Bhimber

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Bhimber


بھمبر
Bhimber City.jpg
Jammu and Kashmir locator map.svg
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Bhimber
Pakistan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bhimber
Coordinates: 32°58′50″N74°04′10″E / 32.980645°N 74.06943°E / 32.980645; 74.06943 Coordinates: 32°58′50″N74°04′10″E / 32.980645°N 74.06943°E / 32.980645; 74.06943
Country Pakistan
Territory Azad Kashmir
District Bhimber District
Established7th century AD
Population
 (2017) [1]
  Total27,636
Time zone UTC+5 (PST)
Postal code
10040
Dialling code 0092-05828
Website Official Website

Bhimber (Urdu : بھمبر) is the capital of Bhimber District, in the Pakistan-administered territory of Azad Kashmir. The town is on the border between Kashmir and Pakistan, about 29 mi (47 km) by road southeast of Mirpur. [2]

Contents

History

Bhimber was the capital of the Chibhal dynasty, which lasted from 1400 to 1856. Katoch. [3] [4] [5]

Bhimber lies on the route that was followed by the Mughal Emperors for their frequent visits to the Kashmir Valley. It is also known as "Baab-e-Kashmir" (Door to Kashmir) because of its importance and geographical location, which was ideal for the Mughal Emperors to use to enter Kashmir. Therefore, the Mughals used Bhimber as a staging point for their journey to Srinagar. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir discussed Bhimber in his book Tuzk-e-Jahangiri . [6]

Modern history

In the 19th century, Chibhal came under the Sikh Empire of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Around 1822, along with Poonch, it was granted as a jagir (feudal land grant) to Raja Dhian Singh of the Dogra dynasty, Gulab Singh's brother. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh court fell into disunity, and Dhian Singh was murdered in a court intrigue. Subsequently, the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir was formed under the suzerainty of the British Empire, and these territories were transferred to Jammu and Kashmir. The jagir given to Dhian Singh was respected, however, and Dhian Singh's sons Moti Singh and Jawahir Singh were retained as its Rajas. [7] [8] [9]

In 1852, the brothers Jawahir and Moti Singh quarreled, and the Punjab Board of Revenue awarded a settlement. Moti Singh was awarded the Poonch district, and Jawahir Singh was awarded Bhimber, Mirpur and Kotli. [10] [11] In 1859, Jawahir Singh was accused of 'treacherous conspiracy' by Maharaja Ranbir Singh (r. 1857–1885), who succeeded Gulab Singh. The British agreed with the assessment and forced Jawahir Singh to exile in Ambala. Ranbir Singh paid Jawahir Singh an annual stipend of Rs. 100,000 until his death, and appropriated his territory afterwards because Jawahir Singh had no heirs. [12]

The appropriated territory was organised as the Bhimber district (wazarat) in 1860. In the decade preceding 1911, the district headquarters was shifted to Mirpur and it came to be called the Mirpur district. [13] [14] Bhimber remained a tehsil headquarters until 1947. It had a Hindu majority population, mostly consisting of Mahajans. [15]

Geography and climate

Panoramic view of Bhimber Panoramic view of Bhimber.jpg
Panoramic view of Bhimber

Bhimber is a valley. Its hot, dry climate and other geographical conditions closely resemble those of Gujrat, the adjoining district of Pakistan.

Its climate is classified as warm and temperate. Summers have a good deal of rainfall; winters have very little. This location is classified as Cwa by Köppen and Geiger. The average annual temperature is 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) with a yearly average rainfall of 974 mm (38.3 in). July and August are the wettest months. Temperatures are highest in June. [16]

Landmarks

Tomb of Baba Shadi Shaheed Baba Shadi Shaheed tomb.jpg
Tomb of Baba Shadi Shaheed

Baghsar Fort is an ancient Mughal fort in the Samahni Valley overlooking Baghsar Lake. [17] Sarai Saadabad is located near Bandala in the Samahni Valley and was used as a staging camp during Mughal Era for the caravans moving from Lahore to Kashmir. Also of note is the Tomb of Sufi saint Baba Shadi Shaheed.

Notable people

Related Research Articles

The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947. By executing this document under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh agreed to accede to the Dominion of India.

