Shabir Madhi

Last updated

Shabir Ahmed Madhi
Shabir Madhi for Fundacion Civio.jpg
Madhi in 2017
Born1966 (age 5455)
NationalitySouth African
Education University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
Known forLeading COVID-19 vaccine trials in South Africa
Medical career
ProfessionPhysician
Sub-specialties Vaccinology

Shabir Ahmed Madhi (born 1966) is a South African physician who is professor of vaccinology and director of the South African Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit at the University of the Witwatersrand, and National Research Foundation/Department of Science and Technology Research Chair in Vaccine Preventable Diseases. In January 2021, he was appointed Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Witwateratand.

Contents

He was executive director of South Africa's National Institute for Communicable Diseases from 2011 to 2017, and has served on several WHO committees in roles pertinent to vaccines and pneumonia. In 2018, he co-founded the African Leadership in Vaccinology Expertise (ALIVE) and was appointed Chair of South Africa's National Advisory Group on Immunization (NAGI).

His research has included studies on the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and rotavirus vaccine, and in pregnant women, the influenza and respiratory syncytial virus vaccines.

Since the global COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, he has been leading COVID-19 vaccine trials in South Africa, including the first in Africa. In 2021 he stated that the first and foremost method of ending COVID-19 in South Africa is to implement a mass vaccination programme.

Early life and education

Madhi was born in 1966. [1] His father was a teacher and mother a housewife. [2] Initially aspiring to becoming an engineer, he opted to accept a bursary to study medicine and was initially reluctant to persist with his medical education. [2] In 1990 he completed his undergraduate and postgraduate training at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, and six years later, became a fellow of the College of Paediatrics (FCPaeds (SA)). [3] During this time, with encouragement from Glenda Gray, he applied for a post under professor Keith Klugman, to work on vaccines for pneumonia. [2]

In 1998 he received a master's degree in medicine (paediatrics). [1] He gained his PhD in 2003. [1] [3]

Career

Madhi is professor of vaccinology and director of the South African Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit at the University of the Witwatersrand, and National Research Foundation/Department of Science and Technology Research Chair in Vaccine Preventable Diseases. [3] [4] [5] These units have been rebranded as the MRC Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit (VIDA). [6]

He was executive director of South Africa's National Institute for Communicable Diseases from 2011 to 2017, and has served on several WHO committees in roles pertinent to vaccines and pneumonia. [3] In 2018, after spending four years as deputy-chair of South Africa's National Advisory Group on Immunization (NAGI), he became its chairperson. [3] In the same year he co-founded the African Leadership in Vaccinology Expertise (ALIVE), based at the University of the Witwatersrand, with the aim of expanding expertise in vaccinology in Africa. [3] In January 2021, he became Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of the Witwateratand. [7] [8]

Pneumonia vaccine

His research has included studies on the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. [3] [9] [10] This research led to the WHO recommendations on the delivery of this vaccine in low and middle-income countries. [3]

Rotavirus vaccine

Madhi led the first study that showed that a rotavirus vaccine could significantly prevent severe diarrhoea during the first year of life in African babies. It was published in The New England Journal of Medicine in 2010. [11] [12] The paper provided one of the key pieces of evidence for the WHO recommendations of universal rotavirus vaccination. [3]

Flu vaccine

In pregnant women, he studied the effectiveness of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus vaccines. [3] [9] [10] He led one of the largest studies evaluating the immune response to influenza vaccination in pregnant women. [13] His work showed that the risk of flu halved in women given the flu vaccine. In addition, the risk to their newborns in the first 24 weeks of life was also reduced. The findings were presented at the 16th International Congress on Infectious Diseases and he reported that his "data support the recent WHO recommendation in terms of prioritizing pregnant women for influenza vaccination, not just for the protection of the mother, but protection of the infant as well". [14] Later, he became involved in the clinical development of a vaccine against Group B streptococcus for pregnant women. [3]

Tuberculosis

Other research has involved assessing the efficacy of various drug regimens to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in people with HIV. [15]

COVID-19

Since the global COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, he has been leading COVID-19 vaccine trials in South Africa, including the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine [16] [17] and the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, [18] [19] the first COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial in the continent of Africa. [20] Asserting that South Africa's second wave in December 2020 is largely driven by mass gatherings and changing people's behaviour, rather than solely on the new variant, he has called for a wider coverage of COVID-19 vaccination. [21] His co-authored publication on results of a large clinical trial of a COVID-19 vaccine suggest that the vaccine is safe and effective. [22] In 2021 he made it clear that the first and foremost method of ending COVID-19 in South Africa is to implement a mass vaccination programme. [23] On 1 January 2021 he tweeted "Ability of vaccines to impact on the pandemic is directly related to how soon you can get approx 50–60% of the population vaccinated." [23]

Awards and honours

Since 2012, he has been considered an internationally recognised scientist with an A-rating by the South Africa's National Research Foundation. [3] In 2014 he received the Platinum Medal, South African Medical Research Council's life-time award. In 2016 he received the European Developing Clinical Trial Partnership Scientific Award. [3]

Selected publications

Madhi has authored more than 350 publications between 1997 and 2018, [3] covering topics such as childhood vaccines, pneumonia, severe infections in young children and vaccination in pregnancy. [24]

Articles

Related Research Articles

Vaccine Pathogen-derived preparation that provides acquired immunity to an infectious disease

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the future. Vaccines can be prophylactic, or therapeutic. Some vaccines offer full sterilizing immunity, in which infection is prevented completely.

