Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security

Last updated

Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security
AbbreviationCHS [1]
Formation1998;23 years ago (1998) [1]
Type Think tank
Location
CEO and Director
Tom Inglesby
COO and Deputy Director
Anita Cicero
Key people
Affiliations Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Staff (2021)
29 [2]
Website www.centerforhealthsecurity.org
Formerly called
  • Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies (1998–2003)
  • Center for Biosecurity of UPMC (2003–2013)
  • UPMC Center for Health Security (2013–2017)

The Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security (abbreviated CHS) is an independent, nonprofit organization of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The Center works to protect people’s health from epidemics and pandemics and ensures that communities are resilient to major challenges. The Center is also concerned with biological weapons and the biosecurity implications of emerging biotechnology.

Contents

The Center for Health Security gives policy recommendations to the United States government, the World Health Organization and the UN Biological Weapons Convention. [1] [3]

History

The Center for Health Security began as the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies (CCBS) in 1998 at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. [4] D. A. Henderson served as the founding director. [5] At that time, the Center was the first and only academic center focused on biosecurity policy and practice.

At one point around 2003, CHS had become part of a new umbrella organization called the Institute for Global Health and Security at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. [4] [6] [7]

In November 2003, some of the leaders left Johns Hopkins to join the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), and launched their own Center for Biosecurity of UPMC. This move apparently split the organization in two, and it is unclear what happened to the old organization. [4]

On April 30, 2013, the UPMC Center changed its name from "Center for Biosecurity of UPMC" to "UPMC Center for Health Security". This name change reflected a broadening of the scope of CHS's work.[ citation needed ]

In January 2017, the JHU Center became part of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Its domain name changed from upmchealthsecurity.org to centerforhealthsecurity.org. [8]

Funding

In 2002, the Center received a $1 million grant from the US federal government. [9]

Before 2017, CHS was heavily reliant on government funding. [1]

In January 2017, the Open Philanthropy Project awarded a $16 million grant over three years to the Center for Health Security. [1] [10] [11] Another grant of $19.5 million was awarded in September 2019. [12]

Publications

The Center for Health Security publishes three online newsletters:

It maintains and edits a peer reviewed journal Health Security which is part of the Mary Ann Liebert publishing group.

It also provides editorial oversight for the journal Health Security, [22] which was launched in 2003 and called Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science until 2015. [23]

CHS also publishes the blog The Bifurcated Needle. [24]

The Open Philanthropy Project's grant writeup of CHS noted several publications: [1]

The Center has published in journals including JAMA and The Lancet . A full list of publications is available on the CHS website. As of February 2017, the list shows more than 400 publications. [25]

Major conferences and tabletop exercises

Operation Dark Winter

From June 22–23, 2001, CHS co-hosted Operation Dark Winter, a senior-level bioterrorism attack simulation involving a covert and widespread smallpox attack on the United States.

Atlantic Storm

On January 14, 2005, CHS helped to host Atlantic Storm, a table-top smallpox bioterrorism simulation. [1]

Clade X

On May 15, 2018, the Center hosted Clade X, [26] a day-long pandemic tabletop exercise that simulated a series of National Security Council–convened meetings of 10 US government leaders, played by individuals prominent in the fields of national security or epidemic response.

Drawing from actual events, Clade X identified important policy issues and preparedness challenges that could be solved with sufficient political will and attention. These issues were designed in a narrative to engage and educate the participants and the audience.

Clade X was livestreamed on Facebook and extensive materials from the exercise are available online. [27] [28]

Event 201

On October 18, 2019, the CHS partnered with the World Economic Forum and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to host the tabletop exercise Event 201 in New York City. [29] [30] According to the CHS, "[t]he exercise illustrated areas where public/private partnerships will be necessary during the response to a severe pandemic in order to diminish large-scale economic and societal consequences". [29]

Event 201 simulated the effects of a fictional coronavirus originating in bats but passing to humans via pigs. [31]

