Thames Estuary

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Coordinates: wiki 51°30′N0°35′E / 51.500°N 0.583°E / 51.500; 0.583


The half of the estuary that lies east of its narrow Tideway-named part, by the Operational Land Imager Thames Estuary and Wind Farms from Space NASA.jpg
The half of the estuary that lies east of its narrow Tideway-named part, by the Operational Land Imager

The Thames Estuary is where the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.


An estuary can be defined according to different criteria (e.g. tidal, geographical, navigational or in terms of salinity). For this reason the limits of the Thames Estuary have been defined differently at different times and for different purposes.


This limit of the estuary has been defined in two main ways: [1]


London Stone, Yantlet Creek London Stone, Yantlet 338.jpg
London Stone, Yantlet Creek

The transition between the Thames Estuary and the North Sea has been located at various notional boundaries, including: [1]


The estuary just east of the Tideway has a tidal range of 4 metres. Winds excluded, it moves at 2.6 knots (4.8 km/h; 3.0 mph) in bi-monthly spring tides. [5]



The estuary is one of the largest of 170 such inlets on the coast of Great Britain. It constitutes a major shipping route, with thousands of movements each year, including: large oil tankers, container ships, bulk carriers (of loose materials/liquids), and roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) ferries. It is the accessway for the Port of London (including London Gateway, associated Tilbury and Purfleet) and the Medway Ports of Sheerness, Chatham and Thamesport.

The traditional Thames sailing barge worked in this area, designed to be suitable for the shallow waters in the smaller ports.

Wind farms

A 2000s-decade-built wind farm is 8.5 km north of Herne Bay, Kent, on a shoal south-west of Kentish Knock. It is 30 wind turbines generating typically 82.4MW of electricity.

The much larger 630 MW London Array was inaugurated in 2013.

Greater Thames Estuary

A western cross-section of the estuary. Background runs from Tilbury (left) to Mucking Creek: looking north from Shorne, which is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south of the river Gravesendreach2.jpg
A western cross-section of the estuary. Background runs from Tilbury (left) to Mucking Creek: looking north from Shorne, which is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) south of the river

The term Greater Thames Estuary [6] applies to the coast and the low-lying lands bordering the estuary. These are characterised by the presence of mudflats, low-lying open beaches, and salt marshes, namely the North Kent Marshes and the Essex Marshes. Man-made embankments are backed by reclaimed wetland grazing areas, but rising sea levels may make it necessary briefly to flood some of that land at spring tides, to take the pressure off the defences and main watercourses.

The Blackwater Estuary, on the Essex coast, in the northern part of the Greater Thames Estuary. Mersea Island is on the right. Thames estuary (aerial view).jpg
The Blackwater Estuary, on the Essex coast, in the northern part of the Greater Thames Estuary. Mersea Island is on the right.

There are many smaller estuaries in Essex, including the rivers Colne, Blackwater and Crouch. Small coastal villages depend on an economy of fishing, boat-building, and yachting. [7] The Isle of Sheppey, the Isle of Grain, Canvey Island, Two Tree Island, Havengore Island, New England Island, Rushley Island, Potton Island, Foulness Island and Mersea Island are part of the coastline. [8]

Where higher land reaches the coast, there are some larger settlements, such as Clacton-on-Sea to the north in Essex, Herne Bay, Kent, and the Southend-on-Sea area within the narrower part of the estuary.

The Thames Estuary is the focal part of the 21st-century toponym, the "Thames Gateway", designated as one of the principal development areas in Southern England.

The Thames Estuary 2050 Growth Commission report published in June 2018 identified the economic potential of the region. In 2020 the Thames Estuary Growth Board [9] was appointed, led by government-appointed Envoy Kate Willard OBE, to unlock the potential of the UK's number one green growth opportunity.

Entrepreneurs and investors have looked at the greater estuary as a possible place for a new airport, [10] and have expanded Southend Airport in the 2010s, which has a rail link to Liverpool Street station, London among others.