Herd immunity Concept in epidemiology

Herd immunity is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that can occur with some diseases when a sufficient percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through previous infections or vaccination, thereby reducing the likelihood of infection for individuals who lack immunity. Immune individuals are unlikely to contribute to disease transmission, disrupting chains of infection, which stops or slows the spread of disease. The greater the proportion of immune individuals in a community, the smaller the probability that non-immune individuals will come into contact with an infectious individual.

This is a timeline of the development of prophylactic human vaccines. Early vaccines may be listed by the first year of development or testing, but later entries usually show the year the vaccine finished trials and became available on the market. Although vaccines exist for the diseases listed below, only smallpox has been eliminated worldwide. The other vaccine-preventable illnesses continue to cause millions of deaths each year. Currently, polio and measles are the targets of active worldwide eradication campaigns.

Influenza vaccine Vaccine against influenza

Influenza vaccines, also known as flu jabs or flu shots, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses. New versions of the vaccines are developed twice a year, as the influenza virus rapidly changes. While their effectiveness varies from year to year, most provide modest to high protection against influenza. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that vaccination against influenza reduces sickness, medical visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Immunized workers who do catch the flu return to work half a day sooner on average. Vaccine effectiveness in those over 65 years old remains uncertain due to a lack of high-quality research. Vaccinating children may protect those around them.

Pneumococcal vaccine

Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their use can prevent some cases of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. They are given by injection either into a muscle or just under the skin.

Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period. Nevertheless, immunization during pregnancy may occur either inadvertently, or be indicated in a special situation, when it appears prudent to reduce the risk of a specific disease for a potentially exposed pregnant woman or her fetus.

Rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea among young children. The vaccines prevent 15–34% of severe diarrhea in the developing world and 37–96% of severe diarrhea in the developed world. The vaccines decrease the risk of death among young children due to diarrhea. Immunizing babies decreases rates of disease among older people and those who have not been immunized.

Katherine OBrien Canadian-born pediatric physician (born 1963)

Katherine "Kate" L. O'Brien is a Canadian American pediatric infectious disease physician, epidemiologist, and vaccinologist who specializes in the areas of pneumococcal epidemiology, pneumococcal vaccine trials and impact studies, and surveillance for pneumococcal disease. She is also known as an expert in infectious diseases in American Indian populations. O’Brien is currently the Director of the World Health Organization's Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals.

George Siber Medical researcher and vaccine expert

George Rainer Siber is a medical researcher and vaccine expert with 46 years of experience in developing numerous vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostic agents for infectious diseases.

Helen Rees

Helen Rees OBE GCOB is a medical researcher and the founder and Executive Director of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute of the University of Witwatersrand. She has led many HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health studies and advised on vaccination strategies to help prevent various medical conditions.

Vaccine-induced viral shedding is a form of viral shedding following a viral infection caused by a statistically insignificant number of administrations of attenuated vaccines, which is a specific vaccine technology that uses an attenuated form of a live virus. The overwhelming majority of vaccines, however, are not attenuated vaccines, and therefore cannot cause vaccine-induced viral shedding, and only a statistically insignificant number of viral infections from those types of vaccines have ever been recorded.

Dame Sarah Catherine Gilbert is a British vaccinologist who is Saïd Professor of Vaccinology at the University of Oxford and co-founder of Vaccitech. Gilbert specialises in the development of vaccines against influenza and emerging viral pathogens. She led the development and testing of the universal flu vaccine, which underwent clinical trials in 2011. On New Year's Day 2019 Gilbert read on ProMED-mail about four people in China suffering from a strange pneumonia of unknown cause, in Wuhan, China. Within two weeks a vaccine had been designed at Oxford against the new pathogen. On 30 December 2020, the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine she co-developed with the Oxford Vaccine Group was approved for use in the United Kingdom. As of November 2021 more than 2 billion doses of the vaccine have been released to more than 170 countries worldwide.

COVID-19 vaccine Vaccine designed to provide acquired immunity against SARS-CoV-2

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID‑19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19.

Arnold Monto American physician and epidemiologist

Arnold Monto is an American physician and epidemiologist. At the University of Michigan School of Public Health, Monto is the Thomas Francis Collegiate Professor of Public Health, professor of epidemiology, and professor of global public health. His epidemiologic focus is on occurrence, prevention, and treatment of acute infections in the individual and the community.

