Huoshenshan Hospital

Last updated

Huoshenshan Hospital
Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital under construction 02.jpg
Huoshenshan Hospital construction site
Huoshenshan Hospital
LocationZhiyinhu Boulevard, Caidian District, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Coordinates 30°31′45″N114°04′56″E / 30.5291°N 114.0822°E / 30.5291; 114.0822 Coordinates: 30°31′45″N114°04′56″E / 30.5291°N 114.0822°E / 30.5291; 114.0822
Beds1,000 [1]
Opened3 February 2020 (Zone 1)
7 February 2020 (Fully opened)
Closed15 April 2020
Lists Hospitals in China
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 火神 医院
Traditional Chinese 火神 醫院
Literal meaningMount Fire God Hospital
Video of Huoshenshan Hospital under construction. Video from China News Service

Huoshenshan Hospital (Chinese :火神山医院; pinyin :Huǒshénshān Yīyuàn; lit. 'Mount Fire God Hospital') is an emergency specialty field hospital, built between 23 January and 2 February 2020, in response to the China virus COVID-19 pandemic. [2] [3] The facility is located near Zhiyin Lake (知音湖) in the Caidian District, Wuhan, Hubei, China, next to the Wuhan Workers' Sanatorium (武汉职工疗养院), and is designed to treat people with COVID-19. [4] The hospital has run under the jurisdiction and management of the People's Liberation Army since its completion. [5] A second field hospital, Leishenshan Hospital, using the same design, opened on 8 February, [6] A further sixteen other temporary treatment facilities were set up in converted buildings in Wuhan for isolation and treatment of COVID-19 cases. [7] Huoshenshan and Leishenshan hospitals were closed on 15 April after community transmission stopped in China, almost a month after the other temporary facilities had been closed. [7]



The name "Huoshen" (火神; 'God of Fire') named after Zhurong, an important personage in Chinese mythology and Chinese folk religion who was known as ancestors of the Chu people, and the Yan Emperor, a legendary ancient Chinese ruler in pre-dynastic times who was also known as ancestors of the Chinese people.

The name "Huo" (; 'Fire') is also related to the concept of fire () in wuxing (五行). In traditional Chinese medicine, the metal element () governs the lung (). As fire overcomes metal (火克金), the name conveys the hope that the hospital will overcome the respiratory infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 that troubles the lung. [8] [9]


Construction of the hospital began on the evening of 23 January 2020 with a scheduled completion of construction on 2 February. [10] In the initial stage, dozens of excavators, bulldozers and other earth-moving equipment prepared the ground. This was followed by the laying down of several layers of matting and concrete. [11] The omnibus construction team was understaffed at the beginning, with many workers having to work two shifts, 12 hours per day. More workers were added, however, culminating with up to 7,000 people working around the clock in three shifts. [12]

A worker stated that they started to work at 7 a.m. and usually finished working in the night; sometimes they had to work overtime until 12 a.m. The meals were delivered to the gate of the site by construction managers, then distributed to workers by their supervisors; workers usually immediately returned to work after finishing the meals in the site. In terms of income, most of the workers earned over 10,000 Yuan RMB for their 8-day work on the site. However, since they were quarantined for 14 days after they returned home, and taking into account the time cost to Wuhan and back, the average monthly income was not much higher than that of normal construction workers, who usually get 8–9,000 RMB per month. [13]

The last brick was placed on 2 February 2020. [14] That day the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force began airlifting medical personnel and supplies to Wuhan for the hospital opening, and the hospital proper was handed over to the PLA. [15] Vice Premier Sun Chunlan inspected the facility and equipment of the hospital on that day. [16] The very next day, 3 February 2020, the hospital began accepting patients. The first person entered at 10:00 a.m. [1]

However, according to workers on the site, only Zone 1 was open for accepting patients on February 3, while Zone 2, Zone 3 and Zone 4 were not opened until February 7. [13]

State broadcaster China Media Group [17] has hosted the streams from the construction of Huoshenshan and Leishenshan Hospital, which together had an average of around 18 million concurrent views on 28 January. [18]

