A view of Newmarket showing horses galloping up part of the Long Hill training grounds
|Area||14.65 km2 (5.66 sq mi)|
|Population||16,615 (2011 Census)|
|• Density||1,134/km2 (2,940/sq mi)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Ambulance||East of England|
Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk, approximately 65 miles (105 kilometres) north of London. It is generally considered the birthplace and global centre of thoroughbred horse racing.It is a major local business cluster, with annual investment rivalling that of the Cambridge Science Park, the other major cluster in the region. It is the largest racehorse training centre in Britain, the largest racehorse breeding centre in the country, home to most major British horseracing institutions, and a key global centre for horse health. Two Classic races, and an additional three British Champions Series races are held at Newmarket every year. The town has had close royal connections since the time of James I, who built a palace there, and was also a base for Charles I, Charles II, and most monarchs since. The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, visits the town often to see her horses in training.
Newmarket has over fifty horse training stables, two large racetracks, the Rowley Mile and the July Course, and one of the most extensive and prestigious horse training grounds in the world.The town is home to over 3,500 racehorses, and it is estimated that one in every three local jobs is related to horse racing. Palace House, the National Heritage Centre for Horseracing and Sporting Art, the National Horseracing Museum, Tattersalls racehorse auctioneers, and two of the world's foremost equine hospitals for horse health, are in the town, which is surrounded by over sixty horse breeding studs. On account of its leading position in the multibillion-pound horse racing and breeding industry, it is also a major export centre.
Newmarket's name was first recorded in Latin as novo mercato in 1219 (according to the The National Archives, Feet of Fines CP25/1/23/9). The Novum Forum c.1200 recorded in many place-name dictionaries such as that by Mills,is an error; this was actually the surname de novo foro of a man from Yorkshire who had no connection to Newmarket. In 1223, Richard de Argentein was granted licence to hold an annual fair in Newmarket (from The National Archives, Henry II Fine Roll C60/18).
James I first visited Newmarket in February 1605, describing it as a "poor little village". From 1606 to 1610, he built the Newmarket Palace, an estate covering an acre of land from the High Street to All Saints' churchyard, and thus established the town as a royal resort. This also made Newmarket a horseracing town. Inigo Jones was commissioned to build a new lodge for the Prince of Wales in 1619. It had three storeys and was Italianate in style.
In 1642, Charles I met a parliamentary deputation in Newmarket that demanded his surrender of the armed forces. "By God not for an hour", Charles replied, "You have asked such of me that was never asked of a King!" This effectively started the English Civil War. Newmarket remained Royalist throughout the war. In early June 1647, Charles was captured at Holdenby House in Northamptonshire and brought to Newmarket as a prisoner. He was placed under house arrest in the palace while the whole of Cromwell's New Model Army kept guard over the town. A survey in 1649 showed that the palace was in disrepair. The following year, the palace was sold to John Okey (one of the regicides), who demolished most of the buildings.
Between 1666 and 1685, Charles II often visited Newmarket. In 1668, he commissioned William Samwell to build a new palace on the High Street (on the site of the present United Reformed Church). However, in 1670, John Evelyn said that the palace was "meane enough, and hardly capable for a hunting house, let alone a royal palace!" In October 1677 and October 1695, William of Orange visited Newmarket.
At the start of the 19th century, the palace was largely torn down, but a part survives and is now named Palace House.During the 1800s, Newmarket south of the High Street spread into the parishes of Woodditton and Cheveley in Cambridgeshire. In 1894, the county border was moved to accommodate this, and has been further altered since.
On 15 December 1977, an F111-F jet fighter crashed at Exning near Newmarket, owing to hydraulic failure.
Aired on the 12th February 2012, the British television series Time Team excavated on the site of Charles II's palace at Newmarket, and found foundations of racehorse stables.
The area of Suffolk containing Newmarket is nearly an exclave, with only a narrow strip of territory linking it to the rest of the county. Historically the town was split with one parish - St Mary - in Suffolk, and the other - All Saints - in Cambridgeshire. The Local Government Act 1888 made the entirety of Newmarket urban sanitary district part of the administrative county of West Suffolk.The town lies in the Parliamentary constituency of West Suffolk, which since 2010 has been represented by Conservative MP Matthew Hancock, the Secretary of State for Health & Social Care.
The 1972 Local Government Bill, as originally proposed, would have transferred the town (and Haverhill) to Cambridgeshire. The Local Government Commission for England had suggested in the 1960s that the border around Newmarket also be altered, in West Suffolk's favour. Newmarket Urban District Council supported the move to Cambridgeshire, but ultimately the government decided to withdraw this proposal and keep the existing boundary, despite intense lobbying from the UDC.