Mirpur, Pakistan Place in Pakistan

Mirpur, more commonly known as New Mirpur City, is the capital of Mirpur district and the largest city of Azad Kashmir. The city itself has gone through a process of modernization, but most of the surrounding area remains agricultural. Mirpur is known for its grand buildings and large bungalows, primarily funded through its expatriate community, which comes mainly from Europe, Hong Kong, the Middle East, and North America. The main crop cultivated during summer is millet and pulses. However, other crops such as wheat, maize and vegetables are also grown. The produce of quality rice from the paddy fields of Khari Sharif, between Upper Jhelum Canal and Jhelum river, is very famous and popular for its aroma and taste. The production of electricity from Mangla Dam provides the energy needs for Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Northern Punjab.

Poonch District, Pakistan District in Pakistan

Poonch is a district of the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir. Poonch district borders Indian-administered Kashmir's Poonch district and is part of the greater dispute between India and Pakistan. The capital of the district is Rawalakot.

Uri, Jammu and Kashmir Town in Jammu and Kashmir, India

Uri is a town and a tehsil in the Baramulla district, in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Uri is located on the left bank of the Jhelum River, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the Line of Control with Pakistan

Baghsar is a lake situated at 975 m above sea-level in the Samahni Valley of Bhimber District in Pakistan's Azad Kashmir. The lake is roughly half a kilometre long and overlooks the Bandala Valley. The lake is a popular tourist destination.

Gulab Singh First maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir

Maharaja Gulab Singh Jamwal (1792–1857) was the founder of royal Dogra dynasty and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state in British India, which was created after the defeat of the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War. During First Anglo-Sikh War, Gulab Singh helped the British against the Sikhs. The Treaty of Amritsar (1846) formalised the sale by the British to Gulab Singh for 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees of all the lands in Kashmir that were ceded to them by the Sikhs by the Treaty of Lahore.

Rajouri district District of Jammu and Kashmir in India

Rajouri is a district of Jammu region in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The Line of Control lies to its west, Poonch to its north, the Reasi district to the east and the Jammu district to its south. Rajouri is famous for its "Kalari". Representing an ancient principality, Rajouri was a joint district, along with Reasi, at the time of princely state's accession to India in 1947. The two tehsils were separated and Rajouri was merged with the Poonch district. Rajouri again became a separate district in 1968.

Rajouri Town in Jammu and Kashmir, India

Rajouri or Rajauri is a town in Rajouri district in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is located about 155 kilometres (96 mi) from Srinagar and 150 km from Jammu city on the Poonch Highway. The town is the location of Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University and the birthplace of Sikh General Banda Singh Bahadur.

Poonch (town) Town in Jammu and Kashmir, India

Poonch is the capital of Poonch district, in Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is located near the Line of Control – the de facto border with Pakistan's Azad Kashmir.

The Treaty of Lahore of 9 March 1846, was a peace treaty marking the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War. The Treaty was concluded, for the British, by the Governor-General Sir Henry Hardinge and two officers of the East India Company and, for the Sikhs, by the seven-year-old Maharaja Duleep Singh Bahadur and seven members of Hazara, the territory to the south of the river Sutlej and the forts and territory in the Jalandhar Doab between the rivers Sutlej and Beas. In addition, controls were placed on the size of the Lahore army and thirty-six field guns were confiscated. The control of the rivers Sutlej and Beas and part of the Indus passed to the British, with the proviso that this was not to interfere with the passage of passenger boats owned by the Lahore Government. Also, provision was made for the separate sale of all the hilly regions between River Beas and Indus, including Kashmir, by the East India Company at a later date to Gulab Singh, the Raja of Jammu.

Dogra dynasty Hindu dynasty of Jammu and Kashmir

The Dogra dynasty was a Hindu Dogra Rajput dynasty that formed the royal house of Jammu and Kashmir.

Poonch District was a district of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, currently divided between India and Pakistan. The Pakistani part of Poonch District is part of the Azad Kashmir territory, whilst the Indian Poonch District is part of the Kashmir union territory. The capital of the Pakistan-controlled side is Rawalakot; while the capital of the Indian side is Poonch.

