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City of Cessnock, New South Wales
|Population||6,044 (2016 census)|
|• Density||1,106.7/km2 (2,866/sq mi)|
|Elevation||40 m (131 ft) Note1|
|Area||5.1 km2 (2.0 sq mi) Note2|
|Time zone||AEST (UTC+10)|
|• Summer (DST)||AEDT (UTC+11)|
|LGA(s)||City of Cessnock|
Kurri Kurri is a small town in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, in the Cessnock LGA. At the 2016 census, its population was 6,044.Kurri Kurri is the largest town in a group of towns and hamlets, including Stanford Merthyr, Pelaw Main, Weston, Abermain and Heddon Greta, called Kurri Kurri – Weston by the ABS. Its estimated population was 17,241 at 2016 census.
The Hunter Region, also commonly known as the Hunter Valley, is a region of New South Wales, Australia, extending from approximately 120 km (75 mi) to 310 km (193 mi) north of Sydney. It contains the Hunter River and its tributaries with highland areas to the north and south. Situated at the northern end of the Sydney Basin bioregion, the Hunter Valley is one of the largest river valleys on the NSW coast, and is most commonly known for its wineries and coal industry.
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.
Kurri Kurri's name comes from the local Awabakal language where it has a meaning similar to "the beginning" or "the first".
Awabakal is an Australian Aboriginal language that was spoken around Lake Macquarie and Newcastle in New South Wales. The name is derived from Awaba, which was the native name of the lake. It was spoken by Awabakal and Wonnarua peoples.
The town's economy today consists mostly of trades and industry.
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Kurri Kurri was founded in 1902 to service the local Stanford Merthyr and Pelaw Main collieries and mining communities. The town was named by District Surveyor T. Smith who chose the name because he believed it meant 'hurry along' in a local dialect.
The Kurri Kurri Hotel (1904) is one of several built during the era of mining prosperity in the early 20th century. It is an impressive three-story building featuring prominent verandas with cast-iron lacework. The Empire Tavern was also built during this period. Kurri Kurri has numerous small miners' cottages from the same period.
Mining at the South Maitland Coalfields began at East Greta in 1891, after an 1886 exploration by Sir Edgeworth David, a government geological surveyor, uncovered the potential of the Greta coal seam. More mines were opened in the early 1900s, supplanting those older pits at Newcastle where the Australian Agricultural Company enjoyed almost a monopoly. During this period there were a number of accidents including the death of six miners at the Stanford Merthyr Colliery in 1905, which is commemorated by a monument in the Kurri Kurri cemetery.
Sir Tannatt William Edgeworth David, professionally known as Edgeworth David, was a Welsh Australian geologist and Antarctic explorer. A household name in his lifetime, David's most significant achievements were discovering the major Hunter Valley coalfield in New South Wales and leading the first expedition to reach the South Magnetic Pole. He also served with distinction in World War I.
Greta is a suburb of the Cessnock and Maitland local government areas in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. Most of the population lives in the town of the same name, located in the north of the suburb, which is bisected by the New England Highway. At the 2011 census the town had a population of 2,483. It is largely a commuter town located midway between Cessnock, Singleton and Maitland. The town is linked to nearby Branxton especially during community events. Greta is close to major grape-growing areas of the Hunter Region.
The Newcastle metropolitan area is the second most populated area in the Australian state of New South Wales and the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie local government areas. It is the hub of the Greater Newcastle area which includes most parts of the local government areas of City of Newcastle, City of Lake Macquarie, City of Cessnock, City of Maitland and Port Stephens Council.
Richmond Main Colliery, also in the Kurri Kurri vicinity, was once the State's largest producer, at 3,400 tons per day, and which reputedly had the deepest shaft permitting access to two separate coal seams, the Scholey shaft, named after its founder, John Scholey. Following the serious slump in the coal industry Stanford Merthyr Colliery closed in 1957, Pelaw Main in 1962, and Richmond Main in 1967.
John Scholey was an extensive landed proprietor, prominent businessman, colliery owner, Director of Aberdare Collieries Ltd., and a Mayor. He was a Justice of the Peace and member of the Newcastle Land Board, a division of the New South Wales Justice Department.
The power station at Richmond Main Colliery, which provided the electricity for Kurri Kurri and surrounding districts, remained in operation for some years after the mine's closure, until the entire district was attached to the National Grid.
The Kurri Kurri aluminium smelter operated from 1969 to 2014, producing up to 180 kt (180,000 long tons; 200,000 short tons) of aluminium per year.