Racing at Newmarket has been dated as far back as 1174, making it the earliest known racing venue of post-classical times. King James I (reigned 1603–1625) greatly increased the popularity of horse racing there, and King Charles I followed this by inaugurating the first cup race in 1634. The Jockey Club's clubhouse is in Newmarket, though its administration is based in London.
Around 3,000 race horses are stabled in and around Newmarket. By comparison, the human population is of the order of 15,000 and it is estimated that one in three jobs are connected to horseracing in one way or another.Newmarket has 3 main sections of Heath, all of which are used to train the racehorses on. The grassland of Newmarket's training grounds has been developed over hundreds of years of careful maintenance, and is generally regarded as some of the finest in the world. "Racecourse side" is located next to the Rowley Mile Racecourse and is a predominately flat area. "Warren Hill" overlooks the town and consists of 3 all weather canters and a multitude of grass canters. "Bury Side" is the name given to the area located near the Bury Road and the railway line. These areas and the surrounding heath is chalk downland and has special birds and animals only suited to this terrain. It is also a very historical area with the remains of 6th century living. This hill is part of the chalk formation the Newmarket Ridge. The town has 50 miles of turf gallops and over 14 miles of artificial track.
Most of the Newmarket-based racing stables are situated in the centre of the town, where they can easily access the gallops. The town has special horse routes so the horses can reach the gallops safely from the many training establishments occupied by top trainers. Many of the world's most successful trainers are based in Newmarket, Sir Michael Stoute who is based at Freemason Lodge, John Gosden, based at Clarehaven Stables, Saeed bin Suroor, based at Stanley House Stables and Charlie Appleby based at Moulton Paddocks. Millions of pounds of prize money are won by these trainers alone around the world each year. Many of the horses they train are worth over a million pounds, with some of the finest being worth between £5 million and £50 million or higher. Outside the town the land-use is dominated by thoroughbred breeding, studs occupying large areas in every direction. Around 70 licensed trainers and more than 60 stud farms operate in and around Newmarket.
Newmarket has three major public horse exercise grounds: Warren Hill (including the Long Hill exercise grounds), Racecourse Side (situated between and alongside Newmarket Racecourses's Rowley Mile and July Courses), and the Limekilns (include the Al Bahatri all-weather grounds). Godolphin also operate two large private horse exercise grounds near their Godolphin Stables and Moulton Paddocks stables.
The town has two race courses situated on Newmarket Heath, The Rowley Mile and The July Course. The Rowley Mile is the home of Newmarket's two Classic races, the 2,000 Guineas and the 1,000 Guineas, two of the world's most prestigious races, run in the first weekend of May every year. The value of the winners of these races are often immediately increases by millions of pounds. It is also the home of Future Champions Day, run the weekend before Champions Day at Ascot, which includes the very important Dewhurst Stakes. The July Course is the home of the July Cup, the Falmouth Stakes and a number of other very important races. The two courses are separated by the Devil's Dyke. This large earthwork starts in neighbouring Woodditton (sometimes spelt as Wood Ditton) and ends in Reach, a distance of over 7 miles (11 km).
Newmarket is the UK centre for the multibillion-pound racehorse breeding industry, and a key global centre of the business. Thoroughbred breeding lines are a core part of success in global horse racing, and key stallions are controlled by major global breeding operations, which operate studs around the town. Darley Stud, owners of New Approach, Cape Cross, Dubawi, Sepoy and Raven's Pass own large areas of land to the south of the town. Shadwell Stud, another major global operation, have a number of studs nearby and own Nayef, Sakhee, Haafhd and Eswarah. Juddmonte Farms, owner of Frankel, Observatory, Dansili, Champs Elysees and Three Valleys, also have a large stud nearby. Cheveley Park Stud, owners of Pivotal, Mayson and Medicean are based next to the town, as are Lanwades Stud, owners of Aussie Rules, Hernando and Sir Percy. Newsells Park Stud, owners of Equiano and The Royal Studs, owners of Motivator also operate there. In 1967 Queen Elizabeth II opened The National Stud, a breeding centre for thoroughbred horses. Other parts of the town are also surrounded by some of the world's largest and most successful horse breeding studs.
The town is home to two of the most advanced equine hospitals in the world, the Newmarket Equine Hospitaland Rossdales.
Newmarket is home to Britain's National Heritage Centre for Horseracing and Sporting Art at Palace House, the National Horseracing Museum, the Sporting Art Trust and a base of Retraining of Racehorses.