Official nameThames Estuary and Marshes
Designated5 May 2000
Reference no.1025 [11]

The Thames flowing through London is an archetypal, well-developed economy urban, upper river estuary with its sedimentary deposition restricted through manmade embankments and occasional dredging of parts. It is mainly a freshwater river about as far east as Battersea, insofar as the average salinity is very low and the fish fauna consists predominantly of freshwater species such as roach, dace, carp, perch, and pike. It becomes brackish between Battersea and Gravesend, and the diversity of freshwater fish is smaller, primarily roach and dace. Euryhaline species then dominate, such as flounder, European seabass, mullet, and smelt. Further east salinity increases and conditions become fully marine and the fish fauna resemble that of the adjacent North Sea, a spectrum of euryhaline and stenohaline types. An alike pattern of zones applies to the aquatic plants and invertebrates. [12] [13]

Cultural references

Joseph Conrad lived in Stanford-le-Hope close to the Essex marshes. His The Mirror of the Sea (1906) contains a memorable description of the area as seen from the Thames. He refers to this area in the first pages of his novel Heart of Darkness , describing it as both the launching place of England's great ships of exploration and colonization and, in ancient times, the site of colonization of the British Isles by the Roman Empire.


The form of speech of many of the people of the area, principally the accents of those from Kent and Essex, is often known as Estuary English. The term is a term for a milder variety of the "London Accent". The spread of Estuary English extends many hundreds of miles outside London, and all of the neighbouring home counties around London have residents who moved from London and brought their version of London accents with them, leading to interference with the established local accents. The term London Accent is generally avoided, as it can have many meanings. Forms of "Estuary English", as a hybrid between Received pronunciation and various London accents, can be heard in all of the New Towns, all of the coastal resorts, and in the larger cities and towns along the Thames Estuary.


Simplified naval chart of 1884 28 of 'Our Seamarks; a plain account of the Lighthouses, ... Buoys, and Fog-signals maintained on our Coasts. ... With ... illustrations' (11285891284).jpg
Simplified naval chart of 1884

For commercial shipping rounding the Nore sandbank and thus accessing Greater London, main deep-water routes were the Princes-Queens Channel and the South Channel to the south, to a lesser extent the Kings Channel and the Swin to the north. The Swin was used by barges and leisure craft from the Essex rivers, and coasters and colliers from the north east. These channels were made up of natural troughs; Yantlet Channel (Sea Reach), Oaze Deep, Knock John Channel, Black Deep/Black Deep Channel which have been much-marked. These are separated by slow-moving sandbanks with names such as the East and West Barrows, the Nob, the Knock, Kentish Knock, the John, the Sunk, the Girdler, and Long Sand/the Long Sands. [14]

Shallow-bottomed barges and coasters would navigate the swatchways at flood tide, and would cross the sand banks at spitways, points where the water was least shallow, and just deep enough at that point of the tide. If they missed the moment they would heave to (lay anchor) and wait for the next tide.

Recreational craft are expected use channels most suited to the size of their vessel. Their main guide says to use when navigating to or from:

To cross the south-east quarter of the estuary large vessels use Fisherman's Gat, and small vessels to were expected to use Foulger's Gat. [15]


'Mapp' of the Thames Estuary by Capt. Greenvile Collins, 1698. (North is to the right; rhumb lines are shown. London is beyond the top left of the chart). To the right Worpll the Master and Wardens of the Trinity House of Deptford Stroud this mapp is most humbly dedicatd and presented by Capt Gr. Collins RMG L1184-001.tiff
'Mapp' of the Thames Estuary by Capt. Greenvile Collins, 1698. (North is to the right; rhumb lines are shown. London is beyond the top left of the chart).

Provision of buoys and beacons for the purpose of navigation came relatively late to England (compared to the Netherlands, for example). [16] Instead, coastal navigators and pilots relied on the use of transits (the alignment of prominent structures or natural features on land) for guidance. In 1566 Trinity House of Deptford (which oversaw pilotage on the Thames) was empowered to 'make, erect and set up [...] beacons, marks and signs for the sea' (albeit at its own expense). [17] Not long afterwards, the decay of the steeple of Margate Church (an important landmark for negotiating 'the Narrows', a complex route between sandbanks used by vessels sailing to or from London along the North Kent coast) led to Trinity House marking the Narrows with buoys in the late 16th century. [16]

In his coastal survey of 1682-93, Greenvile Collins records five buoys around the Narrows, just north of Reculver, on the southern approach to the Thames. The Swin (the northern approach) was marked with buoys at the easternmost points of the Gunfleet, Middle and Buxey sands, and by beacons on the Whitaker, Shoe and Blacktail spits. A buoy marked the easternmost point of the Nore sandbank at this time, and three more buoys marked sandbanks in the middle part of the estuary (Spaniard, Red Sand and the Oaze). [16]

