Hobby Lobby

Last updated
Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc.
Private
IndustryRetail
FoundedAugust 3, 1972;46 years ago (1972-08-03) (as Hobby Lobby Creative Centers)
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.
Founder David Green
Headquarters
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
,
U.S.
Number of locations
822 stores (2018)
Key people
  • David Green (CEO)
  • Steve Green (President)
  • Jon Cargill (CFO)
ProductsArts and crafts supplies
RevenueIncrease2.svg US$ 4.3 billion (2016) [1]
Number of employees
32,000 (2018) [1]
Website www.hobbylobby.com

Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., formerly called Hobby Lobby Creative Centers, is a private for-profit corporation which owns a chain of American arts and crafts stores that are managed by corporate employees. [2] The company is based in Oklahoma City.

Handicraft work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools

A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector of craft, and applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles, moldable and rigid materials, paper, plant fibers, etc. One of the world's oldest handicraft is Dhokra; this is a sort of metal casting that has been used in India for over 4,000 years and is still used. Usually the term is applied to traditional techniques of creating items that are both practical and aesthetic.Handicraft industries are those that produces things with hands to meet the needs of the people in their locality.Machines are not used.

Chain store retail outlets that share a brand and central management, and usually have standardized business methods and practices

A chain store or retail chain is a retail outlet in which several locations share a brand, central management, and standardized business practices. They have come to dominate the retail and dining markets, and many service categories, in many parts of the world. A franchise retail establishment is one form of chain store. In 2004, the world's largest retail chain, Walmart, became the world's largest corporation based on gross sales.

Oklahoma City State capital city in Oklahoma, United States

Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The county seat of Oklahoma County, the city ranks 27th among United States cities in population. The population grew following the 2010 Census, with the population estimated to have increased to 649,021 as of July 2018. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area had a population of 1,396,445, and the Oklahoma City-Shawnee Combined Statistical Area had a population of 1,469,124 residents, making it Oklahoma's largest municipality and metropolitan area by population.

Contents

History

David Green opened the first Hobby Lobby store, in a 300-square-foot (28 m2) space in northwest Oklahoma City, in 1972. [3] Retail sales were $3,200 from August to the end of the year. [4] He moved to a larger 1,000 square foot space in January 1973. Green left his supervisor position with variety store TG&Y to open a second Hobby Lobby in Oklahoma City in 1975, and a store opened in Tulsa, Oklahoma the next year. [3] It grew to seven stores by mid 1982, [4] and the first store outside Oklahoma opened in 1984. [3]

David Green is an American businessman and the founder of Hobby Lobby, a chain of arts and crafts stores.

Variety store retail store that sells a wide range of inexpensive household goods

A variety store is a retail store that sells a wide range of inexpensive household goods.

TG&Y was a five and dime, or variety store, chain in the United States. At its peak, there were more than 900 stores in 29 states. Starting out during the Great Depression in rural areas and eventually moving into cities, TG&Y stores were firmly embedded in southern culture as modern-day general stores with a bit of everything, and often called "Turtles, Girdles and Yoyos," "Toys, Games and Yoyos," and other irreverent monikers. The chain used the advertising slogan, "Your best buy is at TG&Y." The founders articulated their business philosophy as, "...have what people want at a price they can afford to pay,"

By the start of 1989, the chain had about 15 stores. By late 1992, it had grown to 50 locations in seven U.S. states, [5] and its growth continued to accelerate. Its 100th store opened in August 1995, [6] and its 200th in August 1999. [7] By March 2002, that number had grown to 281 stores in 24 states, [8] and 310 by October 2003. [3]

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

As of April 2018, the chain has more than 800 stores nationwide with the headquarters building in a 9,200,000 [9] -square-foot (850,000 m2) manufacturing, distribution, and office complex. [10]

Opposition to Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

David Green took a public stance against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, citing its inclusion of a provision mandating that companies provide access to the morning-after pill, which some consider an abortifacient. [11]

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act United States federal statute

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), often shortened to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or nicknamed Obamacare, is a United States federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 amendment, it represents the U.S. healthcare system's most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.