The town is home to the PGI Protected Newmarket sausage. Produced since the 1880s, three local butchers in the town are entitled to produce these unique flavoured sausages.
The sausages are given as a prize for the Newmarket Town Plate held each year in the town at Newmarket racecourse.
Newmarket's key role in sport for many centuries has made it a centre for many of Britain's finest sporting painters. The development of painting on sporting themes in the early eighteenth century was centred on the Newmarket Racecourse and the three founders of the sporting school, John Wootton, James Seymour and Peter Tillemans, painted many scenes of the racecourse and its environs.Newmarket is also the setting for some of Sir Alfred Munnings's most famous paintings.
The Save Historic Newmarket group, an organisation dedicated to maintaining the town's unique heritage as the world headquarters of racing, has become increasingly vocal in recent years.The group, composed of local residents, supports sustainable development in the town and aims to make Newmarket a more attractive destination for visitors.
Newmarket railway station is on the Ipswich-Ely line, formerly belonging to the Great Eastern Railway (later part of the London & North Eastern Railway). Newmarket's first railway was a line built by the Newmarket and Chesterford Railway and opened in 1848 (known as the "Newmarket Railway"). It branched off the West Anglia Main Line at Great Chesterford and ran about 15 miles (24 km) north eastwards. There was an attractive terminus in Newmarket, with intermediate stations at Bourne Bridge, Balsham Road and Six Mile Bottom.
Three years later the first nine miles (14 km) or so of this line, the stretch from Great Chesterford to Six Mile Bottom, was superseded by a more viable section linking Six Mile Bottom directly with Cambridge, and so the Great Chesterford - Six Mile Bottom section closed in 1851, one of the earliest closures in British railway history (the former Bourne Bridge station is believed to have been partly incorporated into a public house just across the road from a station opened later on another line - Pampisford, on the now-closed Cambridge - Haverhill - Sudbury route). With the development of other rail lines the Newmarket terminus was replaced by the present through station in 1902; it was used as a goods station until 1967 and demolished in 1980.
A short distance to the north east is the 1,100-yard Warren Hill tunnel. North of the tunnel, a separate station, Warren Hill, was built for raceday use.
Regular bus services run to the neighbouring towns of Bury St Edmunds, Cambridge, Ely and Mildenhall. [ citation needed ]Various National Express coach services serve the town: London (Victoria Coach Station) to Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft; Norwich to Stansted, Heathrow and Gatwick Airports; and the cross country Clacton-on-Sea to Liverpool service which travels via Cambridge, Peterborough, Leicester, Nottingham, Sheffield and Manchester. In late 2006, Newmarket introduced a Park and Ride service running from Studlands industrial estate to the town centre, which was replaced by an hourly bus route, the number 11 (formerly number 10), whilst at the same time parking charges were introduced to the town.
Newmarket has a number of primary schools which feed into the 11–18 Newmarket Academy, the town's only secondary school. The town is also home to an Air Training Corps Squadron (2417 Newmarket Squadron) and an Army Cadet Detachment.
Newmarket has two racecourses, The Rowley Mile and The July Course, and is home to 3,000 thoroughbred racehorses and over 70 racehorse trainers. The local football team is Newmarket Town. In 2005–06 the club reached the quarter finals of the FA Vase. Newmarket Hockey Club play field hockey,and Newmarket Cycling and Triathlon club is an amateur cycling club in the town.
A greyhound racing track, was opened around the Cricket Field Road Ground, the venue used by Newmarket Town FC. The racing was independent (not affiliated to the sports governing body the National Greyhound Racing Club) known as a flapping track, which was the nickname given to independent tracks.The track was active shortly after World War II and is known to have also been active during 1967. The date of closure is not known. An earlier instance of racing took place in 1933 at a venue described as the Duchess Drive Stadium.
Famous residents of Newmarket include Austin James, jockeys Frankie Dettori,William Buick, Ryan Moore and Tom Queally as well as trainers Sir Michael Stoute, John Gosden, James Fanshawe, Saeed bin Suroor, Charlie Appleby, and Marco Botti and former West Indian cricketer Michael Holding.
Many wealthy owners of racing stables and studs have also lived in Newmarket, including David Robinson, David Thompson, Rachel Parsons and Lester Piggott.
Newmarket is the birthplace of the following people.
