From top left to right: A panoramic view of a section of Jalalabad; Jalalabad Bridge; Jalalabad Cricket Stadium; Pashtunistan Square; Mosque in Jalalabad; Governor's House in Jalalabad; Building on a main road.
|• Land||122 km2 (47 sq mi)|
|Elevation||575 m (1,886 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+4:30 (Afghanistan Standard Time)|
Jalalabad ( // ; Pashto/Dari : جلالآباد, Jalālābād) is the fifth-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 356,274, and serves as the capital of Nangarhar Province in the eastern part of the country, about 80 miles (130 km) from the capital Kabul. Jalalabad is located at the junction of the Kabul River and the Kunar River in a plateau to the south of the Hindu Kush mountains. It is linked by highways with Kabul to the west and the Pakistani city of Peshawar to the east including through the Khyber Pass.
Jalalabad is a leading center of social and trade activity because of its proximity with the Torkham border crossing, 65 km (40 mi) away. Major industries include papermaking, as well as agricultural products including oranges, lemon, rice, and sugarcane, helped by its warm climate. It hosts Afghanistan's second largest educational institute, Nangarhar University. For centuries the city has been favored by Afghan kings and it is a cultural significance in Afghan poetry.
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|History of Afghanistan|
|Related historical names of the region|
Faxian visited and worshiped the sacred Buddhist sites such as of The Shadow of the Buddha in Nagarhara (modern Jalalabad).In 630 AD Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Jalalabad, which he referred to as Adinapur, and a number of other locations nearby. The city was a major center of Gandhara's Greco-Buddhist culture in the past until it was conquered by Ghaznavids in the 11th century. However, not everyone converted to Islam at that period as some still refused to accept it. In Hudud-al-Alam , written in 982 CE, there is reference to a village near Jalalabad where the local king used to have many Hindu, Muslim and Afghan wives.
The region became part of the Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century. Sabuktigin annexed the land all the way west of the Neelum River in Kashmir. "The Afghans and Khiljies who resided among the mountains having taken the oath of allegiance to Sabuktigin, many of them were enlisted in his army, after which he returned in triumph to Ghazni." [ citation needed ]The Ghurids succeeded the Ghaznavids and expanded the Islamic empire further into Hindustan. The region around Jalalabad later became part of the Khalji territory, followed by that of the Timurids.
It is said that the original name of Jalalabad was Adinapur.Jalalabad was named in honour of Mughal ruler Jalal-uddin in the last decade of the sixteenth century, the grandson of Babur. The modern city gained prominence during the reign of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city which was built by his grandson Jalal-uddin Mohammad Akbar in 1560.
It remained part of the Mughal Empire until around 1738 when Nader Shah and his Afsharid forces began defeating the Mughals. Nader Shah's forces were accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani and his 4,000-strong Afghan army from southern Afghanistan. In 1747, he founded the Durrani Empire (Afghan Empire) after re-conquering the area. The Afghan army has long used the city while going back and forth during their military campaigns into the Indian subcontinent.
The British-Indian forces invaded Jalalabad in 1838, during the First Anglo-Afghan War. In the 1842 Battle of Jellalabad, Akbar Khan besieged the British troops on their way to Jalalabad. In 1878, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again invaded and set up camps in Jalalabad but withdrew two years later.
Jalalabad is considered one of the most important cities of the Pashtun culture. Seraj-ul-Emarat, the residence of Amir Habibullah and King Amanullah was destroyed in 1929 when Habibullah Kalakani rose to power; the other sanctuaries however, retain vestiges of the past. The mausoleum of both rulers is enclosed by a garden facing Seraj-ul-Emart. The Sulemankhils, a Pashtun family famous for their scientific research, is from Jalalabad. Other celebrated Pashtun families originate from the villages near Jalalabad too.
From 1978 to early 1990s, the city served as a strategic location for the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. In March 1989, two Mujahideen rebel factions backed by Pakistan and the U.S. assaulted the city during the Battle of Jalalabad. However government forces managed to drive them out within two months, which was a major setback to the resistance fighters and the ISI.The city was heavily bombarded and hundreds of civilians were killed. Many buildings, such as schools, hospitals and public buildings were destroyed during the 2-month battle.
After the resignation of President Najibullah, Jalalabad quickly fell to mujahideen rebels of Yunus Khalis on April 19, 1992.On September 12, 1996, the Taliban took control of the city until they were toppled by the US-backed Afghan forces in late 2001. Al-Qaeda had been building terrorist training camps in Jalalabad. The city returned to Afghan government control under Hamid Karzai.
