nearly 1 million retail workers were furloughed by April 2. [27]
  • Macy's, Inc. was dropped from the S&P 500 on April 2. [28]
  • Retail sales fell 16.4% in a record drop during the month of April. [29]

May 2020

  • Following the lifting of some lockdown restrictions in May, retail sales rose by 17.7% in the biggest month to month rise in sales on record. [30]
  • J.Crew was the first national retailer to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy during the pandemic on May 4. [31]
  • After 60 years in business, Northgate Mall in Durham, North Carolina closed on May 4, the first shopping mall in the United States to directly attribute the pandemic as the reason for the closure. [32] [33]
  • On May 5, Nordstrom announced its intentions to close 16 locations. [34] The company announced sales were down 40% due to the pandemic on May 28. [35]
  • On May 7, luxury department store chain Neiman Marcus filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. CEO Geoffroy van Raemdonck insisted that the stores would not be liquidated but that the filing was made to "alleviate debt, access additional capital to run the business during these challenging times, and emerge a stronger company with the ability to better serve you and continue our transformation over the long term." [36]
  • 118-year-old department store chain J. C. Penney filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on May 15 as the pandemic battered the already struggling retailer. [37] [38]

June 2020

  • CNBC reported on June 5 that CBL Properties, owner of over 100 mall properties located primarily in the Southeast, was in doubt that it could continue operation as a going concern, after their retail tenants missed payments which caused the business to miss their payments as well. [39] On July 17, Bloomberg News reported that CBL was preparing to file for bankruptcy. [40]
  • On June 9, retail research firm Coresight estimated the number of store closures in the United States could reach 25,000 due to the pandemic and the resulting recession, greatly surpassing the previous year's record high of 9,302. [41] [42]
  • As of June 16, Mall of America owner Triple Five Group was reported to have missed three consecutive payments on a $1.4 million debt mortgage for the property. [43]
  • Two shopping malls closed on June 30, Metrocenter in Phoenix, Arizona, and the Cascade Mall in Burlington, Washington. Both directly cited the pandemic as a contributing factor in the closure. [44] [45]
  • Health retailer GNC announced the closure of "at least 800 to 1,200 stores" after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on June 23. [46]
  • The United States Department of Commerce reported that retail sales had increased by 7.5% in June as lockdown restrictions were further eased. [47]
  • Old Time Pottery filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on June 30. [48]

July 2020

Pandemic related signs for businesses on sale at a Staples COVID-19 pandemic-related signs for sale at Staples, Middletown, NY.jpg
Pandemic related signs for businesses on sale at a Staples
Floor decals and signs promoting one-way traffic and social distancing at the King of Prussia mall in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania King of Prussia Mall social distancing.jpeg
Floor decals and signs promoting one-way traffic and social distancing at the King of Prussia mall in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania

August 2020

  • The United States' oldest department store chain, Lord & Taylor, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on August 2. [60] Later that same evening, Tailored Brands, parent of Men's Wearhouse and JoS. A. Bank also filed for bankruptcy. [61]
  • Many back to school sales were delayed or experienced lesser sales than previous years as uncertainty after changes in the school year led to increased unease over buying unneeded supplies. [62] [63]
  • The discount department store chain, Stein Mart, filed for bankruptcy on August 12. By the end of October 2020, all stores had finished the liqudation process and were closed. [64] [65]

September 2020

  • On September 10, the New York City-based department store chain Century 21 announced it would close all 13 stores. [66]

October 2020

  • Retail research and advisory firm Coresight Research and shopping rewards app Shopkick declared a new campaign called the "10.10 Shopping Festival" to anticipate shipping delays for the holiday season. It lasted from October 9–12. [67]

November 2020

December 2020

January 2021

  • On January 14, Christopher & Banks filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy. All stores will be closing due to the filing. [75]
  • Godiva Chocolatier announced it would close all of its 128 USA brick and mortar stores by March. The company cited declining traffic in stores caused by the pandemic as a contributing factor in the decision. [76]
  • North Carolina based department store chain Belk announced it would file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on January 26. The company intends to continue "normal operations" during the process. [77]

February 2021

  • On February 24, Fry's Electronics announces it will be closing all of its stores nationwide and ceasing operations "as a result of changes in the retail industry and the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic." [78] [79]




United Kingdom

February 2020

  • In the weeks leading up to lockdowns, panic buying of products such as hand sanitizer, toilet paper, and canned foods led to shortages of these items nationwide.[ citation needed ]
  • With many people seeing disinfectant as providing protection against the spread of the disease, sales in cleaning products such as Dettol began to surge [82]
  • By the end of February London's FTSE 100 share index has seen one of its worst weeks since the depths of the financial crisis in 2008, as over £200bn is wiped off UK firms' value. [83]
  • A small number of retailers suggested that online orders shipped from China were reduced because of the impact of COVID-19.[ citation needed ]