The Nore Lightship, the world's first lightvessel, was established in the Estuary as a private venture in 1732 to mark the 'best position for entering the Thames and Medway, and to clear the Nore Sand'. [18] The coastwise approach from the north was aided by the establishment of the Sunk lightvessel in 1802 'to mark the north-east entrance to East Swin, and to guide vessels round Long Sand'. Later, the Swin channel was further marked by lightvessels at Swin Middle (1837) and Mouse (1838), and by screw-pile lighthouses on the Maplin Sands (1841) and at Gunfleet (1856). [19] Meanwhile, one of the outlying sandbanks of the Estuary was marked by a lightvessel at Kentish Knock (in 1840); and in due course the southern approach was marked by lightvessels at the Tongue (1847) and Girdler (1848) sands, with another being added (between these two) in the Princes Channel (1856). In 1851 two more screw-pile lighthouses were built further upriver, on the northern foreshore of Sea Reach: at Mucking and on the Chapman sands (just off Canvey Island).

Prior to 1684 beacons were set up on the mudflats north of the Swin channel, to help vessels approaching the Thames from the north to navigate the sands. Pan-sand Beacon was set up by Trinity House in 1774 to mark a dangerous sandbank on the southern approach. [20] Similar daymarks were set up on other nearby sandbanks in later years, including on Margate Hook (1843), Middle Ground (1844) and Shingles (1846). [20] Trinity House also maintained beacons further upriver, including at Broadness (established in 1821), Stoneness (1839), Erith (1830) and Tripcock (1832).

In 1864 responsibility for maintaining the navigation lights of the River Thames between London Bridge and Yantlet was transferred by Act of Parliament from the Thames Conservancy to the Corporation of Trinity House; responsibility for buoyage was transferred likewise in 1878. [21] In 1885 the beacons at Broadness and Stoneness were replaced with iron-frame experimental lighthouses, each lit by a novel system which would allow the light to function unattended (except for a twice-weekly visit by a boatman for cleaning and maintenance). Broadness was lit by Pintsch gas, and Stoneness by a Lindberg light (which burned petroleum naphtha). [22] At the same time Trinity House began experimenting with the application of lamps to buoys, using Pintsch's oil-gas system, beginning with three in the Thames Estuary (East Oaze, Ovens and Sheerness Middle); the experiment was deemed a success and subsequently further buoys and beacons were lit by Trinity House using the same system, in the Estuary and beyond. [22]

Today the Port of London Authority's Thames Navigation Service (established in 1959) is responsible for buoyage, beaconage and bridge lights on the Tideway. [23] Trinity House remains responsible for aids to navigation in the wider estuary (and beyond).

Thames estuary navigation marks

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap  
Download coordinates as: KML

This table shows, from west to east, the principal navigation lights, buoys and other marks to the north (port) and south (starboard) of the main deep-water channels of the River Thames from Gallions Reach to the Sunk Light Float. [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] The Thames is in IALA region A so port buoys are red and starboard buoys are green.

Name of navigational markSouth of channelChannelNorth of channel
Type Light Location coordinateType Light Location coordinate
Margaretness Point (or Tripcock Ness) Light Lighthouse Group flashing (2) white 5s 51°30.662′N0°05.766′E / 51.511033°N 0.096100°E / 51.511033; 0.096100 (Margaretness Point) Gallions Reach / Barking Reach̶̶̶
Crossness Point LightLighthouseFlashing white 5s 51°30.920′N0°07.990′E / 51.515333°N 0.133167°E / 51.515333; 0.133167 (Crossness Point Light) Barking Reach / Halfway Reach̶̶̶
Crayfordness Point LightLighthouseFlashing white 5s + fixed 51°28.689′N0°13.000′E / 51.478150°N 0.216667°E / 51.478150; 0.216667 (Crayfordness Point Light) Erith Rands / Long Reach̶̶̶
Stone Ness Light̶̶̶Long Reach / St Clement's ReachLighthouseFlashing green 2.5s 51°27.9167′N0°16.8231′E / 51.4652783°N 0.2803850°E / 51.4652783; 0.2803850 (Stone Ness Light)
Broadness Point LightLighthouseOcculting red 5s 51°27.878′N0°18.900′E / 51.464633°N 0.315000°E / 51.464633; 0.315000 (Broadness Point Light) St Clement's or Fiddler's Reach / Northfleet Hope̶̶̶
Tilbury Warning Light̶̶̶Gravesend ReachWarning light, vessels manoeuvring at TilburyIsophase 6s 51°27.000′N0°21.340′E / 51.450000°N 0.355667°E / 51.450000; 0.355667 (Gravesend Reach)
Shornmead LightLighthouseGroup flashing (2) white, red 10s 51°26.983′N0°26.533′E / 51.449717°N 0.442217°E / 51.449717; 0.442217 (Shornmead Light) Gravesend Reach / The Lower Hope̶̶
Ovens̶̶̶The Lower HopeQuick flashing green 51°27.493′N0°26.355′E / 51.458217°N 0.439250°E / 51.458217; 0.439250 (The Lower Hope)
Haven Traffic Warning LightsWarning light, vessels manoeuvring at CorytonE 51°27.90′N0°30.10′E / 51.46500°N 0.50167°E / 51.46500; 0.50167 (Coryton) The Lower Hope / Sea ReachWarning light, vessels manoeuvring at CorytonWhite 51°30.50′N0°31.65′E / 51.50833°N 0.52750°E / 51.50833; 0.52750 (Coryton)
London Gateway̶̶̶Sea ReachBuoy 51°30.30′N0°28.20′E / 51.50500°N 0.47000°E / 51.50500; 0.47000 (Sea Reach)
Sea Reach № 7Port buoy