The Kurri Kurri aluminium smelter was located at Kurri Kurri in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. It ceased production in October 2012 and was permanently closed in May 2014. At the time of its closure it was owned and operated by Hydro Aluminium, part of the Norwegian Norsk Hydro group. At the time of its closure the smelter had an annual production capacity of 180,000 tonnes of aluminium and employed around 500 people.
Kurri Kurri had an assault incident rate of 1456.3 per 100,000 population over the period of January 2018 until December 2018, which was significantly higher than the NSW state average of 823.4 per 100,000 population during the same time period.
Kurri Kurri had a theft incident rate of 4724.9 per 100,000 population over the period of January 2018 until December 2018, which was significantly higher than the NSW state average of 2873.4 per 100,000 population during the same time period.
Kurri Kurri was served by the South Maitland Railway and originally had two passenger stations – one at Stanford Merthyr, and one on the main SMR line at North Kurri Kurri (opened in June 1904). A new red-brick station building and platform was built at Stanford Merthyr and opened in January 1909. It was renamed Kurri Kurri Station on 3 June 1922. However, with the closure of the SMR's branch line from Aberdare Junction to Stanford Merthyr, due to subsidence, North Kurri Kurri station was renamed Kurri Kurri in the mid-1930s. The station at Stanford Merthyr fell into disuse although the line from the colliery which passed through it was still in operation via the Richmond Vale Railway to Hexham. While passenger services on the South Maitland Railway have ceased, the line is still in use for coal haulage. A new bridge is to be constructed to relocate the railway line to allow construction of the Hunter Expressway.
Until the creation of the local government area known as the City of Cessnock, Kurri Kurri was the centre of the Shire of Kearsley, which included most of the rural areas and villages around the township of Cessnock and part of the western suburbs of Maitland.
The religious background of Kurri Kurri in the 2011 Census is 30.3% Anglican, 22.5% Catholic, 17.9% No religion, 8.4% Uniting Church, 7.7% Religious affiliation not stated, 4.4% Presbyterian and Reformed, 1.5% Baptist, 1.4% Christian, nfd, 1.3% Other religious affiliation , 0.7% Salvation Army.
In 1988 the town established a Tidy Town Committee under the stewardship of the Keep Australia Beautiful competition. The town achieved immediate success and in the space of 6 years took the best town in NSW in 1993 and was a finalist in the best town in Australia.
This was followed by the establishment of the Small Towns committee known as Towns with Heart.
A pub-driven event called Mulletfesthas been growing in Kurri Kurri for the past two years. The event celebrates the mullet haircut and other aspects of self-identified bogan culture (such as pub rock music). The event has been well received by locals and attracts attendees from around the country.
Each year Kurri Kurri hosts a 1950s/1960s inspired Nostalgia Festival featuring rock 'n' roll dancing, hot rod and bike shows.
It is now becoming internationally renowned for its murals with more than 55 murals painted around the town and its environs depicting the history of the region and also recent events.
Retired Newcastle Knights Rugby league player Andrew Johns spent his childhood in Kurri Kurri, before moving to Cessnock. He would later play in the Kurri Kurri Under-16's side, as Cessnock was unable to field a team. Kurri Kurri is also noted has having produced more Rugby League internationals than any other bush town in Australia.
Kurri Kurri is also home to the 320 m (350 yd) long Loxford Park Speedway, a motorcycle speedway. The speedway has hosted a round of the Australian Solo Speedway Championship every year since 2011 as well as hosting the Australian Sidecar Speedway Championship twice (2012, 2014), the Australian Under-21 Solo Championship on three occasions (2012, 2013, 2015), the Australian Under-16 Solo Championship in 2012, and the NSW Solo Championship each year since 2011. The speedway has also hosted rounds of the Sidecar Grand Slam series and also holds the Jason Crump invitational for solos annually on Boxing Day in honour of Australia's only triple Speedway World Champion. Loxford Park also includes a 135 m (148 yd) junior (under-16) track on its infield.
Kurri Kurri has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
Branxton is a town in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. Branxton is 171 kilometres (106 mi) north of Sydney via the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway and New England Highway. Branxton is located mostly in the City of Cessnock, but part of it is in Singleton Shire. It had a population of 1,991 at the 2016 census.