March 2020

  • In March, the monthly retail sales volume fell sharply by 5.1%, as many stores ceased trading from March 23 following official government guidance during the pandemic. [84]
  • Tesco and other retailers start to impose limits on the sale of essential items. [85]
  • Retailers say online and click-and-collect services are at "full capacity". [86]
  • On March 13, British job recruiters predicted the retail and hospitality industries would be hit hardest by the pandemic. [87]
  • The collapse of Laura Ashley made it the first casualty of the pandemic with a loss of 2,700 jobs. [88]
  • Fashion house Burberry announced it would cut 500 jobs globally after sales declined 45% during the first quarter of 2020. [89]
  • On March 30, Carluccio's and BrightHouse collapse into administration [90]
  • On March 31, Aldi, Morrisons, Waitrose and Asda started to ease restrictions on some of their products which were imposed in the wake of stockpiling earlier in the month. [91]

April 2020

  • The volume of retail sales fell by a record 18.1%, following the strong monthly fall of 5.2% in March 2020 [92]
  • The proportion spent online soared to the highest on record in April 2020 at 30.7%, which compares with the 19.1% reported in April 2019 [92]
  • All 60 Cath Kidston stores to close after collapse. [93]
  • On April 30, Oasis and Warehouse permanently close all their stores and online shopping with the loss of more than 1,800 jobs [94]
  • Sharon White, John Lewis boss, hints that some of their shops may not re-open after the pandemic [95]
  • Debenhams files for administration [96]

May 2020

  • Retail sales volumes started to rebound with an increase of 12.0% when compared with the falls experienced in the previous month, but sales were still down by 13.1% on February before the impact of the pandemic. [97]
  • Debenhams cuts more than 1000 head office jobs [98]
  • Shop closures due to coronavirus lockdown push British Land to £1.1bn annual loss [99]

June 2020

The volume of total retail sales recovers to similar levels as before the coronavirus pandemic The volume of total retail sales recovers to similar levels as before the coronavirus pandemic.png
The volume of total retail sales recovers to similar levels as before the coronavirus pandemic

July 2020

  • On July 1, TM Lewin announced they would be closing all of their stores, with 600 workers losing their jobs. [102]
  • On July 19, luxury clothing retailer Ted Baker announced they will cut 500 jobs [103]
  • On July 20, Marks & Spencer announced they were to cut 950 jobs [104]
  • On July 24, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) showed retail sales had returned to pre-pandemic levels [105]
  • John Lewis & Partners announced 8 stores would not reopen after the lockdown [106]
  • Boots consults on plans to cut head office and store teams and shut 48 of its Boots Opticians practices. Over 4000 jobs were affected. [106]
  • Hammerson, the landlord that owns the Bullring in Birmingham and the Brent Cross shopping centre in north London, said it had collected just 16% of rent due in May and June and had drawn down £300m in funding from its credit facility to support the business. [107]
  • The British Retail Consortium announce that sales increased by 3.2% in July, against an increase of 0.5% in July 2019, however, most of this was online sales plus 2020 having an extra week in January on the ONS Calendar. [108]

August 2020

  • DW Sports , entered administration, putting 1,700 jobs at risk. [109]
  • PizzaExpress considers closing 67 of its UK restaurants, which would mean the loss of 1,100 jobs. [110]
  • Dixons cut 800 store management jobs [111]
  • Hays Travel, the UK's largest independent travel agent at the time, cuts up to 878 jobs after the government's move to quarantine arrivals from Spain. [112]
  • On August 5, WHSmith announce they may cut 1,500 jobs after sales plummet [113]
  • On August 5, nearly 400 jobs are affected at M&Co. as they are put into administration [114]
  • On August 11, the British Retail Consortium repeated a call for a UK Government grant to help pay rents, saying retailers were "struggling". [115]
  • On August 11, Debenhams announced they will cut 2,500 more jobs [116]
  • The ONS shows that more than 730,000 jobs have been lost in the UK since the beginning of March [117]
  • NatWest Group plans to cut 550 jobs in branches across the UK and close one of its remaining offices in London. [118]
  • On August 18, Marks & Spencer announced they plan to cut 7,000 jobs over the next three months [119] [120]
  • PizzaExpress closed 73 outlets, impacting 1,100 jobs [121]