The economy of Jalalabad gradually increased in the last decade. Many of the city's population began joining the Afghan National Security Forces. Construction has also risen. The Jalalabad Airport has long served as a military base for the NATO forces. In 2011, the U.S. Embassy in Kabul announced that it plans to establish a consulate in Jalalabad. [ when? ] to totally eliminate these groups before withdrawing from Afghanistan.[ citation needed ]Many suicide attacks by jihadist insurgents have taken place, including in August 2013, April 2015, January 2018, July 2018, September 2018, October 2019 and August 2020. The groups responsible for the attacks include the Taliban, Haqqani Network, al-Qaeda, and ISIS (Daesh). The United States has promised
The city population is estimated to be 356,274 in year 2015. 12,796 hectares (31,620 acres). The total number of dwellings in this city is 39,586.It has six districts and a total land area of
Nearly all residents of Jalalabad are Muslim, followers of Sunni Islam. Jalalabad is also a center of the country's Sikhs, although the community has dwindled in the city (and nationwide) since the wars began.Similarly it is also has a Hindu minority.
Jalalabad is the regional hub in eastern Afghanistan, close to the border with Pakistan. Agriculture is the predominant land use at 44%, higher density of dwellings is found in Districts 1-5 and vacant plots are largely clustered in District 6.Districts 1-6 all have a grid network of roads.
Jalalabad's climate is hot desert (Köppen: BWh), and it is one of the hottest localities in Afghanistan. mm) of rainfall per annum which are limited to winter and the months of spring. Frosts are not common, and during the summer, the temperature can reach a maximum of 120 °F (49 °C).The city's climate has close resemblance to that of Arizona in the United States. It receives six to eight inches (152 to 203
The north and southwestern parts of the city which has lower elevation are welcoming places to winds from the north and west cooling the parts in summer months. Jalalabad has the highest relative humidity in summer compared to other Afghan cities. However the moderate temperatures of winter has led to various people down the history establishing their settlements in the city.Because of its warm temperature relative to most of Afghanistan, Jalalabad (alongside Peshawar) was often the "winter capital" of various Afghan rulers of the past centuries, while rich people would relocate to villas in Jalalabad to avoid the freezing temperatures in Kabul.
|Climate data for Jalalabad|
|Record high °C (°F)||25.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||15.9|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||2.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||−14.1|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||18.1|
|Average rainy days||4||5||8||8||4||1||1||1||1||1||2||3||39|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61||60||62||59||47||40||52||58||56||55||58||63||56|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||180.9||182.7||207.1||227.8||304.8||339.6||325.9||299.7||293.6||277.6||231.0||185.6||3,056.3|
|Source: NOAA (1964-1983)|
Jalalabad is home to a large number of fruits. Various types of citrus fruits like orange, tangerine, grapefruit, lemon, lime grow in gardens as well as in orchards.The orange trees yield a crop only once in three years. The narindj variety of orange is the most common one which has yellow skin and its taste is a combination of orange and grapefruit. The grapefruits grown here have a diameter of eight or nine inches. Per year 1800 tonnes of pomegranates, 334 tones of grapes, and 7750 tones of mulberries are produced in Jalalabad. The fruits are either sold in local markets or transported to Kabul markets from where they are exported. The second most common crop is local vatani variety of sugarcane. It contains 15% sugar by weight.
The Jalalabad Airport was built for dual-use, civilian and military. It is designed to serve the population of Nangarhar Province and neighboring province for domestic flights. The airport is currently used by NATO-led forces, including the Afghan Air Force, and houses large number of ISAF forces. The airport is also used as one of the launching and monitoring spots of drone attacks in Pakistan.
There are proposals for the establishment of Afghanistan's rail network linking Jalalabad with Pakistan Railways, allowing for increased trade of goods, people and commerce between the two countries.
Jalalabad is connected by main roads with the Afghan capital of Kabul, the city of Peshawar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and several nearby Afghan cities and towns. All trade between Afghanistan and Pakistan passes through this city. The highway between Jalalabad and Kabul was resurfaced in 2006, reducing the transit time between these two important cities. This highway is considered to be one of the most dangerous in the world because of the large number of accidents. [ by whom? ] with the intention of widening the existing road and improving security to attract more tourists and allow for safer passage of goods between to the two countries.An improvement in the road networks between Jalalabad and Peshawar has also been proposed,
On the southeastern fringe of Jalalabad, a modern suburb called Ghazi Amanullah Town is under construction. Named after King Amanullah Khan.Construction has begun near the city on one of Afghanistan's cricket stadiums. It is hoped that this ground will serve the domestic competition and attract international teams.