Newmarket has three sister cities , as designated by Sister Cities International :
Horse racing is the second largest spectator sport in Great Britain, and one of the longest established, with a history dating back many centuries. According to a report by the British Horseracing Authority it generates £3.39 billion total direct and indirect expenditure in the British economy, of which £1.05 Billion is from core racing industry expenditure and the major horse racing events such as Royal Ascot and Cheltenham Festival are important dates in the British and international sporting and society calendar.
The Jockey Club is the largest commercial horse racing organisation in the United Kingdom. No longer responsible for the governance and regulation of British horseracing, today it owns 15 of Britain's famous racecourses, including Aintree, Cheltenham, Epsom Downs and both the Rowley Mile and July Course in Newmarket, amongst other concerns such as the National Stud, and the property and land management company, Jockey Club Estates. The registered charity Racing Welfare is also a company limited by guarantee with the Jockey Club being the sole member. As it is governed by Royal Charter, all profits it makes are reinvested back into the sport.
Newmarket Racecourse is a British Thoroughbred horse racing venue in Newmarket, Suffolk, comprising two individual racecourses: the Rowley Mile and the July Course. Newmarket is often referred to as the headquarters of British horseracing and is home to the largest cluster of training yards in the country and many key horse racing organisations, including Tattersalls, the National Horseracing Museum and the National Stud. Newmarket hosts two of the country's five Classic Races - the 1,000 Guineas and 2,000 Guineas, and numerous other Group races. In total, it hosts 9 of British racing's 36 annual Group 1 races.
Galopin (1872–1899) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. In a racing career which lasted from June 1874 until October 1875 he ran nine times and won eight races. He was one of the best British two-year-olds of 1874, winning his first three races before sustaining the only defeat of his career in the Middle Park Plate. In 1875, he won all five of his races including the Derby. At the end of the season he was retired to stud where he became an extremely successful and influential breeding stallion.
The British Horseracing Authority, also known simply as the BHA, is the regulatory authority for horse racing in Great Britain.
Swynford was a British Thoroughbred racehorse. Bred at the 16th Lord Derby's stud in Lincolnshire, England he was sired by John O'Gaunt, a son of Isinglass, winner of the British Triple Crown in 1893. His dam was Lord Derby's foundation mare and 1896 Epsom Oaks winner Canterbury Pilgrim who also produced Chaucer, the 1927 and 1933 Leading broodmare sire in Great Britain & Ireland.
Tracery (1909–1924) was an American-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire, best known for winning the St. Leger Stakes in 1912. In a career which lasted from June 1912 until October 1913 he ran nine times and won six races. After finishing third on his debut in the 1912 Epsom Derby Tracery never lost another completed race at level weights. He won the St. James's Palace Stakes, Sussex Stakes and St. Leger Stakes in 1912 and the Eclipse Stakes and Champion Stakes as a four-year-old in 1913. He was brought down by a protester in the 1913 Ascot Gold Cup. After his retirement from racing he became a highly successful breeding stallion in Britain and Argentina.
Abermaid was an Irish-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and broodmare who won the classic 1000 Guineas in 1962. In a racing career lasting from the spring of 1961 until July 1962, the filly ran eight times and won four races. As a two-year-old in 1961, Abermaid was unbeaten in three races including the New Stakes at Royal Ascot. After running poorly on her three-year-old debut she recorded an upset win in the 1000 Guineas at Newmarket Racecourse in May. She was placed in her three remaining races before being retired to stud where she had some success as a broodmare.
Bolkonski was an Irish-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. Originally trained in Italy, the colt moved to England for the 1975 season where he recorded an upset victory over Grundy in the classic 2000 Guineas at Newmarket Racecourse. He went on to win two other major British races over one mile, the St James's Palace Stakes at Ascot and the Sussex Stakes at Goodwood. At the end of the season he was retired to stud where he had limited success as a sire of winners.
Nearula (1950–1960) was an Irish-bred British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire, best known for winning the classic 2000 Guineas in 1953. Trained in Yorkshire, he was the top-rated British two-year-olds of 1952 when he won the Middle Park Stakes. In the following year he won the 2000 Guineas and the St James's Palace Stakes over one mile and the Champion Stakes against older horses over ten furlongs. He won two further races as a four-year-old before being retired to stud, where he had some success as a sire of winners before dying at the age of ten.
Pall Mall (1955–1978) was an Irish-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire, best known for winning the classic 2000 Guineas in 1958. Owned and bred by Queen Elizabeth II, Pall Mall was one of the leading British two-year-olds of 1957, when he won the New Stakes at Royal Ascot and was placed in three other important races. In the following spring, he performed moderately in two trial races before creating a 20/1 upset by winning the 2000 Guineas. He later won the first two runnings of the Lockinge Stakes before being retired to stud, where he had some success as a sire of winners.