Fall of 2020

Volume sales, seasonally adjusted, Great Britain, February 2020 to October 2020 Monthly Business Survey - Retail Sales Inquiry.png
Volume sales, seasonally adjusted, Great Britain, February 2020 to October 2020
  • British retail sales growth slowed in November when non-essential stores shut as part of a four-week lockdown in England, but online sales were able to fill more of the gap than in the first lockdown in March. [122]
  • Fashion chains Peacocks and Jaeger enter administration, putting more than 4,700 jobs and almost 500 shops at risk. [123]
  • On November 30 Arcadia Group (owner of Topshop, Topman, Burton and Dorothy Perkins) fell into administration. [124]
  • Arcadia entering administration caused a knock-on effect as a day later Debenhams fell into liquidation. [125] This was due to JD Sport, the last remaining bidder, withdrawing because of the collapse of Arcadia, which was the biggest concession operator in Debenhams.
  • Bonmarché enter administration for the third time [126]
  • Primark revealed that the latest wave of COVID-19 lockdowns cost the fashion chain £430m in lost sales but that it has experienced a "phenomenal" jump in sales this week since stores were allowed to reopen. [127]
  • On December 7 Frasers Group claimed it was in negotiations to buy department store chain Debenhams from the administrators in a rescue deal, preventing it from going into liquidation. [128]
  • The retail intelligence agency Springboard claimed Footfall on Boxing Day was down by 57% compared to the previous year (2019) [129]
  • The government has named 72 high streets across England that have been selected to receive £831m of investment to help fund their recovery from the impact of the coronavirus pandemic and to protect jobs. [130]

Jan 2021

  • Sales fell by −8.2% in January compared to December 2020 the month before. Showing that all sectors of retailing except for food and online outlets were affected by the imposition of tough new restrictions across the UK. [131]
  • Debenhams shops will close permanently after Boohoo makes an acquisition. Boohoo were not interested in the 118 High Street stores or its workforce. [132]

Feb 2021

  • ASOS acquires the Topshop, Topman, Miss Selfridge and HIIT brands for £265m and a further £30m for the stock. The stores (70 stores with 2,500 employees) were not included leading to a significant loss of jobs. [133]

Hazard controls

The USA's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has issued guidance for businesses and employers on COVID-19 prevention and management measures in the workplace. [134] Engineering controls such as altered workspaces to allow physical distancing, plexiglass barriers, and improved ventilation are recommended. Administration controls such as training, symptom screening, routine cleaning, avoiding shared equipment and office space, staggered shifts, and flexible sick leave policies are strategies to keep employees safe and healthy. Personal protective equipment such as face coverings or gloves may be necessary depending on the job tasks.[ citation needed ]

Related Research Articles

Sears Department store chain in the United States

Sears, Roebuck and Co., commonly known as Sears, is an American chain of department stores founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck in 1892, and reincorporated by Richard Sears and Julius Rosenwald in 1906. Formerly based at the Sears Tower in Chicago and currently headquartered in Hoffman Estates, Illinois, it began as a mail ordering catalog company, then began opening retail locations in 1925, the first in Chicago, Illinois. In 2005 the company was bought by the management of the American big box discount chain Kmart, which formed Sears Holdings on completion of the merger.

JCPenney American department store chain

Penney OpCo, LLC is a midscale American department store chain with 689 locations in United States and Puerto Rico. In addition to selling conventional merchandise, JCPenney offers large Fine Jewelry departments, The Salon by InStyle, and Sephora inside JCPenney. JCPenney stores often house several leased departments such as, Seattle's Best Coffee, optical centers, and portrait studios.

Debenhams British online retail brand, or simply just Debenhams, is a British online retail brand owned by the online retailer Boohoo. Previously it had been an independent company operating a series of department stores in the UK, Denmark and the Republic of Ireland. The original company was founded in 1778 as a single store in London and grew to 178 locations across those countries, also owning the Danish department store chain Magasin du Nord. In its final years, its headquarters were within the premises of its flagship store in Oxford Street, London. The range of goods sold included clothing, household items, and furniture.

Toys "R" Us is an American toy, clothing, and baby product retailer owned by Tru Kids, Inc. and various others. It was founded in April 1948, with its headquarters located in Parsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey, in the New York metropolitan area.

GameStop American video game retailer

GameStop Corp. is an American video game, consumer electronics, and gaming merchandise retailer. The company is headquartered in Grapevine, Texas, and is the largest video game retailer worldwide. As of January 30, 2021, the company operated 4,816 stores including 3,192 in the United States, 253 in Canada, 417 in Australia and New Zealand and 954 in Europe under the GameStop, EB Games, EB Games Australia, Micromania-Zing, ThinkGeek and Zing Pop Culture brands. The company was founded in Dallas in 1984 as Babbage's, and took on its current name in 1999. The company's performance declined during the mid-late 2010s due to the shift of video game sales to online shopping and downloads and failed investments by GameStop in smartphone retail.