Abortifacient Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.

An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion. Abortifacients for animals that have mated undesirably are known as mismating shots.

In September 2012, Hobby Lobby filed a lawsuit against the United States over new regulations requiring health insurance provided by employers to cover emergency contraceptives, stating: "[T]he Green family's religious beliefs forbid them from participating in, providing access to, paying for, training others to engage in, or otherwise supporting abortion-causing drugs and devices". [12] [13] Hobby Lobby argued that the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act serve to protect their religious beliefs, and accordingly bars the application of the contraceptive mandate to them. [14] The U.S. Supreme Court rejected the company's application for an injunction, prompting the firm to sue the federal government. [15] [16] On July 19, 2013, US District Judge Joe Heaton granted the company a temporary exemption from the contraceptive-providing mandate. [17]

A contraceptive mandate is a government regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans.

First Amendment to the United States Constitution Law guaranteeing freedom of speech, religion, assembly, press and petitions and prohibiting establishment of an official religion

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution prevents the government from making laws which respect an establishment of religion, prohibit the free exercise of religion, or abridge the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or the right to petition the government for redress of grievances. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights.

Religious Freedom Restoration Act 1993 United States Law

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, Pub. L. No. 103-141, 107 Stat. 1488, codified at 42 U.S.C. § 2000bb through 42 U.S.C. § 2000bb-4, is a 1993 United States federal law that "ensures that interests in religious freedom are protected." The bill was introduced by Congressman Chuck Schumer (D-NY) on March 11, 1993. A companion bill was introduced in the Senate by Ted Kennedy (D-MA) the same day. A unanimous U.S. House and a nearly unanimous U.S. Senate—three senators voted against passage—passed the bill, and President Bill Clinton signed it into law.

In contrast, on January 28, 2014, the Center for Inquiry filed an amicus brief with the Supreme Court [18] arguing that were the court to grant Hobby Lobby an exclusion which permitted the company to exclude any specific healthcare service from its provision to employees on the basis of the owners' religious beliefs, the firm would violate the Establishment Clause, also part of the First Amendment. The Establishment Clause states: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof...".

Oral arguments in the case, then known as Sebelius v. Hobby Lobby, were heard on March 25, 2014. [19]

U.S. Supreme Court decision

On June 30, 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that Hobby Lobby and other "closely held" stock corporations can choose to be exempt from the law based on religious preferences, based on the Religious Freedom Restoration Act but not on the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. [20] [21]

Business practices

Hobby Lobby stores and facilities are open for business every day with the exception of Sunday to allow employees to have more time to spend for worship, rest, and family. [22] A statement on the company's website says, "This has not been an easy decision for Hobby Lobby because we realize that this decision may cost us financially. Yet we also realize that there are things more important than profits. This is a matter of principle for our company owner and officers." [22]

Rather than using a barcode system, the company uses manual pricing for product ordering and accounting. The website states they "continue to look at and review the option of scanning at the registers but do not feel it is right for [them] at this time". [22]

Controversies

Non-stocking of items relating to Jewish holidays

In September 2013, a shopper reported being told by a store employee, in Marlboro, New Jersey, Hobby Lobby did not carry merchandise celebrating Jewish holidays. While the store carried Christmas items, they did not carry items related to bar mitzvah, Hanukkah, or Passover. The store employee told the shopper these items were not sold due to the owner's Christian values. [23] [24] In response, Hobby Lobby apologized for the employee's comments, stating that it has carried Jewish holiday items in the past and would do so in test areas beginning in November 2013. [25]

Smuggling scandal

Starting in 2009 representatives of Hobby Lobby organized archaeological looting in Iraq and Caesarea to present smuggled artifacts to the Museum of the Bible. In 2017 the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York directed Hobby Lobby to return the artifacts and pay a fine of US$3,000,000. Hobby Lobby returned the items in May 2018. [26] [27]

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County of Allegheny v. American Civil Liberties Union, 492 U.S. 573 (1989), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court considered the constitutionality of two recurring Christmas and Hanukkah holiday displays located on public property in downtown Pittsburgh. The first, a nativity scene (crèche), was placed on the grand staircase of the Allegheny County Courthouse. The second of the holiday display in question was an 18-foot (5.5 m) public Hanukkah menorah, which was placed just outside the City-County Building next to the city's 45-foot (14 m) decorated Christmas tree and a sign saluting liberty. The legality of the Christmas tree display was not considered in this case.