Jalalabad Airport (IATA: JAA, ICAO: OAJL) is located 5 kilometres (3 mi) southeast of Jalalabad city in Afghanistan. This airport is currently being used only for military purposes and sometimes the United Nations' aircraft use this airport. It is occupied and maintained by the United States Armed Forces. They operate out of Forward Operating Base Fenty, which is adjacent to Jalalabad Airport. The Afghan Air Force (AAF) and members of the International Security Assistance Force also use the airport.
Hamidullah Qaderi, Minister of Transport and Civil Aviation of Afghanistan, announced in April 2009 the construction of a new civilian airport in the Gambiri area northwest of Jalalabad. The new airport will be constructed with financial assistance from the United States.
India and Pakistan operate their consulate here for trade, military and political links.
Jalalabad district has three hospitals: Fatumatu Zahra, Medical Hospital of Nangarhar, and the General Hospital of Public Health. The General Hospital of Public Health is one of the largest in the country. As of July 24,2004 [update] , polio (NSL3) has been identified and reported in the Jalalabad district area. This specific case has been linked to others reported in the past due to the highly transient and mobile population.
Nangarhar University (Pashto: د ننګرهار پوهنتون) is a government-funded higher learning institution in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. It is the second largest university in Afghanistan. It has approximately 25 faculty and 3,500 students. Nangarhar University was established in 1962 as a medical college. It was later merged with other local colleges to become a full-fledged university. It now houses faculties in agriculture, engineering, education, medicine, theology, pedagogy, political science and veterinary medicine.
Nangarhar consists of many faculties including engineering, political science, economics, teachers' training, veterinary, and computer science. Nangarhar Medical Faculty (NMF) is the second largest medical school in Afghanistan. They also take part in an e-learning program organized by Afghans Next Generation e-Learning.
The nearest village within walking distance of Jalalabad is Ghouchak.
The province is represented in domestic cricket competitions by the Nangarhar province cricket team. National team member Hamid Hasan was born in the province and he currently represents Afghanistan in international cricket. The Ghazi Amanullah International Cricket Stadium is the first international standard cricket stadium in Afghanistan. It is located in the Ghazi Amanullah Town, a modern suburb on the southeastern fringe of Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province. Construction on the stadium began in March 2010 when the foundation stone was laid by Minister of Finance and president of the Afghanistan Cricket Board, Omar Zakhilwal. The project, which was developed on 30 acres of land donated by the developer constructing the Ghazi Amanullah Town, cost up the first phase of construction $1.8 million. The first phase, which took one year to complete, included the completion of the stadium itself. The remainder of the phases will see the construction of a pavilion, accommodation for players and administrative buildings. The stadium, which has a capacity of 14,000, was completed before the national team and under-19 team left for Canada and the Under-19 Cricket World Cup Qualifier in Ireland respectively. The two sides inaugurated the stadium in a Twenty20 match. It is hoped that the stadium will be able to attract international teams to play Afghanistan, who currently have One Day International status until at least 2013.
|Nangarhar Leopards||Afghanistan Premier League||Cricket||Sharjah Cricket Stadium||2018|
|Spin Ghar Tigers||Shpageeza Cricket League||Cricket||Ghazi Amanullah International Cricket Stadium||2013|
|De Spin Ghar Bazan F.C.||Afghan Premier League||Football||Ghazi Stadium||2012|
Kandahar or Qandahar is a city in Afghanistan, located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of 1,010 m (3,310 ft). It is Afghanistan's second largest city after Kabul, with a population of about 614,118. It is the capital of Kandahar Province and also the center of the larger cultural region called Loy Kandahar. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar into the capital of the Hotak dynasty. In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Durrani dynasty, made Kandahar the capital of the Afghan Empire.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the International border with Afghanistan.
Peshawar is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its largest city. It is the sixth-largest in Pakistan. Peshawar is also the largest Pashtun-majority city in Pakistan. Situated in the broad Valley of Peshawar near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest cities in South Asia.
Ghazni is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in eastern Afghanistan. The province contains 19 districts, encompassing over a thousand villages and roughly 1.3 million people, making it the 5th most populous province. The city of Ghazni serves as the capital. It lies on the important Kabul–Kandahar Highway, and has historically functioned as an important trade center. The Ghazni Airport is located next to the city of Ghazni and provides limited domestic flights to Afghanistan's capital, Kabul.
Kābul, situated in the east of the country, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. The capital of the province is Kabul city, which is also Afghanistan's capital and largest city. The population of the Kabul Province is over 5 million people as of 2020, of which over 85 percent live in urban areas. The current governor of the province is Muhammad Yaqub Haidari.