Arcadia Group Ltd was a British multinational retailing company headquartered in London, England. It was best known for being the previous parent company of British Home Stores (BHS), Burton, Dorothy Perkins, Debenhams, Evans, Miss Selfridge, Topman, Topshop, Wallis and Warehouse. At its peak, the group had more than 2,500 outlets in the UK, as well as concessions in UK department stores and several hundred franchises operated internationally.

J.Crew American Retail Company

J.Crew Group, Inc., is an American multi-brand, multi-channel, specialty retailer. The company offers an assortment of women's, men's, and children's apparel and accessories, including swimwear, outerwear, lounge-wear, bags, sweaters, denim, dresses, suiting, jewelry, and shoes.

Payless is an international discount footwear chain. Established in 1956 by cousins Louis and Shaol Pozez, Payless was a privately held company owned by Blum Capital, and Golden Gate Capital. In 1961, it became a public company as the Volume Shoe Corporation which merged with The May Department Stores Company in 1979. In the 1980s, Payless was widely known in the U.S. for its Pro Wings line of discount sneakers, which often had Velcro straps instead of laces. In 1996, Payless became an independent publicly held company. In 2004, Payless announced it would exit the Parade chain and would close 100 Payless Shoe outlets. On August 17, 2007, the company acquired the Stride Rite Corporation and changed its name to Collective Brands, Inc. The company had a total revenue for 2011 of US$ 3.4 billion. The company also has a stunt premium banner, Palessi Shoes. Payless is currently owned by a group of investors led by Alden Global Capital and Axar Capital Management.

Debenhams Ireland Irish department store chain, formerly Roches Stores

Debenhams Ireland was a national chain of department stores in Ireland, that was owned ultimately by Debenhams plc. It was largely based on the former Roches Store chain, though after that business divested its grocery units.

Dead mall Shopping center with low occupancy

A dead mall is a shopping mall with a high vacancy rate or a low consumer traffic level, or that is deteriorating in some manner.

Stage Stores American retail company

Stage Stores was a department store company specializing in retailing off-price brand name apparel, accessories, cosmetics, footwear, and housewares throughout the United States. Stores were usually located in shopping malls and centers or in standalone locations. The corporate office was located in Houston, Texas.

Frasers Group plc is a British retail and intellectual property group, named after its ownership of the department store chain House of Fraser. The company is best known for trading predominantly under the Sports Direct brand which operates both physical outlets and online. Other retailers owned by the company include Jack Wills, GAME, Flannels, USC, Lillywhites and Evans Cycles. The company owns numerous intellectual property, including the brands Everlast, Lonsdale, Slazenger and No Fear. The group also expanded into operating fitness clubs, launching the Everlast Fitness Club chain in 2020.

Rego Center Shopping mall in New York, United States

Rego Center is a shopping mall bordered by the Long Island Expressway, Junction Boulevard, Queens Boulevard, 63rd Drive, and 99th Street in the Rego Park neighborhood of Queens in New York City.

Retail apocalypse Period in the 2010s where many American brick and mortar retail stores have closed or struggled

The retail apocalypse is the closing of numerous brick-and-mortar retail stores, especially those of large chains worldwide, starting around 2010 and continuing onward. In 2019, retailers in the United States announced 9,302 store closings, a 59% jump from 2018, and the highest number since tracking the data began in 2012. Over 12,000 physical stores have closed due to factors including over-expansion of malls, rising rents, bankruptcies of leveraged buyouts, low quarterly profits outside holiday binge spending, delayed effects of the Great Recession, and changes in spending habits. American consumers have shifted their purchasing habits due to various factors, including experience-spending versus material goods and homes, casual fashion in relaxed dress codes, as well as the rise of e-commerce, mostly in the form of competition from juggernaut companies such as and Walmart. A 2017 Business Insider report dubbed this phenomenon the "Amazon effect," and calculated that was generating greater than 50% of the growth of retail sales.

Boohoo Group plc is a United Kingdom-based online fashion retailer, aimed at 16–30 year olds. The business was founded in 2006, and had sales in 2019 of £856.9m. It specialises in own brand fashion clothing, with over 36,000 products. Growing rapidly, the company has acquired the brands and online presence of several defunct high street retailers, and also seen controversy over working conditions at some of its suppliers.

