SARS-CoV-2 Mu variant

Last updated

The Mu variant, also known as lineage B.1.621 or VUI-21JUL-1, is one of the variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It was first detected in Colombia in January 2021 and was designated by the WHO as a variant of interest on August 30, 2021. [1] The WHO said the variant has mutations that indicate a risk of resistance to the current vaccines and stressed that further studies were needed to better understand it. [2] [3] Outbreaks of the Mu variant were reported in South America and Europe. [4] The B.1.621 lineage has a sublineage, labeled B.1.621.1 under the PANGO nomenclature, which has already been detected in more than 20 countries worldwide. [5]

Contents

Under the simplified naming scheme proposed by the World Health Organization, B.1.621 was labeled "Mu variant", and was considered a variant of interest (VOI), but not yet a variant of concern. [1]

Classification

Naming

In January 2021, the lineage was first documented in Colombia and was named as lineage B.1.621. [6]

On July 1, 2021, Public Health England (PHE) named lineage B.1.621 VUI-21JUL-1. [7]

On August 30, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) named lineage B.1.621 Mu variant. [1]

Mutations

The Mu genome has a total number of 21 mutations, including 9 amino acid mutations, all of which are in the virus's spike protein code: T95I, Y144S, Y145N, R346K, E484K or the escape mutation, N501Y, D614G, P681H, and D950N. [8] It has an insertion of one amino acid at position 144/145 of the spike protein, giving a total mutation YY144–145TSN. That mutation is conventionally notated as Y144S and Y145N because insertions would break a lot of comparison tools. It also features a frame-shift deletion of four nucleotides in ORF3a that generates a stop codon two amino acids. The mutation is labeled as V256I, N257Q, and P258*. The list of defining mutations are: S: T95I, Y144S, Y145N, R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G, P681H, and D950N; ORF1a: T1055A, T1538I, T3255I, Q3729R; ORF1b: P314L, P1342S; N: T205I, ORF3a: Q57H, V256I, N257Q, P258*; ORF8: T11K, P38S, S67F. [9] Mutations in viruses are not new. All viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, undergo change over time. Most of these changes are inconsequential, but some can alter properties to make these viruses more virulent or escape the treatment or vaccines. [4]

On August 31, 2021, the WHO released an update which stated that the "Mu variant has a constellation of mutations that indicate potential properties of immune escape", noting that preliminary studies showed some signs of this but that "this needs to be confirmed by further studies." [10]

One such study conducted in a lab in Rome tested the effectiveness of sera collected from recipients of the BioNTech-Pfizer vaccine against the Mu variant, and found that "neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.621 lineage was robust", albeit at a lower level than that observed against the B.1 variant. [11]

Characteristic mutations of Mu Variant [8]
Gene Amino acid
ORF1a T1055A
T1538I
T3255I
Q3729R
ORF1b P314L
P1342S
S T95I
Y144S
Y145N
R346K
E484K
N501Y
D614G
P681H
D950N
ORF3a Q57H
del257/257
ORF8 T11K
P38S
S67F
N T205I

History

August 2021

August 6:

August 30:

September 2021

September 2:

September 3:

September 4:

September 7:

September 8:

September 9:

September 16:

September 18:

Statistics

Cases by country (as of October 26, 2021)
CountryConfirmed cases
GISAID [35] outbreak.info [8] other sources
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 5,4155,335
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia 3,4603,460
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 799798
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 678667
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 416416
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 278273
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 18518586 [21]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 147147
Flag of Aruba.svg  Aruba 9594
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 8885
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 776456 [36] [37] [38] [39]
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic 7567
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 737245 [40]
Flag of India.svg  India 664
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica 6464
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico 6262
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 5151
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 5050
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 4949
Flag of France.svg  France 3525
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 2424
Flag of Curacao.svg  Curaçao 2220
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands 2121
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1717
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 1616
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 151412 [30] [31] [32] [33]
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 11102 [24]
Flag of Bonaire.svg  Bonaire 1010
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 88
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 77
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti 66
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 64
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  U.S. Virgin Islands 661 [23]
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 531 [34]
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 52
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 544 [20]
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 552 [14]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela 55
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 441 [29]
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 44
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 332 [16]
Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong 333 [18]
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 31
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg 33
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 3
Flag of Sint Maarten.svg  Sint Maarten 33
Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Cayman Islands 22
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 21
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar 22
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 213 [19]
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 2
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 22
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados 11
Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg  Bolivia 11
Flag of Gibraltar.svg  Gibraltar 11
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland 11
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 1
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 1126 [26]
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein 11
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania 1
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta 11
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 11
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 1
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 11
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 1
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg  Turks and Caicos Islands 11
Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles 11
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka 1
Flag of the Canary Islands.svg  Canary Islands 1
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 6 [17]
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5 [25]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 1 [15]
Total:12,41112,191256

See also

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