Other

  • Improving Epidemic Response: Building Bridges Between the US and China. May 2012.
  • Considerations for the Reauthorization of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA). March 2012.
  • U.S. Preparedness for a Nuclear Detonation. October 2011.
  • Charting the Future of Biosecurity: Ten Years After the Anthrax Attacks. October 2011.
  • Advancing US Resilience to a Nuclear Catastrophe. May 2011.
  • Preserving National Security: The Growing Role of the Life Sciences. March 2011.
  • Improving Global Health, Strengthening Global Security. November 2010.
  • The State of BIOPreparedness: Lessons from Leaders, Proposals for Progress. September 2010.
  • Preparing to Save Lives and Recover After a Nuclear Detonation: Implications for US Policy. April 2010.
  • The 2009 H1N1 Experience: Policy Implications for Future Infectious Disease Emergencies. March 2010.
  • Resilient American Communities: Progress In Practice and Policy. December 10, 2009.
  • Prevention of Biothreats: A Look Ahead. October 6, 2009.
  • Disease, Disaster, and Democracy: The Public's Stake in Health Emergency Planning. May 2006.
  • Bulls, Bears, and Birds: Preparing the Financial Industry for a Pandemic. September 2005.
  • Conference on Biosafety and Biorisks. May 2005.
  • The Public as an Asset, Not a Problem: A Summit on Leadership During Bioterrorism. February 2003.
  • 2nd National Symposium on Medical and Public Health Response to Bioterrorism. November 2000.
  • National Symposium on Medical and Public Health Response to Bioterrorism. February 1999.

See also

Related Research Articles

Bioterrorism Terrorism involving biological agents

Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. These agents are bacteria, viruses, insects, fungi or toxins, and may be in a naturally occurring or a human-modified form, in much the same way as in biological warfare. Further, modern agribusiness is vulnerable to anti-agricultural attacks by terrorists, and such attacks can seriously damage economy as well as consumer confidence. The latter destructive activity is called agrobioterrorism and is a subtype of agro-terrorism.

Biodefense refers to measures to restore biosecurity to a group of organisms who are, or may be, subject to biological threats or infectious diseases. Biodefense is frequently discussed in the context of biowar or bioterrorism, and is generally considered a military or emergency response term.

Donald Henderson American physician

Donald Ainslie Henderson was an American medical doctor, educator, and epidemiologist who directed a 10-year international effort (1967–1977) that eradicated smallpox throughout the world and launched international childhood vaccination programs. From 1977 to 1990, he was Dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Later, he played a leading role in instigating national programs for public health preparedness and response following biological attacks and national disasters. At the time of his death, he was Professor and Dean Emeritus of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Professor of Medicine and Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh, as well as Distinguished Scholar at the UPMC Center for Health Security.

Tara Kirk American swimmer (born 1982)

Tara Kirk Sell is an American former competition swimmer and breaststroke specialist who is an Olympic silver medalist. She is a former world record holder in the 100-meter breaststroke.

The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) is an informal international partnership among countries in order to exchange information and coordinate practices for confronting new threats and risks to global health. It was formed to respond to threats of biological, chemical, or radio-nuclear terrorism (CBRN), with pandemic influenza added to the scope a year later.

The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) is a government biodefense research laboratory created by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and located at the sprawling biodefense campus at Fort Detrick in Frederick, MD, USA. The NBACC is the principal U.S. biodefense research institution engaged in laboratory-based threat assessment and bioforensics. NBACC is an important part of the National Interagency Biodefense Campus (NIBC) also located at Fort Detrick for the US Army, National Institutes of Health and the US Department of Agriculture.

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response US government agency

The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) within the United States Department of Health and Human Services that focuses on preparedness planning and response; building federal emergency medical operational capabilities; countermeasures research, advance development, and procurement; and grants to strengthen the capabilities of hospitals and health care systems in public health emergencies and medical disasters. The office provides federal support, including medical professionals through ASPR’s National Disaster Medical System, to augment state and local capabilities during an emergency or disaster.

Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act U.S. Federal law

On December 19, 2006, the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA), Public Law No. 109-417, was signed into law by President George W. Bush. First introduced in the House by Rep. Mike Rogers (R-MI) and Rep. Anna Eshoo (D-CA), PAHPA had broad implications for the United States Department of Health and Human Services's (HHS) preparedness and response activities. Among other things, the act amended the Public Health Service Act to establish within the department a new Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR); provided new authorities for a number of programs, including the advanced development and acquisitions of medical countermeasures; and called for the establishment of a quadrennial National Health Security Strategy.

Atlantic Storm was a ministerial exercise simulating the top-level response to a bioterror incident. The simulation operated on January 14, 2005 in Washington, D.C. It was created in part to reveal the current international state of preparedness and possible political and public health issues that might evolve from such a crisis.

Biosecurity in the United States is governed by the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, which is part of the US Department of State. It obtains guidance and advice on specific matters relating to biosecurity from various other government agencies.

Luciana Borio Physician and public health administrator

Luciana Borio is a Brazilian-American infectious disease physician and public health administrator. She is a vice president at In-Q-Tel. She previously served as director for Medical and Biodefense Preparedness at the National Security Council, acting chief scientist of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), assistant commissioner for counterterrorism policy of the FDA, and director of FDA's Office of Counterterrorism and Emerging Threats. She is known for her work advancing clinical trials, the development of medical countermeasures for health emergencies, and the public health responses to Ebola and Zika outbreaks.

Open Philanthropy is a research and grantmaking foundation. It aims to make grants and to share its findings openly. Open Philanthropy identifies outstanding giving opportunities, makes grants, follows the results, and publishes their findings online. Its current co-chief executive officers are Holden Karnofsky and Alexander Berger, and its main funders are Cari Tuna and Dustin Moskovitz.

The Bipartisan Commission on Biodefense, formerly known as the Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense, is an organization of former high-ranking government officials that analyzes US capabilities and capacity to defend against biological threats. According to the Commission's mission statement, the organization was formed to "provide for a comprehensive assessment of the state of U.S. biodefense efforts, and to issue recommendations that will foster change."

The Alliance for Biosecurity is a consortium of companies that develop products to respond to national security threats, including bioterrorism pathogens and emerging infectious diseases. It is headquartered in Washington DC.

Syra Madad is an American pathogen preparedness expert and infectious disease epidemiologist. Madad is the Senior Director of the System-wide Special Pathogens Program at NYC Health + Hospitals where she is part of the executive leadership team which oversees New York City's response to the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the city's 11 public hospitals. She was featured in the Netflix documentary series Pandemic: How to Prevent an Outbreak and the Discovery Channel documentary The Vaccine: Conquering COVID.

Planning and preparing for pandemics has happened in countries and international organizations. The World Health Organization writes recommendations and guidelines, though there is no sustained mechanism to review countries' preparedness for epidemics and their rapid response abilities. National action depends on national governments. In 2005–2006, prior to the 2009 swine flu pandemic and during the decade following it, the governments in the United States, France, UK, and others managed strategic health equipment stocks, but they often reduced stocks after the 2009 pandemic in order to reduce costs.

Crystal Watson is a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security and an assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Health and Engineering. She is an expert in health security, biodefense, and risk assessment and preparedness for emerging infectious diseases. She is currently working on the public health response to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Saskia Popescu Infectious disease epidemiologist

Saskia Popescu is an infectious disease epidemiologist and Senior Infection Preventionist in Phoenix, Arizona. She holds academic appointments at the University of Arizona and George Mason University, where she lectures on biopreparedness and pandemic and outbreak response. Since the start of the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, Popescu has worked to prepare for and mitigate the spread of the disease. She has been recognized for her communication efforts around the pandemic, as well as her work on the front lines.

Elizabeth Cameron is an American national security expert specializing in biosecurity, biodefense, and bioterrorism. She serves as Senior Director for Global Health Security and Biodefense on the White House National Security Council staff.

