Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic

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The timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic lists the articles containing the chronology and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, [1] the virus that causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.

Contents

The first human cases of COVID-19 were identified in Wuhan, People’s Republic of China, in December 2019. [2] The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. [3] [4] [5] At the current stage of the pandemic (December 2021), it is not possible to conclusively determine precisely how humans in mainland China were initially or previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. [6] Furthermore, some developments may become known or fully understood only in retrospect.

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Interactive map of confirmed COVID-19 cases per million people.

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Worldwide timelines by month and year

The 2019 and January 2020 timeline articles include the initial responses as subsections, and more comprehensive timelines by nation-state are listed below this section.

The following are the timelines of the COVID-19 pandemic respectively in:

Responses

The following are responses to the COVID-19 pandemic respectively in:

Timeline by country

Some of the timelines listed below also contain responses. The following are the timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in:

Worldwide cases by month and year

The following are COVID-19 pandemic cases in:

Related Research Articles

COVID-19 pandemic Ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified in the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019; a lockdown in Wuhan and other cities in surrounding Hubei failed to contain the outbreak, and it quickly spread to other parts of mainland China and around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Multiple variants of the virus have emerged and become dominant in many countries since 2021, with the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron variants being the most virulent. As of 1 December 2021, more than 263 million cases and 5.22 million deaths have been confirmed, making the pandemic one of the deadliest in history.

COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory Data and maps, showing cases and deaths

This article provides a general overview and documents the status of locations affected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The first human cases of COVID-19 were identified in Wuhan, the capital of the province of Hubei in China in December 2019.

COVID-19 pandemic in Europe Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Europe

The global COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Europe with its first confirmed case in Bordeaux, France, on 24 January 2020, and subsequently spread widely across the continent. By 17 March 2020, every country in Europe had confirmed a case, and all have reported at least one death, with the exception of Vatican City.

COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in the UK

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019. The virus reached the UK in late January 2020. As of 11 November 2021, there had been 9,637,190 confirmed cases, the highest in Europe, and 145,414 deaths among people who had recently tested positive. The UK has the world's 7th highest death toll, 26th highest death rate by population and second-highest death toll in Europe after Russia. There has been some disparity between the outbreak's severity in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – health-care in the UK is a devolved matter. Each constituent country has its own publicly-funded healthcare system operated by devolved governments.

Travel during the COVID-19 pandemic Restrictions by countries intended to stop spread of disease

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries and regions imposed quarantines, entry bans, or other travel restrictions for citizens of or recent travelers to the most affected areas. Some countries and regions imposed global restrictions that apply to all foreign countries and territories, or prevent their own citizens from travelling overseas.

COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Ireland Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in the Republic of Ireland

The COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Ireland is part of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus reached the country in late February 2020 and within three weeks, cases had been confirmed in all counties. The pandemic affected many aspects of society. The government shut all schools, colleges, childcare facilities and cultural institutions on 12 March 2020. All large gatherings were cancelled, including St Patrick's Day festivities two years running. On 24 March 2020, almost all businesses, venues and amenities were shut, and on 27 March, the first stay-at-home order banned all non-essential travel and contact with other people. The elderly and those with certain illnesses were told to cocoon. People were made to keep apart in public. The Oireachtas passed an emergency act giving the state power to detain people, restrict travel and keep people in their homes to control the virus's spread. Further emergency law passed the following week. The Garda Síochána were given power to enforce the lockdowns.

COVID-19 pandemic in Africa Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Africa

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Africa on 14 February 2020, with the first confirmed case announced in Egypt. The first confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa was announced in Nigeria at the end of February 2020. Within three months, the virus had spread throughout the continent, as Lesotho, the last African sovereign state to have remained free of the virus, reported a case on 13 May 2020. By 26 May, it appeared that most African countries were experiencing community transmission, although testing capacity was limited. Most of the identified imported cases arrived from Europe and the United States rather than from China where the virus originated.

COVID-19 vaccine Vaccine designed to provide acquired immunity against SARS-CoV-2

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID‑19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19.

National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic Internal responses of the nations of the world

National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have been varied, and have included containment measures such as lockdowns, quarantines, and curfews. As of 1 December 2021, 262,806,448 cases of COVID-19 have been reported, resulting in 5,215,558 reported deaths. The most affected countries in terms of confirmed cases are the United States, Brazil, India, Russia, South Africa, Peru, Mexico, Chile, the United Kingdom, and Iran.

