Kandahar Province

Last updated

Kandahar City Aerial.jpg
Aerial View of Kandahar City, Aino Mina
Loy kandahar
Kandahar in Afghanistan.svg
Map of Afghanistan with Kandahar highlighted
Coordinates(Capital): 31°00′N65°30′E / 31.0°N 65.5°E / 31.0; 65.5 Coordinates: 31°00′N65°30′E / 31.0°N 65.5°E / 31.0; 65.5
CountryFlag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan
Capital Kandahar
  GovernorRohullah Khanzada [1]
  Total54,844 km2 (21,175 sq mi)
 (2021) [3]
  Density26/km2 (68/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+4:30 (Afghanistan Time)
Area code(s) AF-KAN
Main languages Pashto and Balochi [2]

Kandahār (Pashto: کندھار; Dari: قندهار; Balochi: قندہار; Qandahār) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country, sharing a border with Balochistan, Pakistan to the south. It is surrounded by Helmand in the west, Uruzgan in the north and Zabul Province in the east. Its capital is the city of Kandahar, Afghanistan's second largest city, which is located on the Arghandab River. The greater region surrounding the province is called Loy Kandahar.


The province contains about 18 districts, over 1,000 villages, and approximately 1,431,876 people (the 6th most populous province), which is mostly tribal and a rural society. [3] The main inhabitants of Kandahar province are the ethnic Pashtuns followed by Baloch, Hazaras and Tajiks. [4]


There is speculation revolving around the origin of the name "Kandahar". It is believed to have started as one of many cities named after the Hellenistic conqueror Alexander the Great throughout his vast (mainly ex-Achaemenid) empire, its present form deriving from the Pashto rendering of Arabic Iskandariya = Ancient Alexandria (in Arachosia). [5]

A temple to the deified Alexander as well as an inscription in Greek and Aramaic by the emperor Ashoka, who lived a few decades later, have been discovered in the old citadel. [6]


Excavations of prehistoric sites by archaeologists such as Louis Dupree and others suggest that the region around Kandahar is one of the oldest human settlements known so far.

"...Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan ca. 5000 B.C., or 7000 years ago. Deh Morasi Ghundai, the first prehistoric site to be excavated in Afghanistan, lies 27 km (17 mi.) southwest of Kandahar (Dupree, 1951). Another Bronze Age village mound site with multiroomed mud-brick buildings dating from the same period sits nearby at Said Qala (J. Shaffer, 1970). Second millennium B.C. Bronze Age pottery, copper and bronze horse trappings and stone seals were found in the lowermost levels in the nearby cave called Shamshir Ghar (Dupree, 1950). In the Seistan, southwest of these Kandahar sites, two teams of American archaeologists discovered sites relating to the 2nd millennium B.C. (G. Dales, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 1969, 1971; W, Trousdale, Smithsonian Institution, 1971 – 76). Stylistically the finds from Deh Morasi and Said Qala tie in with those of pre-Indus Valley sites and with those of comparable age on the Iranian Plateau and in Central Asia, indicating cultural contacts during this very early age..." [7]

N. Dupree

The area was called Arachosia and was a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Asia, which connects Southern, Central and Southwest Asia. It was part of the Medes territory before falling to the Achaemenids. In 330 BC it was invaded by Alexander the Great and became part of the Seleucid Empire following his death. Later it came under the influence of the Indian emperor Ashoka, who erected a pillar there with a bilingual inscription in Greek and Aramaic. The territory was ruled by the Zunbils before Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate arrived in the 7th century.

A miniature from Padshahnama depicting the surrender of the Shia Safavid at what is now Old Kandahar in 1638 to the Mughal army of Shah Jahan commanded by Kilij Khan. The Surrender of Kandahar.jpg
A miniature from Padshahnama depicting the surrender of the Shia Safavid at what is now Old Kandahar in 1638 to the Mughal army of Shah Jahan commanded by Kilij Khan.

"The Arabs advanced through Sistan and conquered Sindh early in the eighth century. Elsewhere however their incursions were no more than temporary, and it was not until the rise of the Saffarid dynasty in the ninth century that the frontiers of Islam effectively reached Ghazni and Kabul. Even then a Hindu dynasty the Hindushahis, held Gandhara and eastern borders. From the tenth century onwards as Persian language and culture continued to spread into Afghanistan, the focus of power shifted to Ghazni, where a Turkic dynasty, who started by ruling the town for the Samanid dynasty of Bokhara, proceeded to create an empire in their own right. The greatest of the Ghaznavids was Mahmud, who ruled between 998 and 1030. He expelled the Hindus from Ghandhara." [8]

British and allied forces at Kandahar after the 1880 Battle of Kandahar, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The large defensive wall around the city was finally removed in the early 1930s by the order of King Nader Khan, the father of King Zahir Shah. Kandahar-1881.jpg
British and allied forces at Kandahar after the 1880 Battle of Kandahar, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The large defensive wall around the city was finally removed in the early 1930s by the order of King Nader Khan, the father of King Zahir Shah.