Kandahār is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country, sharing border with Balochistan, Pakistan to the east. It is surrounded by Helmand in the west, Uruzgan in the north and Zabul Province in the east. Its capital is the city of Kandahar, Afghanistan's second largest city, which is located on the Arghandab River. The greater region surrounding the province is called Loy Kandahar.
Nangarhār also called Nangrahar or Ningrahar, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country and bordering Logar, Kabul, Laghman and Kunar provinces as well as an international border with Pakistan. It is divided into twenty-two districts and has a population of about 1,836,000, the third highest of the country's 34 provinces. The city of Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province.
The Shinwari is an ethnic Pashtun tribe of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Among the greatest poets of the Pashto language in the 20th century was the late Ameer Hamza Shinwari, also known as "Hamza Baba". The Shinwari tribe is son of Kasi Pashtun tribe settled in the southern disctricts of Nangarhar Province, in Haska Meyna, Achin, Rodat, Bati Kot, Kot, Chaprahar, Shinwar, Dor Baba and Nazian districts. A major portion of the tribe is centered in Jalalabad and Parwan province of Afghanistan. These Shinwaris are mostly traders and businessmen. There is also a significant minority of the tribe settled in, Pakistan, a settlement 60 to 85 km south of Peshawar. There are about 2000 to 3000 shinwaris settled in village Ali zai, 15 km away from kohat. In Afghanistan, the Shinwari are also located in Kunar province. Reporting from 2010 states that there are around 400,000 Shinwari in Afghanistan.
The Mohmand or Momand is one of the most prominent Pashtun tribes.They are mostly based in district Mohmand of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Western Pakistan, bordered with Afghanistan and in the eastern district of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.
The Afridi are a tribe of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is in Khyber and Darra Adam Khel in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and smaller parts of Nangarhar, Afghanistan.
Goshta District is located in the northeast of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan and borders Durand Line between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The district's population is Pashtun and was estimated at 160,000 in 2002, of whom 30,000 were children under 12. The district is within the heartland of the Mohmand tribe of Pashtuns. The district centre is the village of Goshta, on the Kabul River.
Rodat is a district in the center of Nangarhar Province, 25 km away from Jalalabad city. Afghanistan, south of Jalalabad. The district is within the heartland of the Mohmand tribe of Pashtuns.
The Afghanistan Cricket Board is the official governing body of cricket in Afghanistan. It is Afghanistan's representative at the International Cricket Council (ICC) and was an associate member of ICC from June 2013 until becoming a full member in June 2017. Before that it was an affiliate member and has been a member of that body since 2001. It is also a member of the Asian Cricket Council. The women's team was formed in 2010. Afghan President Ashraf Ghani is the patron-in-chief of the board.
Cricket in Afghanistan is the most popular sport in the country, which is represented internationally by the Afghanistan national cricket team. Afghanistan's border with the Test playing nations of Pakistan has helped the game to take root. Inzamam ul Haq has coached the Afghan national team in the past. Afghanistan became a full member of the International Cricket Council on 22 June 2017, entitling the national team to participate in official Test matches.
Sport in Afghanistan is managed by the Afghan Sports Federation. Cricket and association football are the two most popular sports in Afghanistan. The traditional and the national sport of Afghanistan is Buzkashi. The Afghan Sports Federation promotes cricket, association football, basketball, volleyball, golf, handball, boxing, taekwondo, weightlifting, bodybuilding, track and field, skating, bowling, snooker, chess, and other sports in the country.
The tourism industry of Afghanistan, developed with government help in the early 1970s, is gradually reviving after the decades of war. A valid passport with visa is required for entrance into Afghanistan. In 1999, the United Nations estimated the daily cost of staying in Kabul at $70 USD.
Afghan Indians are Indian citizens and non-citizen residents born in, or with ancestors from, Afghanistan. Indian Express reported presence of about 18,000 Afghan refugees in India in 2011, citing the foreign ministry.
Alokozay Kabul International Cricket Stadium is a cricket stadium in Kabul, Afghanistan, which opened in 2011 and has a seating capacity of 6,000 spectators. It is the first international cricket stadium to be constructed in the country and is the home of cricket in Afghanistan. The stadium is located very close to the famous Ghazi Stadium. In May 2015, the Alokozay Group of Companies took sponsorship of Afghanistan national cricket team and the stadium.
Ghāzī Amānullāh International Cricket Stadium, Jalalabad is an international standard cricket stadium in Afghanistan. It is located in the heart of Ghazi Amanullah Town, a new suburb of Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province.
Ghāzī Amānullāh Town, also known as Ghazi Amanullah Khan City, is a fully planned modern suburb on the southeastern fringe of Jalalabad in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.
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