Racon T

Flashing Red 2.5s 51°30.011′N0°36.908′E / 51.500183°N 0.615133°E / 51.500183; 0.615133 (Sea Reach No. 7 port) The Yantlet ChannelYellow pillar buoyFlashing yellow 2.5s 51°30.206′N0°36.938′E / 51.503433°N 0.615633°E / 51.503433; 0.615633 (Sea Reach No. 7 starboard)
Sea Reach № 6Port buoyFlashing red 5s 51°29.932′N0°39.839′E / 51.498867°N 0.663983°E / 51.498867; 0.663983 (Sea Reach No. 6 port) Starboard buoyFlashing green 5s 51°30.126′N0°39.867′E / 51.502100°N 0.664450°E / 51.502100; 0.664450 (Sea Reach No. 6 starboard)
Sea Reach № 5Port buoyVery quick flashing red 51°29.848′N0°41.426′E / 51.497467°N 0.690433°E / 51.497467; 0.690433 (Sea Reach No. 5 port) Starboard buoyVery quick flashing Green 51°30.041′N0°41.473′E / 51.500683°N 0.691217°E / 51.500683; 0.691217 (Sea Reach No. 5 starboard)
Sea Reach № 4Port buoyGroup flashing (2) red 5s 51°29.504′N0°44.121′E / 51.491733°N 0.735350°E / 51.491733; 0.735350 (Sea Reach No. 4 port) Starboard buoyGroup flashing (2) green 5s 51°29.694′N0°44.193′E / 51.494900°N 0.736550°E / 51.494900; 0.736550 (Sea Reach No. 4 starboard)
Sea Reach № 3Port buoyQuick flashing red 51°29.221′N0°46.707′E / 51.487017°N 0.778450°E / 51.487017; 0.778450 (Sea Reach No. 3 port) Starboard buoyQuick flashing green 51°29.410′N0°47.061′E / 51.490167°N 0.784350°E / 51.490167; 0.784350 (Sea Reach No. 3 starboard)
Sea Reach № 2Port buoyFlashing red 5s 51°29.296′N0°49.754′E / 51.488267°N 0.829233°E / 51.488267; 0.829233 (Sea Reach No. 2 port) Starboard buoyFlashing green 5s 51°29.493′N0°49.726′E / 51.491550°N 0.828767°E / 51.491550; 0.828767 (Sea Reach No. 2 starboard)
Sea Reach № 1Port buoyFlashing red 2.5s 51°29.368′N0°52.445′E / 51.489467°N 0.874083°E / 51.489467; 0.874083 (Sea Reach No. 1 port) Yellow pillar buoy