COVID-19 pandemic in South America Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in South America

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached South America on 26 February 2020 when Brazil confirmed a case in São Paulo. By 3 April, all countries and territories in South America had recorded at least one case.

COVID-19 pandemic in Ghana

The COVID-19 pandemic in Ghana is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The first two cases in Ghana were confirmed on 12 March 2020, when two infected people came to Ghana, one from Norway and the other from Turkey.

The COVID-19 pandemic in Burundi is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The virus was confirmed to have reached Burundi on 25 March 2020.

As of 2021, the COVID‑19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV‑2). Its impact has been broad, affecting general society, the global economy, culture, ecology, politics, and other areas. These aspects are discussed across many articles:

Ghanaian government response to the COVID-19 pandemic Actions by the Ghanaian government on COVID-19 pandemic

The Government of Ghana initially responded to the virus through a nationwide disinfection and fumigation exercise which began in April 2020. In order to curb the spread of the virus, the government enforced lockdowns, aggressive contact tracing, public bans and social measures such as encouraging the wearing of face masks. By April, it began the gradual reopening of the country; lifting all lockdowns while maintaining protocols such as social distancing. Throughout the pandemic, the government partnered with the private sector in order to roll out economic reliefs and recovery programs as a result of the impact of the pandemic on Ghana's economy. There was also an expansion of medical facilities and the improvement of testing logistics.

National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa Internal responses of African nations

Africa's first confirmed case of COVID-19 was announced in Egypt on 14 February 2020. Many preventive measures have been implemented in different countries in Africa, including travel restrictions, flight cancellations, event cancellations, school closures, and border closures. Other measures to contain and limit the spread of the virus has included curfews, lockdowns, and enforcing the wearing of face masks. The virus has spread throughout the continent. Lesotho, the last African sovereign state to have remained free of the virus, reported a case on 13 May 2020.

SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant Variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19

The Alpha variant, also known as lineage B.1.1.7, is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. One of several variants of concern, the variant is estimated to be 40–80% more transmissible than the wild-type SARS-CoV-2. It was first detected in November 2020 from a sample taken in September in the United Kingdom, and began to spread quickly by mid-December, around the same time as infections surged. This increase is thought to be at least partly because of one or more mutations in the virus' spike protein. The variant is also notable for having more mutations than normally seen.

SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant Variant of the SARS-CoV-2 virus

Beta variant, also known as lineage B.1.351, is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. One of several SARS-CoV-2 variants believed to be of particular importance, it was first detected in the Nelson Mandela Bay metropolitan area of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa in October 2020, which was reported by the country's health department on 18 December 2020. Phylogeographic analysis suggests this variant emerged in the Nelson Mandela Bay area in July or August 2020.

Sanofi–GSK COVID-19 vaccine Vaccine candidate against COVID-19

The Sanofi–GSK COVID-19 vaccine code-named VAT00002 and VAT00008 is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Sanofi Pasteur and GSK.

COVID-19 timeline by country in Africa Ongoing COVID-19 viral pandemic in Africa

The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Africa on 14 February 2020, with the first confirmed case announced in Egypt. The first confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa was announced in Nigeria at the end of February. Within three months, the virus had spread throughout the continent, as Lesotho, the last African sovereign state to have remained free of the virus, reported a case on 13 May. By 26 May, it appeared that most African countries were experiencing community transmission, although testing capacity was limited. Most of the identified imported cases arrived from Europe and the United States rather than from China where the virus originated. It is believed that there is widespread under-reporting in many African countries with less developed healthcare systems.

References

  1. "Coronavirus". www.who.int. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  2. Page, Jeremy; Hinshaw, Drew; McKay, Betsy (26 February 2021). "In Hunt for Covid-19 Origin, Patient Zero Points to Second Wuhan Market - The man with the first confirmed infection of the new coronavirus told the WHO team that his parents had shopped there". The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  3. "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization (WHO). 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  4. "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19—11 March 2020". World Health Organization. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  5. Ramin Zibaseresht (14 April 2020). "How to Respond to the Ongoing Pandemic Outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)" . Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  6. WHO. "Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 April 2020.