The hospital was closed and sealed on 15 April, pending possible reopening in the event of a resurgence of cases. [7]


The hospital is modeled after the Xiaotangshan Hospital  [ zh ], which was built in the suburbs of Beijing in six days for the 2003 SARS epidemic. [19] [20] Huoshenshan Hospital is built nearby Zhiyin Lake.[ citation needed ] It accommodates 1,000 beds which spans over an area of around 60,000 m2 and consists of 2 floors. [1] It has 30 intensive care units, medical equipment rooms, and quarantine wards. [21]

The hospital was built with prefabricated units for fast construction and installation works. [22] The units were laid on pillars to keep them off the ground. Each unit is about 10 m2 and fitted with two beds. Each room is negatively pressurized to prevent airborne microorganisms from spreading out of the hospital. [21] It also has specialized ventilation systems and double-sided cabinets that connect each patient room to hallways, which allows the hospital staff to deliver supplies without the need to enter each patient room. [1] The hospital is linked by a video system to PLA General Hospital in Beijing. [12]


The hospital was operated by 1,400 medical personnel sent by the People's Liberation Army, which consisted of 950 people from hospitals affiliated to Joint Logistics Support Force of Central Military Commission and 450 people from medical universities of PLA who were sent to Wuhan earlier. [23] The hospital also used medical robots in its daily operation to deliver medicines and carry test samples. [1]

According to the reports by Caixin, there were 63 workers from Xiangtan, Hunan who came to help with the construction. They all returned to Xiangtan and were being quarantined by the local authorities on February 7 after the construction was completed. Two people were confirmed to have COVID-19 among those workers as of February 14. Although the source of their infection is not confirmed yet, they believed they were being infected on the construction site, especially after February 3 when Zone 1 was opened while there was a shortage in supply of masks for construction workers. Those two workers also claimed that some workers had coughs while working. [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Wuhan University

Wuhan University is a national research university located in Wuhan, Hubei. It is one of the most prestigious and selective universities in China, and was recognized by the Chinese Ministry of Education as a Class A Double First Class University. It was one of the four elite universities in the early Republican period and is also one of the oldest universities in China. Wuhan University is located at Luojia Hill, with palatial buildings blending Chinese and Western styles. It is regarded by many as one of the most beautiful campuses in China.

Wuhan University of Science and Technology University in Wuhan, Hubei, China

Wuhan University of Science and Technology (WUST) is a public, comprehensive, research university located in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China. It is a key university established and managed by Hubei province and by the Chinese Ministry of Education.

The following lists events that happened during 2020 in China.

Li Lanjuan Chinese epidemiologist

Li Lanjuan, also romanized as Lan-Juan Li, is a Chinese epidemiologist and hepatologist. She is a professor at Zhejiang University School of Medicine, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and serves as the director of the State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases. She developed Li-NBAL, an artificial liver support system that is used to sustain the lives of people suffering from acute liver failure, and won multiple national awards for her roles in combatting the SARS, H1N1, and H7N9 epidemics.

Leishenshan Hospital Hospital in Hubei, China

Leishenshan Hospital is an emergency specialty field hospital built in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The facility is located at No.3 Parking Lot of the Athletes Village in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei. Stage one of construction was completed on 6 February 2020, and the hospital opened on 8 February 2020. Along with the Huoshenshan Hospital, a further sixteen other temporary treatment facilities were set up for isolation and treatment of COVID-19 cases. Leishenshan and Huoshenshan hospitals were closed and sealed on 15 April 2020, pending possible reopening in the event of a resurgence of cases.

The Dabie Mountain Regional Medical Centre is a hospital campus in Huangzhou District, Huanggang, Hubei, China. Originally constructed as a new campus for the eventual relocation of Huanggang Central Hospital, it was rapidly converted into a quarantine facility as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic which originated in Wuhan.

Wuhan Union Hospital Hospital in Hubei, China

The Wuhan Union Hospital is a hospital in Jianghan District, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Wang Chen is a Chinese pulmonologist and physician currently serving as vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE) and president of the Peking Union Medical College. He is a member of the Chinese Hospital Association (CHA) and Chinese Medical Doctor Association (CMDA).