Racon T

Flashing yellow 2.5s 51°29.586′N0°52.710′E / 51.493100°N 0.878500°E / 51.493100; 0.878500 (Sea Reach No. 1)
West Oaze̶̶̶The Oaze DeepRed & white buoyIsophase 5s 51°28.975′N0°55.413′E / 51.482917°N 0.923550°E / 51.482917; 0.923550 (West Oaze)
Oaze Bank̶̶̶Starboard buoyQuick flashing green
OazeYellow pillar buoyGroup flashing (4) Yellow 10s 51°28.977′N0°56.917′E / 51.482950°N 0.948617°E / 51.482950; 0.948617 (Oaze) ̶̶̶
Argus̶̶̶Yellow pillar buoy yellow ‘X’ topmarkFlashing yellow 2.5s 51°29.297′N0°58.715′E / 51.488283°N 0.978583°E / 51.488283; 0.978583 (Argus)
Oaze Deep̶̶̶Starboard buoyGroup flashing (2) green 5s 51°30.000′N1°0.000′E / 51.500000°N 1.000000°E / 51.500000; 1.000000 (Oaze Deep)
KnobRed & white buoyIsophase 5s̶̶̶
SE Mouse̶̶̶Starboard buoyQuick flashing green
Knock John № 7̶̶̶The Knock John ChannelStarboard buoyGroup flashing (4) green 15s 51°31.956′N1°06.406′E / 51.532600°N 1.106767°E / 51.532600; 1.106767 (Knock John No. 7)
Knock John № 5̶̶̶Starboard buoyGroup flashing (3) green 10s 51°32.490′N1°07.750′E / 51.541500°N 1.129167°E / 51.541500; 1.129167 (Knock John No. 5)
Knock John № 4Port buoyGroup flashing (3) red 10s 51°32.323′N1°07.906′E / 51.538717°N 1.131767°E / 51.538717; 1.131767 (Knock John No. 4) ̶̶̶
Knock John № 3̶̶̶Starboard buoyFlashing green 5s 51°33.278′N1°09.692′E / 51.554633°N 1.161533°E / 51.554633; 1.161533 (Knock John No. 3 starboard)
Knock John № 2Port buoyFlashing red 5s 51°33.112′N1°09.847′E / 51.551867°N 1.164117°E / 51.551867; 1.164117 (Knock John No. 2 port) ̶̶̶
Knock John № 1̶̶̶ South cardinal buoy Quick flashing white (6) + long flash 15s 51°33.717′N1°10.833′E / 51.561950°N 1.180550°E / 51.561950; 1.180550 (Knock John No. 1 Starboard)
Knock John Port buoyGroup flashing (2) red 5s 51°33.661′N1°11.357′E / 51.561017°N 1.189283°E / 51.561017; 1.189283 (Knock John No. 1 Port) ̶̶̶
Black Deep № 12Port buoyGroup flashing (4) red 15s 51°33.661′N1°13.511′E / 51.561017°N 1.225183°E / 51.561017; 1.225183 (Black Deep No. 12) The Black Deep Channel̶̶̶
Black Deep № 11̶̶̶Starboard buoyGroup flashing (3) green 10s 51°34.250′N1°13.475′E / 51.570833°N 1.224583°E / 51.570833; 1.224583 (Black Deep No. 11)
Black Deep № 10Port buoyGroup flashing (3) red 10s̶̶̶
Black Deep № 9̶̶̶ South cardinal buoy Quick flashing white (6) + long flash
Inner FishermanPort buoyQuick flashing red̶̶̶
Black Deep № 7̶̶̶Starboard buoyQuick flashing green
Black Deep № 8̶̶̶ West cardinal buoy Quick flashing white (9) 15s
BDM2Yellow pillar buoy (mid-channel)Flashing yellow 2.5s 51°37.370′N1°20.040′E / 51.622833°N 1.334000°E / 51.622833; 1.334000 (BDM2) ̶̶̶
Black Deep № 6Port buoyFlashing red 2.5s̶̶̶
Black Deep № 5̶̶̶ East cardinal buoy Very quick flashing white (3) 5s
Black Deep № 4Port buoyGroup flashing (2) red 5s̶̶̶
BDM1Yellow pillar buoy (mid-channel) yellow ‘X’ topmarkFlashing yellow 2.5s 51°41.960′N1°27.590′E / 51.699333°N 1.459833°E / 51.699333; 1.459833 (BDM1) ̶̶̶
Black Deep № 3̶̶̶Starboard buoyGroup flashing (3) green 15s
Black Deep № 1̶̶̶Starboard buoyFlashing green 5s
Black Deep № 2Port buoyGroup flashing (4) red 15s̶̶̶
SHMYellow pillar buoy (mid-channel) yellow ‘X’ topmark Racon TFlashing yellow 2.5s 51°46.050′N1°31.540′E / 51.767500°N 1.525667°E / 51.767500; 1.525667 (SHM) ̶̶̶
Sunk Head Tower ̶̶̶ North cardinal buoy Quick flashing white
Black DeepPort buoyQuick flashing red 51°48.10′N1°36.60′E / 51.80167°N 1.61000°E / 51.80167; 1.61000 (Black Deep) ̶̶̶
Trinity South cardinal buoy Quick flashing (6) + long flash 15s̶̶̶
Dynamo̶̶̶Yellow pillar buoy yellow ‘X’ topmarkFlashing yellow 2.5s 51°50.060′N1°33.880′E / 51.834333°N 1.564667°E / 51.834333; 1.564667 (Yellow pillar)
Sunk Inner̶̶̶Light floatIsophase 3s 51°51.170′N1°34.400′E / 51.852833°N 1.573333°E / 51.852833; 1.573333 (Light float)