Transform SR Brands LLC is an American privately held company formed on February 11, 2019, to acquire some of the assets of Sears Holdings Corporation. The new company is owned by Eddie Lampert's ESL Investments hedge fund of Greenwich, Connecticut. Following the Chapter 11 bankruptcy filing of Sears Holdings on October 15, 2018, Transformco purchased the surviving assets owned by Sears Holdings for $5.2 billion.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the food industry Impact of COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic affects the global food industry as governments close down restaurants and bars to slow the spread of the virus. Across the world, restaurants' daily traffic dropped precipitously compared to the same period in 2019. Closures of restaurants caused a ripple effect among related industries such as food production, liquor, wine, and beer production, food and beverage shipping, fishing, and farming.

Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States Overview of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on U.S. economy

The economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States has been largely disruptive, adversely affecting travel, financial markets, employment, shipping, and other industries.

Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on UK economy

The economic impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic on the United Kingdom has been largely disruptive. It has adversely affected travel, financial markets, employment, a number of industries, and shipping.


  1. Kingson, Jennifer A. "The coronavirus is causing a slow-motion retail apocalypse". Axios. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  2. Edward-Ekpu, Uwagbale (June 19, 2020). "Amazon has added 3,000 jobs in South Africa for Alexa and customers in US, Europe". Quartz Africa . Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  3. "South African smokers fume at coronavirus cigarette ban". BBC News. May 26, 2020. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  4. Bowker, John; Kew, Janice; Prinsloo, Loni (June 13, 2020). "Edgars On Auction Block After 91 Years of South African Trading". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  5. "African retail giant mulls Nigerian exit". BBC News . August 3, 2020. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  6. Johnson, Kelsey (June 19, 2020). "Canadian retail sales down record 26.4% in April on coronavirus shutdowns". Reuters . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  7. Young, Vicki M. (July 31, 2020). "Chico's Canadian Operation Filed for Bankruptcy, All Stores Set for Closure". Sourcing Journal. Retrieved August 1, 2020.
  8. "DavidsTea to close 82 retail locations in Canada amid COVID-19" . Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  9. Thomas, Melissa Repko,Lauren (August 3, 2020). "As pandemic stretches on, retail bankruptcies approach highest number in a decade". CNBC. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  10. Jingnan, Huo (March 14, 2020). "Grocery Stores Start To Cut Hours As Coronavirus Prompts Surge In Panic-Buying". NPR . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  11. Taylor, Chloe (March 11, 2020). "Here's why people are panic buying and stockpiling toilet paper to cope with coronavirus fears". CNBC . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  12. Chan, Kevin (March 14, 2020). "Apple temporarily shuts stores worldwide to fight virus". AP NEWS. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  13. "Apple, some U.S. retailers close stores to contain virus". Reuters. March 15, 2020. Archived from the original on March 29, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  14. Lee, Jihye (March 14, 2020). "Walmart to Cut Store Hours to Give Workers Time to Restock". Bloomberg News . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  15. Valinsky, Jordan (March 19, 2020). "Walmart shortens its hours even further and takes new measures to fight coronavirus". CNN. Archived from the original on April 4, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  16. Murphy, Coral. "All Westfield malls in the U.S. to close amid coronavirus pandemic". USA Today. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  17. Stankiewicz, Kevin (March 17, 2020). "Kroger CEO: We have hired 2,000 people and have 10,000 openings in response to coronavirus demand". CNBC. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  18. Thomas, Lauren (March 13, 2020). "American Dream megamall in New Jersey is shutting down over coronavirus". CNBC. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  19. Pries, Allison; Zoppo, Avalon (June 28, 2020). "American Dream's financial woes worsen as mega mall sits closed with no reopening date". The Star-Ledger . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  20. Zoppo, Avalon (June 23, 2020). "Contractors say they're owed $13M for work done on American Dream mega-mall". The Star-Ledger . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  21. Verdon, Joan. "American Dream To Reopen October 1, But Once Again It Won't Be 100% Ready". Forbes. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  22. Liao, Shannon (March 22, 2020). "GameStop closes all stores". CNN. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  23. Biron, Bethany. "Hobby Lobby founder reportedly told employees a message from God informed his decision to leave stores open amid the coronavirus outbreak". Business Insider. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  24. Boyle, Matthew (March 31, 2020). "Walmart Amps Up Its Virus Response for Workers". Bloomberg . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  25. Smith, Rich (March 31, 2020). "Mall Owner Simon Property Group Furloughs 30% of Workers". The Motley Fool. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  26. Townsend, Matthew (April 2, 2020). "Masked and Gloved Retail Workers Coming to America's Stores". Bloomberg News . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  27. Bhasin, Kim (April 2, 2020). "U.S. Retail Furloughs Poised to Exceed 1 Million From Shutdown". Bloomberg News . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  28. Pisani, Bob (April 2, 2020). "Macy's is the first of what could be a retail and energy purge from the S&P 500". CNBC. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  29. Cox, Jeff (May 15, 2020). "Retail sales plunge a record 16.4% in April, far worse than predicted". CNBC. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  30. Corkery, Michael; Maheshwari, Sapna (June 16, 2020). "Retail Sales Rebounded in May, but the Road Back Is Long". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  31. Friedman, Vanessa; Maheshwari, Sapna; Merced, Michael J. de la (May 3, 2020). "J. Crew Files for Bankruptcy in Virus's First Big Retail Casualty". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  32. Brown, Joel (May 4, 2020). "Northgate Mall to close permanently, owners cite 'extreme financial difficulties' due to coronavirus pandemic". ABC11 Raleigh-Durham. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  33. Wilbert, Tony (May 5, 2020). "North Carolina Mall Becomes First Super Regional Mall to Permanently Close From Pandemic" . CoStar. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  34. Thomas, Lauren (May 8, 2020). "Coronavirus fallout: Here are the 16 department stores Nordstrom is closing permanently". CNBC. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  35. Tyko, Kelly (May 28, 2020). "Nordstrom permanently closing 16 stores and three boutiques. Is your location on the list?". USA Today. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  36. Friedman, Vanessa; Maheshwari, Sapna (May 7, 2020). "Neiman Marcus, a Symbol of Luxury, Files for Bankruptcy". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  37. Isidore, Chris; Meyersohn, Nathaniel (May 15, 2020). "JCPenney files for bankruptcy". CNN. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  38. Hirsch, Lauren (May 15, 2020). "Long-struggling JC Penney files for bankruptcy as coronavirus crushes hopes for a quick turnaround". CNBC. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  39. Thomas, Lauren (June 5, 2020). "Mall owner CBL issues 'going concern' warning after skipped interest payment". CNBC. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
  40. Ronalds-Hannon, Eliza; Tan, Gillian (July 17, 2020). "Mall Owner CBL Prepares to File for Bankruptcy Protection". Bloomberg News . Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  41. Young, Sarah (June 9, 2020). "Record number of retailers expected to close this year". ConsumerAffairs . Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  42. Research, Coresight (June 9, 2020). "2020 Store Closures in the US: Update—Covid-19 Impact Set To Drive Up Closures". Coresight Research. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  43. Gittelsohn, John (June 16, 2020). "Mall of America Said to Miss Another Payment on Mortgage Debt". Bloomberg . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  44. Wieffering, Helen. "Metrocenter Mall will close after 46 years of business due to fewer shoppers, COVID-19". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  45. Allison, Jacqueline (June 9, 2020). "Cascade Mall to close at end of June". goSkagit. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  46. Kellaher, Peg Brickley, Colin. "Vitamin seller GNC Holdings files for bankruptcy". MarketWatch. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  47. Mutikani, Lucia (July 16, 2020). "U.S. retail sales snap back; high unemployment, rising COVID-19 loom over recovery". Reuters. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  48. Ragland-Hudgins, Mealand. "Old Time Pottery to file Chapter 11 bankruptcy, close stores due to COVID-19". USA Today. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  49. Ronalds-Hannon, Eliza (July 7, 2020). "Ann Taylor Owner Ascena Prepares Bankruptcy to Cut Debt, Stores". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  50. Maheshwari, Sapna; Friedman, Vanessa (July 8, 2020). "Brooks Brothers, Founded in 1818, Files for Bankruptcy". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  51. Thomas, Lauren (July 24, 2020). "Mall owner Simon and Authentic Brands make $305 million bid for bankrupt Brooks Brothers, aiming to keep over 125 stores open". CNBC. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  52. Thomas, Lauren (July 13, 2020). "New York & Co. owner RTW Retailwinds files for bankruptcy, to close hundreds of stores". CNBC. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  53. Barrabi, Thomas (July 14, 2020). "Coronavirus prompts Calvin Klein parent PVH to cut jobs, close Heritage Brand stores". FOXBusiness. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  54. Komiya, Kantaro. "Walmart And Kroger Just Made Face Coverings Mandatory at All Stores. These Retailers Have Not". Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  55. Komiya, Kantaro. "Target, Walgreens, and CVS Will Require Shoppers to Wear Masks in Stores". Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  56. Shearman, J. Craig (July 15, 2020). "Coronavirus could push back-to-school spending to record level as uncertain families gear up for at-home learning". National Retail Federation . Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  57. Corie Barry, Gary Philbin, Mary Dillon, Sonia Syngal, Erik Nordstrom, Anthony Hucker, Johannes Fieber, Dick Johnson, George Sherman, Dinesh Lathi, Laura Karet, Jill Soltau, Bill Rhodes, Chip Bergh, Gary Muto, Wade Miquelon, Sharon Leite, Javier Quinones, Ron Coughlin, JK Symancyk, Stephen Smith (July 17, 2020). "Retail CEOs: Enough is enough. It's time for all US governors to require masks in stores". CNN. Retrieved July 18, 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  58. D'Innocenzio, Anne (July 21, 2020). "Walmart to close its stores on Thanksgiving Day". Associated Press . Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  59. Dewberry, Sarah (July 28, 2020). "These retailers will be closed on Thanksgiving". Grand Rapids, MI: WXMI. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  60. Feeley, Jef (August 2, 2020). "Lord & Taylor, Oldest U.S. Department Store, Files Bankruptcy". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  61. Friedman, Gillian (August 3, 2020). "Men's Wearhouse Owner Files for Bankruptcy". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  62. "Coronavirus delays back-to-school sales as uncertainty looms over return plans". Associated Press. August 5, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  63. Kapner, Suzanne (July 20, 2020). "Back-to-School Shopping Is Off to a Rough Start". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN   0099-9660 . Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  64. Rattner, Lauren Thomas,Nate (August 13, 2020). "Bankrupted Stein Mart is closing all of its stores. Here's a map of where they are". CNBC. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  65. "The Stein Mart bankruptcy: Its stores liquidated, the headquarters is next | Jax Daily Record". Jacksonville Daily Record – Jacksonville, Florida. October 29, 2020. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
  66. Maheshwari, Sapna (September 10, 2020). "Century 21, Fabled New York Bargain Destination, Is Closing". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  67. Asymkos, Stephanie (October 9, 2020). "Retailers create new 'Black Friday' event to jumpstart holiday shopping early". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  68. Valinsky, Jordan (November 2, 2020). "Two major mall owners file for bankruptcy". CNN. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  69. Kan, Michael (November 5, 2020). "Sony: PS5 Launch Day Sales Will Be Online Only". PC Magazine. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  70. Shuman, Sid (November 5, 2020). "PlayStation 5: Launch Day Ordering Update". PlayStation.Blog. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  71. Meisenzahl, Mary. "The CDC classified Black Friday shopping as a 'higher-risk activity' — experts say masks and avoiding crowds are key". Business Insider. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  72. CDC (February 11, 2020). "Holiday Celebrations and Small Gatherings". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Retrieved November 21, 2020.
  73. "Black Friday foot traffic down more than 52%". Retail Dive. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  74. "Sears cerrará dos tiendas en la isla". El Nuevo Dia. El Nuevo Dia. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  75. Tyko, Kelly. "Christopher & Banks store closing sales: All locations liquidating after retailer files for bankruptcy protection". USA Today. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  76. Cerullo, Megan (January 25, 2021). "Godiva will shut all its U.S. chocolate stores by March". CBS News. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  77. "Belk to continue 'normal operations' as it goes through bankruptcy". The Tennessean. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  78. "Fry's Electronics permanently closes nationwide". KRON4 News. Nexstar Inc. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  79. "Fry's Electronics website". Fry's.
  80. Edwards, Jim. "Retail sales in China dropped by 20.5% after coronavirus hit, illustrating a scary difference between today's crisis and 2008". Business Insider. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  81. Huang, Eustance (July 17, 2020). "JPMorgan says Chinese consumers are in 'reasonably good shape' despite miss in retail sales". CNBC. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  82. "Coronavirus: Dettol sales surge as markets fall again". BBC News. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  83. "Coronavirus fears wipe £200bn off UK firms' value". BBC News. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  84. "Retail sales, Great Britain: March 2020" . Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  85. "Coronavirus: Tesco limits sales of essential items". BBC News. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  86. "Coronavirus: Supermarkets ask shoppers to be 'considerate' and stop stockpiling". BBC News. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  87. Milliken, David (March 13, 2020). "UK hospitality and retail jobs in the firing line as coronavirus hits". Reuters. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  88. "Coronavirus: Laura Ashley set to become first retail casualty of crisis". Sky News. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  89. Rascouet, Angelina (July 15, 2020). "Burberry to Cut 500 Jobs Globally After Sales Slump in Lockdowns". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  90. "Carluccio's and BrightHouse collapse into administration". The Guardian. March 30, 2020. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  91. "Coronavirus: Aldi, Morrisons, Waitrose and Asda lift some restrictions". BBC News. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  92. 1 2 "Retail sales, Great Britain: April 2020" . Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  93. "Coronavirus: All 60 Cath Kidston stores to close after collapse blamed on coronavirus". Sky News. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  94. "Oasis and Warehouse to close permanently, with loss of 1,800 jobs". The Guardian. April 30, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  95. "Some John Lewis stores may not reopen after lockdown, admits boss". The Guardian. April 29, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  96. "Debenhams files for administration". Financial Times. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  97. "Retail sales, Great Britain: May 2020". Archived from the original on July 22, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  98. "Debenhams cuts more than 1,000 head office and service jobs". The Guardian. May 28, 2020. Archived from the original on August 2, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  99. "Shopping centre owner British Land slashes value of retail portfolio". The Guardian. May 27, 2020. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  100. "Monsoon And Accessorize To Permanently Close 35 Shops As Company Goes Into Administration". June 10, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  101. "Shopping centre owner Intu collapses into administration". The Guardian. June 26, 2020. Archived from the original on July 30, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  102. "Coronavirus: TM Lewin to close all UK shops". BBC News. Archived from the original on July 20, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  103. "Ted Baker to cut 500 jobs as pandemic losses add to financial woe". The Guardian. July 19, 2020. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  104. "Marks & Spencer to cut 950 jobs in latest Covid-19 blow to high street". The Guardian. July 20, 2020. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  105. "Coronavirus: Total retail sales bounce back to pre-pandemic levels". Sky News. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  106. 1 2 "John Lewis and Boots to cut 5,300 jobs". BBC News. July 9, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
  107. Butler, Sarah (July 1, 2020). "UK retail landlords squeezed as stores hit by Covid-19 crisis". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  108. "Some signs of retail recovery but little cause for optimism". Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  109. "DW Sports chain collapse threatens 1,700 jobs". BBC News. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  110. "Pizza Express may close 67 outlets and cut 1,100 jobs". BBC News. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  111. "Dixons Carphone to cut 800 store management jobs". BBC News. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  112. "Hays Travel to cut jobs as Spain rules hit". Financial Times. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  113. "WH Smith may cut 1,500 jobs after sales plummet". BBC News. August 5, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  114. Fraser, Douglas (August 5, 2020). "Hundreds of jobs to go at M&Co clothing chain". BBC News. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  115. "Retail sales rise despite fewer High Street visits". BBC News. August 11, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
  116. "Debenhams to cut 2,500 more jobs amid pandemic". BBC News. August 11, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
  117. "Labour market overview, UK – Office for National Statistics". Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  118. "Natwest to cut 550 jobs in branches". BBC News. August 12, 2020. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  119. "M&S to cut 7,000 jobs over next three months". BBC News. August 18, 2020. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  120. "Investegate |Marks & Spencer Grp Announcements | Marks & Spencer Grp: M&S Trading Update and Streamlining Announcement". Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  121. "Pizza Express to close 73 sites hitting 1,100 jobs". BBC News. August 19, 2020. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  122. David Milliken. "UK retail sales growth slows as November lockdown hits non-food sales – BRC". U.K. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  123. "Peacocks and Jaeger collapse puts 4,700 jobs at risk". BBC News. November 19, 2020. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
  124. "Topshop owner Arcadia goes into administration". BBC News. November 30, 2020. Archived from the original on November 30, 2020. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  125. "Debenhams set to close putting 12,000 jobs at risk". BBC News. December 1, 2020. Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  126. "Bonmarché collapses into administration". BBC News. December 2, 2020. Archived from the original on December 2, 2020. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
  127. "Primark reports 'phenomenal' trading since lockdowns ended". The Guardian. December 4, 2020. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
  128. "Ashley's Frasers Group eyes collapsed British retailer Debenhams". Reuters. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  129. "Footfall down by more than half for UK Boxing Day sales". The Guardian. December 26, 2020. Archived from the original on December 28, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  130. "Government names 72 high streets in England to share £831m recovery fund". The Guardian. December 26, 2020. Archived from the original on December 28, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  131. "Retail sales, Great Britain: January 2021". Archived from the original on February 19, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  132. "Debenhams shops to close permanently after Boohoo deal". BBC News. January 25, 2021. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  133. "Thousands of jobs at risk as Asos strikes Arcadia deal". BBC News. February 1, 2021. Archived from the original on February 8, 2021. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  134. CDC (February 11, 2020). "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – Interim Guidance for Businesses and Employers". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved August 10, 2020.