Cessnock is a city in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, about 52 km (32 mi) by road west of Newcastle. It is the administrative centre of the City of Cessnock LGA and was named after an 1826 grant of land called Cessnock Estate, which was owned by John Campbell. The local area was once known as "The Coalfields", and it is the gateway city to the vineyards of the Hunter Valley, which includes Pokolbin, Mount View, Lovedale, Broke, Rothbury, and Branxton.
Maitland railway station is located on the Main Northern line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the city of Maitland opening on in 1880 as West Maitland being renamed on 1 April 1949. It is the junction station for the Main Northern and North Coast lines. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
The South Maitland coalfields was the most extensive coalfield in New South Wales until the great coal mining slump of the 1960s. It was discovered by Lieutenant-Colonel Paterson's party when they were engaged in an exploratory visit to the Hunter River Valley during July 1801.
The Country Rugby League of New South Wales (CRL), formed in 1934, is the governing body for the sport of rugby league football in areas of New South Wales outside the Sydney metropolitan area. Despite its name, CRL also governs rugby league in the Australian Capital Territory. Apart from selecting a Country Origin side to play in the annual City vs Country Origin game, the CRL administers a large number of senior and junior competitions across the state.
The Newcastle Rugby League is a local rugby league football competition in Newcastle, Australia. It is one of the oldest rugby league competitions in Australia, founded in 1910. A Newcastle representative team was also assembled from players in the League during most of the 20th century.
Abernethy is a small town in the City of Cessnock, in the Hunter Region in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Abernethy is located 8 kilometres south-east of the town of Cessnock, NSW and is adjacent to Werakata National Park and the Aberdare State Forest. The town was founded near a coal mine and some of the historic buildings remain.
Newcastle bus routes connect suburbs in and around Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, about 100 kilometres north of Sydney.
The South Maitland Railway was once an extensive network of privately owned colliery and passenger railway lines which served the South Maitland coalfields in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia and were the second last system in Australia to use steam haulage, having used steam locomotives until 1983. Only a single track of the main line remains in use to Bellbird Junction servicing the sole remaining colliery branch line to Pelton. The colliery at Pelton has closed but the surface facilities remain in use servicing the nearby Austar Colliery.
The Richmond Vale Railway was a 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in colliery railway line in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, servicing coal mines at Minmi, Stockrington, Pelaw Main and Richmond Main. It was over 26 km (16 mi) long and passed through three tunnels, and was the last commercially operated railway in Australia to use steam locomotives.
Pelaw Main is a hamlet a few kilometres south-west of Kurri Kurri, in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. It owes its origins entirely to the colliery there of the same name. It had a population of 1,027 in 2011
Abermain is a town 8 km ENE of Cessnock and 3 km west of Weston, in New South Wales, Australia. Abermain is adjacent to Werakata National Park.
The Richmond Vale Railway Museum operates a railway and museum located at the heritage-listed Richmond Main Colliery south of Kurri Kurri, New South Wales. The museum is a volunteer non-profit organization, formed in 1979 with the aim of preserving the Richmond Vale railway line and the mining heritage of J & A Brown and the Hunter Valley.
Gillieston Heights is a suburb of the City of Maitland local government area in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, approximately 5.1 km (3.2 mi) from the Maitland CBD. Prior to 1967, the village was named East Greta however this was changed to honour former Maitland mayor and member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly John Gillies following a poll of residents. At the 2016 census, Gillieston Heights had a population of over 3,000.
J & A Brown was an privately owned Australian coal family firm founded by James Brown (1816–1894) and Alexander Brown (1827–1877).
The Loxford Park Speedway is a motorcycle speedway track located in the town of Loxford near Kurri Kurri in New South Wales (NSW). It is home to the Kurri Kurri Speedway Club and the Kurri Cobras.
Cliftleigh is a small suburb, and planned development in the City of Cessnock, New South Wales, Australia. It is 27.8 kilometres (17 mi) north-west from Newcastle, and 17 kilometres (11 mi) east-northeast from Cessnock.
Richmond Main Colliery is a heritage-listed former coal mine and now open-air museum at South Maitland Coalfields, Kurri Kurri, City of Cessnock, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by the staff at J & A Brown's Engineering Workshops at Hexham under the direction of John Brown and built from 1908 to 1913 by the J & A Brown Firm. The site now operates as the Richmond Main Heritage Park, including the Richmond Vale Railway Museum and Richmond Main Mining Museum. The property is owned by Cessnock City Council. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
South Maitland Railway Workshops is a heritage-listed former railway workshops and now museum and industrial site at Junction Street, Telarah, City of Maitland, New South Wales, Australia. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.