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Timeline of abortion legislation, a chronological list of laws and legal decisions affecting the ability of women to receive abortions. Reproductive rights are a sub-set of human rights pertaining to issues of reproduction and reproductive health. These rights may include some or all of the following: the right to legal or safe abortion, the right to birth control, the right to access quality reproductive healthcare, and the right to education and access in order to make reproductive choices free from coercion, discrimination, and violence. Reproductive rights may also include the right to receive education about contraception and sexually transmitted infections, and freedom from coerced sterilization, abortion, and contraception, and protection from gender-based practices such as female genital cutting (FGC) and male genital mutilation (MGM).

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References

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  3. 1 2 3 4 "Hobby Lobby's history". The Oklahoman . 23 October 2003.
  4. 1 2 Miller, Linda (25 July 1982). "New Growth Seen For Hobby Lobby". The Oklahoman .
  5. "Hobby Lobby will open 42,000 square feet store". Southeast Missourian.
  6. Denton, Jon (27 August 1995). "Ever-Growing Hobby Lobby Becomes Model Success Story". The Oklahoman .
  7. "Hobby Lobby opens 200th store Monday". Times Daily. 8 August 1999.
  8. Lee, Katherine (28 March 2002). "Hobby Lobby, arts and crafts store, to open in Tuscaloosa in mid-April". Tuscaloosa News.
  9. https://www.hobbylobby.com/about-us/our-story.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. "Our Company". Hobby Lobby.
  11. "Hobby Lobby Plan To Defy Obamacare". Huffington Post. December 28, 2012.
  12. Olafson, Steve (September 13, 2012). "Hobby Lobby Sues U.S. Government Over Health Care Mandate". Chicago Tribune.
  13. Talley, Tim (September 12, 2012). "Hobby Lobby sues over morning-after pill coverage". Bloomberg Businessweek.
  14. Scudder, Mark D.; Barnes & Thornburg LLP (November 28, 2013). "It's Official—The Supreme Court Announces That It Will Review The Contraceptive Mandate". The National Law Review . Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  15. "Hobby Lobby Has Its Day in Court; Argues Case for Religious Freedom". Christianpost.com. 2013-05-24. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  16. "Supreme Court denies Hobby Lobby request for reprieve from health care mandate". Fox News. 2012-12-26. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  17. Stempel, Jonathan (July 19, 2013). "Hobby Lobby wins a stay against birth control mandate". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  18. "Press release - Amicus brief to Supreme Court". Center For Inquiry. January 28, 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  19. "Oral Arguments: Argument transcripts" (PDF). SupremeCourt.gov.
  20. Bravin, Jess (July 1, 2014). "Supreme Court Exempts Some Companies From Health Care Law On Religious Grounds". The Wall Street Journal. pp. A1, A6.
  21. "Supreme Court Rules Against Obamacare". Reason.com. June 30, 2014.
  22. 1 2 3 "Hobby Lobby Frequently Asked Questions". Hobby Lobby. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  23. Hafiz, Yasmine (October 2, 2013). "Hobby Lobby Boycotts Jewish Hanukkah And Passover - Huffington Post - October 2, 2013". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  24. Kate Taylor (2013-09-30). "Hobby Lobby Backtracks After Reportedly Refusing to Stock Jewish Holiday Goods". Entrepreneur.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
  25. Palmer, Jennifer (2013-10-04). "Hobby Lobby's President Steve Green responds to blogger's anti-Semitism claim". News OK. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
  26. Connor, Tracy; Arkin, Daniel (July 6, 2017). "Spotlight on Hobby Lobby's Biblical Collection After Smuggle Case". NBC News. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  27. "ICE returns thousands of ancient artifacts seized from Hobby Lobby to Iraq". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. February 5, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2019.