Jammu and Kashmir (princely state) former princely state in British India

Jammu and Kashmir, also known as Kashmir and Jammu, was a princely state during the British East India Company rule as well as the British Raj in India from 1846 to 1947. The princely state was created after the First Anglo-Sikh War, when the East India Company, which had annexed the Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh, and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs as war indemnity, then sold the region to the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, for rupees 75 lakh Nanakshahee. (75,00,000)

History of Azad Kashmir

The history of Azad Kashmir, a part of the Kashmir region administered by Pakistan, is related to the history of the Kashmir region during the Dogra rule. Azad Kashmir borders the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the south and west respectively, Gilgit–Baltistan to the north, and the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir to the east.

Jammu Division Administrative Division in Jammu and Kashmir, India

Jammu Division is a revenue and administrative division within Jammu and Kashmir, a union territory of India. It consists of the districts of Jammu, Doda, Kathua, Ramban, Reasi, Kishtwar, Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur and Samba. Most of the land is hilly or mountainous, including the Pir Panjal Range which separates it from the Kashmir Valley and part of the Great Himalayas in the eastern districts of Doda and Kishtwar. Its principal river is the Chenab. Chenab Valley is another important division in Jammu region.

Chibhal was a princely state founded by a cadet of Katoch Rajputs of Kangra in 1400 A.D.

1947 Jammu massacres Genocidal massacres in Jammu

After the Partition of India, during October–November 1947 in the Jammu region of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, many Muslims were massacred and others driven away to West Punjab. The killings were carried out by extremist Hindus and Sikhs, aided and abetted by the forces of Maharaja Hari Singh. The activists of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) played a key role in planning and executing the riots. An estimated 20,000–100,000 Muslims were massacred. Subsequently, many non-Muslims, estimated as over 20,000, were massacred by Pakistani tribesmen and soldiers, in the Mirpur region of today's Pakistani administered Kashmir. Many Hindus and Sikhs were also massacred in the Rajouri area of Jammu division.

The 1947 Mirpur Massacre was the killing of thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees in Mirpur of today's Azad Kashmir, by armed Pakistani tribesmen and soldiers during the First Kashmir War. It occurred on and after November 25.

1947 Poonch rebellion

In Spring 1947, an uprising against the Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir broke out in the Poonch jagir, an area bordering the Rawalpindi district of West Punjab and the Hazara district of the North-West Frontier Province in the future Pakistan. The leader of the rebellion, Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan escaped to Lahore by the end of August 1947 and persuaded the Pakistani authorities to back the rebellion. In addition to the backing, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan authorised an invasion of the state, by the ex-Indian National Army personnel in the south and a force led by Major Khurshid Anwar in the north. These invasions eventually led to the First Kashmir War fought between India and Pakistan, and the formation of Azad Kashmir. The Poonch jagir has since been divided across Azad Kashmir, administered by Pakistan and the state of Jammu and Kashmir, administered by India.

The following is a timeline of the Kashmir conflict during the period 1846–1946.

References

  1. "Statistical Year Book 2019" (PDF). Statistics Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  2. Google (1 February 2020). "Bhimber" (Map). Google Maps . Google. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  3. Gulabnama of Diwan Kirpa Ram: A History of Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu & Kashmir, page 41
  4. History of the Punjab Hill States by Hutchison and Vogel, reprinted edition, 2 volumes in 1 Chapter XXIV. 1933 AD
  5. The Ancient Geography of India by Alexander Cunningham page 134 1871
  6. Government of Azad Jammu & Kashmir Website. "Jahangir discussed Bhimber in his book Tuzk-e-Jahangiri". Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  7. Panikkar, Gulab Singh 1930, pp. 121–123.
  8. Brahma Singh, History of Jammu and Kashmir Rifles 2010.
  9. Satinder Singh, Raja Gulab Singh's Role 1971, pp. 52-53.
  10. Snedden, Kashmir: The Unwritten History 2013, p. 232.
  11. Panikkar, Gulab Singh 1930, p. 123.
  12. Snedden, Kashmir: The Unwritten History 2013, p. 233.
  13. "A peep into Bhimber". dailyexcelsior.com. 6 November 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  14. India. Census Commissioner (1912), Census of India, 1911, Superintendent of government printing, India
  15. Saraf, Kashmiris Fight for Freedom, Volume 2 2015, p. 238.
  16. "Climate Bhimber". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  17. Ashgar Ahmad (1986). Pakistan Tourism Directory, 86. Holiday Weekly. p. 170.

Bibliography