Li Wenliang Chinese physician who raised awareness about COVID-19 outbreak

Li Wenliang was a Chinese ophthalmologist known for raising awareness of early COVID-19 infections in Wuhan. On 30 December 2019, Wuhan CDC issued emergency warnings to local hospitals about a number of mysterious pneumonia cases discovered in the city in the previous week. On the same day, Li, who worked at Wuhan Central Hospital, received an internal diagnostic report of a suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patient from other doctors which he in turn shared with his friends. He was dubbed a whistleblower when that shared report later circulated publicly despite him requesting confidentiality from those with whom he shared the information. Rumors of a deadly SARS outbreak subsequently spread on Chinese social media platforms, and Wuhan police summoned and admonished him for "making false comments on the Internet about unconfirmed SARS outbreak."

The Central Hospital of Wuhan is a tertiary hospital located in Jiang'an District in Wuhan, Hubei, China. It was established in 1880 as a clinic under the Hankow's Catholic church. In 1893, it was later expanded and renamed as Catholic Hospital. The first case of Coronavirus disease 2019 was reported here.

The COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei was first manifested by a cluster of mysterious pneumonia in Wuhan, the provincial capital of Hubei, China. A Wuhan hospital notified the local center for disease control and prevention (CDC) and health commissions on December 27, 2019. On December 31, Wuhan CDC admitted that there was a cluster of unknown pneumonia cases related to Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market after the unverified documents appeared on the Internet. The potential disease outbreak soon drew nationwide attention including that of the National Health Commission (NHC) in Beijing which sent experts to Wuhan on the following day. On January 8, a new coronavirus was identified as the cause of the pneumonia. The sequence of the virus was soon published on an open-access database. Measures taken by China have been controversial. They were praised by the World Health Organization (WHO) for improvements over SARS-CoV-2 responses, but maligned by many in the international community for being slow to publicly disclose key facts or deceptive about the outbreak and for aggressively censoring information relating to the outbreak and public discontent from citizens online.

Ai Fen is a Chinese doctor and director of the emergency department of Central Hospital of Wuhan. In December 2019, she was one of the first doctors to encounter pneumonia patients infected with the then-unknown virus, SARS-CoV-2. On 30 December 2019, Ai Fen received a diagnostic report of suspected "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome cases". An image of the diagnostic report was shared on WeChat by an ophthalmologist at the hospital, Li Wenliang, and then circulated on the internet, leading Ai Fen to be questioned by hospital superiors. She was given the nickname "The Whistle-Giver" (发哨子的人) in an article in the Chinese Renwu magazine which was censored by the Chinese government but was reposted on the Chinese internet using emojis, Morse code and pinyin to circumvent censorship.

Xie Linka is a Chinese female doctor, known as one of the whistleblowers of the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, China.

Xiaotangshan Hospital Hospital in Beijing, China

The Beijing Xiaotangshan Recovery Hospital, also known as the Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital, is a tertiary-level general hospital in Xiaotangshan Township, Changping District, Beijing, China, occupying approximately 33 hectares of land.

Liang Wudong Chinese physician

Liang Wudong was a physician at Xinhua Hospital in Hubei who was the first doctor to die from the COVID-19 pandemic due to nosocomial infection.

The Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital is a public hospital located on Jinyintan Avenue in the Jiangjunlu Subdistrict, in the Dongxihu District of Wuhan, Hubei, China, and a unit directly under the Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Committee. Jinyintan Hospital is the designated hospital for emergency medical treatment in Hubei and Wuhan.

Lin Zhengbin was a Chinese physician and organ transplant expert at Wuhan Tongji Hospital.

Wang Guangfa is a Chinese physician. He is a respiratory expert at Peking University First Hospital.

Fangcang Hospital Hospital in China

Fangcang Hospital refers to a kind of makeshift/mobile field hospitals notably used during the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Such hospitals were intended for large-scale medical isolation and instituted either by establishing rapidly constructed modular/portable buildings, or through the acquisition of indoor space within existing venues and even temporarily renovated gyms and dorms in colleges and universities with enclosed cubicles to assist social distancing.

Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 Sequence of major events in a virus pandemic

This article documents the chronology and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The first human cases of COVID-19 were identified in Wuhan, China, in December.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 McDonald, Joe (3 February 2020). "Built in 10 days, China's virus hospital takes 1st patients". AP News.
  2. "Subdued New Year holiday as China battles virus". 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  3. 武汉火神山医院提前半天移交 雷神山医院2月5日交付 - 经济观察网 - 专业财经新闻网站 [Wuhan 'Vulcan Mountain' Hospital handed over half a day in advance Leishenshan Hospital delivered on February 5 - Economic Watch Network]. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  4. 蔡甸临时医院现场:24小时不间断施工 10日内建成武汉“小汤山” [Caidian temporary hospital site: 24-hour uninterrupted construction Wuhan "Xiaotangshan" will be completed within 10 days]. 24 January 2020.
  5. Changjiang Daily (26 January 2020). 雷神山医院2月5日投用,火神山医院2月2日整体移交军方 [Thunder Mountain Hospital was commissioned on February 5 and Vulcan Mountain Hospital was handed over to the military as a whole on February 2.]. The Paper. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  6. "The Chinese Government Makes Unprecedented Efforts to Fight Against the Novel Coronavirus". 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  7. 1 2 3 Lu, Joanne (10 September 2020). "Whatever Happened To ... The Instant Hospitals Built For COVID-19 Patients In Wuhan?". NPR.
  8. Yang Baobao (27 January 2020). 田兆元:“雷神山”“火神山”两所医院的命名来自中国传统 [Tian Zhaoyuan: The two hospitals named "Thunder Mountain" and "Vulcan Mountain" come from Chinese tradition]. The Paper (in Chinese). Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  9. Liu Yuxin, ed. (26 January 2020). 独家揭秘:"火神山"、"雷神山"名字怎么来的? [Exclusive Secret: How did the names "Vulcan Mountain" and "Thunder Mountain" come from?]. (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  10. 武汉版“小汤山”医院突击开建 :“我们争取6天完工” [Wuhan version of "Xiaotangshan" hospital launched suddenly: "We strive for completion in 6 days"]. Yicai. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  11. "How China Can Build a Coronavirus Hospital in 10 Days". The Wall Street Journal . 30 January 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  12. 1 2 "Coronavirus hospital with 1,000 beds opens after just 10 days". Metro UK . 3 February 2020.
  13. 1 2 3 周泰来; 黄晏浩; 陈丽金 (15 February 2020). "援建火神山医院 湖南湘潭两工人确诊新冠始末" [Assistance in the construction of Vulcan Mountain Hospital, two workers in Xiangtan, Hunan confirmed the new crown] (in Chinese). 财新网.
  14. Bostock, Bill (2 February 2020). "China just completed work on the emergency hospital it set up to tackle the Wuhan coronavirus, and it took just 9 days to do it". Business Insider Malaysia. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  15. Wu, Wendy (2 February 2020). "Coronavirus hospital set to open in Wuhan with 1,400 military medical staff". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  16. "Coronavirus hospital set to open in Wuhan with 1,400 military medical staff". Xinhua. 2 February 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  17. Shi, Chenlu (29 January 2020). 凌晨3点,3000万人在线看武汉造医院 | 慢直播是什么 [At 3 am, 30 million people watched Wuhan-made hospital online | What is the slow live broadcast]. JF Daily.
  18. "Live from Wuhan: millions tune in to watch China build coronavirus hospitals". South Morning China Post. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  19. "Xiaotangshan Hospital -- Noah's Ark". China Through a Lens. 17 September 2003. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  20. "Wuhan to follow Beijing's SARS treatment model in new coronavirus control". 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  21. 1 2 Umlauf, Jessica Wang, Ellie Zhu and Taylor (30 January 2020). "How China Can Build a Coronavirus Hospital in 10 Days" . Retrieved 2 February 2020 via
  22. Quito, Anne. "How China can build a hospital for coronavirus patients in a week". Quartz.
  23. "Military medics tasked with treating patients in Huoshenshan Hospital". 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.