Nicola Mary Turner is a New Zealand public health advocate who is a professor of General Practice at the University of Auckland and Director of the Immunisation Advisory Centre, the organisation that advises the New Zealand Medical profession and the New Zealand government. She has contributed to advisory committees for the New Zealand Ministry of Health and is a spokesperson for the NZ Child Poverty Action Group. Much of her research and outreach has focused on improving immunisation coverage and closing equity gaps for the national schedule vaccine delivery in New Zealand. Since 2011 Turner has been part of the General Practice team at Newtown Union Health Services (NUHS), Broadway, Wellington.

Vaccination in Brazil

Vaccination in Brazil includes all the practice and social issues related to vaccines in Brazil.

Helen Petousis-Harris is a New Zealand vaccinologist and associate professor in the Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care at the University of Auckland. She has been involved in research related to vaccination in New Zealand since 1998, with her main areas of focus being vaccine safety and effectiveness. Petousis-Harris has had a variety of lead roles in New Zealand and international organisations that focus on vaccination and is a regular media spokesperson in this field, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

African Leadership in Vaccinology Expertise(ALIVE), is a South African Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation Flagship Initiative at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, established in 2016. It was co-founded by professor of vaccinology Shabir Madhi and runs an 18-month Master of Science in Medicine in the field of Vaccinology. Its members have been contributing to COVID-19 vaccine trials in South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The National Advisory Group on Immunization (NAGI), in South Africa, established in 1993 advises the National Department of Health on issues pertinent to vaccination and infectious diseases. It makes recommendations on vaccine formulations and vaccination schedules.

Daniela M. Ferreira Brazilian immunologist

Daniela M. Ferreira is a Brazilian British immunologist. She is a specialist in bacterial infection, respiratory co-infection, mucosal immunology and vaccine responses. She is currently the Head of Clinical Sciences Department and Professor of respiratory vaccines and infection immunology at Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. She leads a team of scientists studying protective immune responses against pneumococcus and other respiratory pathogens such as SARS-CoV2. Her team has established a novel method of inducing pneumococcal carriage in human volunteers. They use this model to:

References

  1. 1 2 3 Curriculum Vitae: Shabir Madhi. World Association for Infectious Diseases and Immunological Disorders, via www.waidid.
  2. 1 2 3 Saba, Athandiwe (5 September 2020). "Q&A Sessions: The accidental vaccinologist". The Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals: Professor Shabir A. Madhi". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  4. "Prof Shabir Madhi" . Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  5. "Shabir A. Madhi". The Conversation. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  6. "Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Reaearch Unit". www.rmpru.com. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  7. "Director of SAMRC extramural research unit appointed Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Wits University" . Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  8. "Biographies - Wits University". www.wits.ac.za. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  9. 1 2 Acton, Q. Ashton, ed. (2011). Pneumococcal Disease: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholarly Editions. ISBN   978-1-4649-0303-8.
  10. 1 2 Dunne, Eileen M.; Pilishvili, Tamara; Adegbola, Richard A. (1 December 2020). "Assessing reduced-dose pneumococcal vaccine schedules in South Africa". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 20 (12): 1355–1357. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30577-6 . ISSN   1473-3099. PMID   32857991 . Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  11. "Rotarix™ significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in African babies during their first year of life | GSK". www.gsk.com. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  12. "Rotavirus vaccine support". www.gavi.org. GAVI. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  13. Edwards, K. M.; Creech, C. B. (2017). "8. Vaccine development in special populations". In Modjarrad, Kayvon; Koff, Wayne C. (eds.). Human Vaccines: Emerging Technologies in Design and Development. Elsevier. p. 172. ISBN   978-0-12-802302-0.
  14. Harrison, Pam. "Vaccine Reduces Influenza Risk in Mothers and Newborns". Medscape. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  15. Fox, Steven. "Limited Efficacy Seen for HIV-Related TB Prophylaxis". Medscape. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  16. Makoni, Munyaradzi (1 November 2020). "COVID-19 vaccine trials in Africa". The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 8 (11): e79–e80. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30401-X . ISSN   2213-2600. PMC   7831818 . PMID   32896275.
  17. Callaway, Ewen; Mallapaty, Smriti (29 January 2021). "Novavax offers first evidence that COVID vaccines protect people against variants". Nature. p. 17. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00268-9.
  18. Harding, Andrew (4 January 2021). "Covid-19 in South Africa: Scientists seek to understand new variant". BBC News. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  19. "South Africa Rolls Out Continent's First Trials for COVID-19 Vaccine". Medscape. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  20. "Trial of Oxford COVID-19 vaccine in South Africa begins | University of Oxford". www.ox.ac.uk. 23 June 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  21. Pilling, David (28 December 2020). "South Africa battles to control second Covid wave as cases top 1m". www.ft.com. Financial Times. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  22. Ledford, Heidi (8 December 2020). "Oxford COVID-vaccine paper highlights lingering unknowns about results". Nature. 588 (7838): 378–379. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-03504-w . PMID   33293710.
  23. 1 2 Head, Tom (1 January 2021). "'SA may not get vaccines in 2021': Top virologist criticises Zweli Mkhize". The South African. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  24. "Professor Shabir Madhi". MPRU. Retrieved 5 January 2021.