Aurelius was an Irish Thoroughbred racehorse and sire best known for winning the classic St Leger Stakes in 1961 and for becoming one of the few classic winners to compete in steeplechases. As a two-year-old he finished fourth in his only appearance but was one of the best colts in Britain in the following year, winning the Craven Stakes and the King Edward VII Stakes before taking the St Leger. He was even better in 1962 when he won the Hardwicke Stakes and was narrowly beaten in the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes. He was retired to stud but had serious fertility problems and later returned to the racecourse where he had a reasonably successful career in National Hunt racing.
Lambert Simnel (1938–1952) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire, who raced during World War II and was best known for winning the classic 2000 Guineas in 1941. As a two-year-old he won once and finished second in the Dewhurst Stakes In the following spring he won the 2000 Guineas, beating a field which included the subsequent classic winners Owen Tudor and Sun Castle. He was beaten when favourite for the Derby and finished unplaced in the St Leger. He won once as a four-year-old in 1942 before being retired to stud. He stood as a breeding stallion in England and Argentina with limited success before his death in 1952.
Araafa was an Irish-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He won three of his ten races between July 2005 and November 2006 and was the top-rated British-trained colt of his generation. As a two-year-old he won on his debut and was placed in both the Acomb Stakes and the Horris Hill Stakes. In the following spring he finished fourth to George Washington in the 2000 Guineas before reversing the form to win the Irish 2,000 Guineas. He followed up with a win in the St James's Palace Stakes and later finished second to George Washington in the Queen Elizabeth II Stakes. He was then retired to stud but was not a success as a breeding stallion. He died in 2012 at the age of nine.
Starborough was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He usually led from the start of his races and was best at distances of around one mile. Bred and owned by Sheikh Mohammed and trained in England by David Loder he showed promising form as a two-year-old in 1996, winning on his debut and finishing third and fourth against better opposition in his other two races. In the following year he finished fourth in the 2000 Guineas before recording Group One victories in the Prix Jean Prat and the St James's Palace Stakes, beating a particularly strong field in the latter race. Later that summer he finished second in the Sussex Stakes and fourth in the Prix Jacques Le Marois. He moved to the Godolphin stable in 1998 but his form deteriorated and he failed to win in three races. After he retired from racing he stood as a breeding stallion in France and had some success as a sire of winners.
Distant View was an American-bred British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He raced only as a three-year-old in 1994 when he won twice and finished second twice in seven races. In the spring of that year he was beaten on his debut but showed promise when finishing fifth in the 2000 Guineas and then won a minor race on his next start. After a narrow defeat in the St James's Palace Stakes he recorded his biggest win when defeating a strong field of milers in the Group One Sussex Stakes at Goodwood Racecourse. He was beaten in his next two races and was retired after being injured in 1995. He had considerable success as a breeding stallion before being retired from stud duty in 2006.
St Louis was an Irish-bred, British-trained thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He finished unplaced on his only start as a juvenile but made rapid improvement over the winter and won the 2000 Guineas in April 1922. He finished fourth when favourite for the Epsom Derby and then won a minor race at Wolverhampton Racecourse but was withdrawn from the St Leger after running poorly in a trial race. After failing to win on his only run as a four-year-old he was retired to stud, but had no success as a breeding stallion.
Norman was an American-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He was exported from the United States as a yearling and showed some promise as a juvenile in 1907 when he won twice from nine starts. In the following spring he recorded a 25/1 upset victory in the 2000 Guineas. He was unplaced when favourite for the Epsom Derby and finished last in the St Leger but ended his second season with a victory in the Newmarket St Leger. He raced for another two seasons but never recaptured his classic winning form. He made no impact as a breeding stallion.
Disraeli (1895–1911) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. As a juvenile in 1897 he showed considerable promise by winning the Champion Breeders' Foal Plate at Derby Racecourse and then finishing second in the Middle Park Plate. In the following spring he recorded his biggest win in the 2000 Guineas but disappointed when favourite for the Epsom Derby and later ran unplaced in the St Leger. He made no impact as a breeding stallion in France.
Claude Joachim Lefèvre was a prominent French racehorse owner whose French racing operations were based at Chamant, L'Oise, where he built a model stud, and after 1870 also at Dangu in Normandy. In 1873 he set a record as a racehorse owner by winning 110 races in a season.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Newmarket (Suffolk) .|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Newmarket, Suffolk .|