Thomas Vincent Inglesby Jr. is an American epidemiologist. He is the Director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security — Biosecurity, Global Health Security, and Global Catastrophic Risks". Open Philanthropy Project. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  2. Teddy Karambelas (August 17, 2021). "Our Staff" . Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  3. Center for Health Security Mission Statement Archived June 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  4. 1 2 3 Roos, Robert (September 23, 2003). "Johns Hopkins biodefense experts head in new direction". CIDRAP. Retrieved February 8, 2017. the four full-time faculty members and 16 administrative staff members of the CCBS are all leaving Hopkins to join the UPMC. 'No decision has been made exactly what to do with the Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, whether it'll have a new direction or mission incorporated into some other center,' [Tim Parsons] said. 'But its biodefense activities will be incorporated in some way into the new initiative of the Institute for Global Health Security.'
  5. UPMC Center for Health Security (January 18, 2017). "D. A. Henderson" . Retrieved February 10, 2017. He was Dean Emeritus and Professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and a Founding Director (1998) of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies.
  6. Parsons, Tim (September 22, 2003). "Public Health forms Global Health, Security Institute". Johns Hopkins Gazette. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  7. JH Bloomberg School of Public Health (September 16, 2003). "Institute for Global Health and Security". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  8. Price Tyson (January 16, 2017). "Center for Health Security Joins Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School". Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. Retrieved February 8, 2017. the Center for Health Security, which had previously been affiliated with the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), has joined the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
  9. JH Bloomberg School of Public Health (January 7, 2002). "Biodefense Center to Receive $1 Million". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  10. "Hopkins' Center for Health Security gets $16M grant". Maryland Daily Record. Associated Press. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017. The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Health Security has been awarded a three-year, $16 million grant to support work on strengthening health security and public health preparedness.
  11. "Center for Health Security gets $16M grant". The Washington Times . February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  12. Open Philanthropy Prject (September 2021). "Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security — Biosecurity, Global Health Security, and Global Catastrophic Risks (2019)". Open Philanthropy Prject. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  13. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC (January 16, 2017). "About Clinicians' Biosecurity News". UPMC Center for Health Security. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  14. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC (January 31, 2017). "Health Security Headlines" . Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  15. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC (September 21, 2007). "Biosecurity Briefing". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  16. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC (April 30, 2009). "Biosecurity News in Brief -- Center for Biosecurity of UPMC". Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  17. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC (July 15, 2011). "Biosecurity News Today". Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2017. Biosecurity News TodayCS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  18. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC (August 13, 2012). "Center for Biosecurity | UPMC | Biosecurity News Today". Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  19. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC (July 1, 2013). "Health Security Headlines | Published by UPMC Center for Health Security". Archived from the original on July 11, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  20. Solomon, John (February 5, 2009). "Weekly "Biosecurity Briefing" E-Newsletter Is Becoming A Daily". In Case Of Emergency, Read Blog. Retrieved February 10, 2017. I am happy to report that a helpful weekly email resource is going daily beginning this Monday. The Biosecurity Briefing, published by the Baltimore-based Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, is being expanded.
  21. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC (January 31, 2017). "Preparedness Pulsepoints" . Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  22. Rob Adams (January 18, 2017). "Our Work" . Retrieved February 9, 2017. Journal: The Center provides editorial oversight for the peer-reviewed journal, Health Security, which is published 6 times per year.
  23. "Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science | Issue List" . Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  24. "About". The Bifurcated Needle. Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  25. "All Publications" . Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  26. Cizek, Julia (January 7, 2019). "Clade X, a tabletop exercise hosted by the Center for Health Security". Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  27. Cizek, Julia (January 7, 2019). "Livestream (Archived) from Clade X, a pandemic tabletop exercise". Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  28. Center, Johns Hopkins (January 7, 2019). "Resources from Clade X, a day-long pandemic tabletop exercise". Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  29. 1 2 Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security (January 24, 2020). "Event 201, a pandemic exercise to illustrate preparedness efforts". Event 201. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  30. Kirsten Salyer (15 October 2019), "Live Simulation Exercise to Prepare Public and Private Leaders for Pandemic Response", press release from World Economic Forum: "Event 201 exercise will bring together public and private leaders to inform multistakeholder cooperation for pandemic preparedness and response"
  31. "US rapper Pitbull wrong to claim Event 201 was 'rehearsal' for coronavirus pandemic". Full Fact. February 18, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2021.