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The Gloucester Harbour Trustees are the competent harbour authority (CHA) for the tidal part of the River Severn from the Gloucester weirs down to seaward of the Second Severn Crossing, on the Welsh side of the Severn Estuary from the Second Severn Crossing as far as Goldcliff, and on the River Wye up to its tidal limit (Bigsweir).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Varne Bank</span> Sand bank in the Strait of Dover, English Channel

The Varne Bank or Varne Shoal is a 5+34-mile (9.3 km) long sand bank in the Strait of Dover, lying 9 miles (14 km) southwest of Dover in Kent, England. With the Lobourg Channel running along it, the Varne bank lies immediately south-west of the deepest point 223 feet (68 m) in the strait of Dover. Its rectilinear shape is similar to other banks in the strait such as South Falls bank bordering the Lobourg Channel on the east, the Colbart bank and others. Rectilinear-shaped banks are only present on the English side of the strait.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wyre Light</span> Lighthouse at Fleetwood, Lancashire, England

The Wyre Light was a 40-foot (12 m) tall iron screw-pile lighthouse marking the navigation channel to the town of Fleetwood, Lancashire, England.

The Black Deep is in the outer Thames Estuary. It is the greatest of three mainly natural shipping channels linking the Tideway to central zones of the North Sea without shoals, the others being the Barrow Deep and Princes Channel. Between these, a few others, and the shores of Kent, Suffolk and Essex are many long shoals in the North Sea, broadly shallow enough to wreck vessels of substantial draft at low tide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gunfleet Lighthouse</span> Lighthouse

Gunfleet Lighthouse is a derelict screw-pile lighthouse lying in the North Sea, six miles off the coast at Frinton-on-Sea in Essex, constructed in 1850 by James Walker of Trinity House. George Henry Saunders was the contractor. Walker and Burges were the Engineers. It is 74 feet (23 m) in height and hexagonal in plan; mounted on seven piles forming a steel lattice and originally painted red. It was first lit on 1 May 1856, replacing a light vessel which had been on station there since 1850.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Broomway</span> Public pathway in Essex, England

The Broomway, also formerly called the "Broom Road", is a public right of way over the foreshore at Maplin Sands off the coast of Essex, England. Most of the route is classed as a byway open to all traffic, with a shorter section of bridleway. When the tide is out, it provides access to Foulness Island, and indeed was the only access to Foulness on foot, and the only access at low tide, until a road bridge was built over Havengore Creek in 1922.

The Kentish Knock is a long shoal in the North Sea east of Essex, England. It is the most easterly of those of the Thames Estuary and its core, which is shallower than 18 feet (5.5 m), extends 6 miles (9.7 km). Thus it is a major hazard to deep-draught navigation. It is exactly 28 miles (45 km) due east of Foulness Point, Essex and is centred about 15 miles (24 km) NNE of North Foreland, Kent – both are extreme points of those counties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Swin (Thames)</span> A passage in the Thames estuary

The Swin is a passage in the Thames estuary between Maplin Sands, Foulness Sand and Gunfleet Sand northwest and the Barrow and Sunk sand ridges (shoals), southeast. The Swin was used by barges and leisure craft from the Essex rivers, and coasters and colliers from Hull, Great Grimsby, North East England, Edinburgh and other similar sets of trading ports.

SB <i>George Smeed</i> A Thames sailing barge built in 1882

George Smeed is a Thames barge built in 1882 by Smeed Dean & Co. Ltd. in Murston.

The Edinburgh Channels, formerly a single channel known as the Bullock Channel and then the Duke of Edinburgh Channel are two roughly parallel transverse channels in the Thames Estuary. They used to be important for navigation, providing a deep approach to the River Thames from the south-east through the sandbanks of the estuary. The opening of an alternative channel in 2000 has greatly reduced their use, but having been surveyed and studied extensively over the past two centuries they provide an important example of the processes that shape shallow water landforms.



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