Mahmud of Ghazni made the area part of the Ghaznavids in the 10th century, who were replaced by the Ghurids. After the destructions caused by Genghis Khan in the 13th century, the Timurids established rule and began rebuilding cities. From about 1383 until his death in 1407, Kandahar was governed by Pir Muhammad, a grandson of Timur. By the early 16th century, it fell to Babur briefly. From then on the province was controlled as their easternmost territories by the Shia Safavids, who regularly had wars with the Sunni Mughals -who ruled Qandahar as a short-lived subah (imperial province), bordering Kabul ad Multan subahs, from the 1638 conquest till its loss in 1648 to the great Safavid rival- over the region, until the rise of Mir Wais Hotak in 1709. He rebelled against the Safavids and established the Hotaki dynasty which became a powerful Afghan empire until 1729 when Nader Shah declared war on the Ghilzai rulers. By 1738 the last Hotaki ruler Shah Hussain was defeated in what is now Old Kandahar.

Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founding father of Afghanistan, gained control of the province in 1747 and made the city of Kandahar the capital of his new Afghan Empire. In the 1770s, the capital of the empire was transferred to Kabul. Ahmad Shah Durrani's mausoleum is located in the center of the city.

British-led Indian forces occupied the province during the First Anglo-Afghan War from 1832 to 1842. They also occupied the city during the Second Anglo-Afghan War from 1878 to 1880. It remained peaceful for about 100 years until the late 1970s.

Afghan National Army at the Regional Military Training Center (RMTC) in 2011. ANA graduation at Kandahar in January 2011.jpg
Afghan National Army at the Regional Military Training Center (RMTC) in 2011.

During the Soviet occupation of 1979 to 1989, Kandahar province witnessed many fights between Soviet and local Mujahideen rebels. After the Soviet withdrawal the city fell to Gul Agha Sherzai, who became a powerful warlord and controlled the province.

At the end of 1994, the Taliban took over the area and set out to conquer the rest of Afghanistan. Since the removal of the Taliban government in late 2001, Kandahar again came under the control of Gul Agha Sherzai. He was replaced in 2003 by Yousef Pashtun followed by Asadullah Khalid and others. In the meantime, the United States established bases in the province. The various soldiers of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) are also housed in the bases. The main base is at Kandahar International Airport. Their main objective is to train the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) as well as build government institutions and assist the local population.

In spring 2010, the province as well as its capital city became a target of American operations following Operation Moshtarak in neighboring Helmand province. [9] Kandahar has been the site of much of the violence in the War on Terror in Afghanistan. That year Kandahar was known as "the most dangerous, most unmerciful area of the country." [10]

Politics and governance

Tooryalai Wesa with U.S. Ambassador Ryan Crocker in 2012 Wesa and Crocker in 2012.jpg
Tooryalai Wesa with U.S. Ambassador Ryan Crocker in 2012

Rohullah Khanzada is the current governor of the province. [1] His predecessor was Hayatullah Hayat. Gul Agha Sherzai was governor of the province before and after the Taliban five-year government. In early 2003, then-President Hamid Karzai transferred Sherzai from Kandahar to Jalalabad as Governor of Nangarhar Province. Sherzai was replaced by Yousef Pashtun in Kandahar.

In 2005, when Karzai won the first Afghan Presidential Elections, he appointed Yousef Pashtun as the Minister of Urban Development. After Pashtun, Asadullah Khalid governed the province until the appointment of Rahmatullah Raufi in August 2008. [11] Raufi was replaced by Toryalai Wesa in December 2008.


According to the National Statistics and Information Authority (NSIA), the total population of the province was estimated at 1,431,876. [3] Pashtuns make up the majority in province, followed by Baloch, Hazaras and Tajiks. [4] The main language spoken throughout the province is Pashto and Balochi. [2] Dari is also understood by some, especially in the city of Kandahar where learning of Dari as a second language is promoted in public schools. [12]

A gathering of tribal leaders in Kandahar. Tribal and religious leaders in southern Afghanistan.jpg
A gathering of tribal leaders in Kandahar.


The main tribes in the province are as follows: [13]

District information

Ethnolinguistic groups in Afghanistan US Army ethnolinguistic map of Afghanistan -- circa 2001-09.jpg
Ethnolinguistic groups in Afghanistan
Districts of Kandahar. Kandahar districts.png
Districts of Kandahar.
Districts of Kandahar Province
DistrictCapitalPopulation [3] AreaNumber of villages and ethnic groups
Arghandab 70,016578 km279 villages. Pashtun
Arghistan 38,9283,908 km2Pashtun [14]
Daman 39,193 [15]
Ghorak 10,8951,503 km2Pashtun [16]
Kandahar Kandahar 632,601Pashtun, Baloch, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek. [12]
Khakrez 25,7741,616 km2Pashtun [17]
Maruf 37,3333,191 km2Pashtun [18]
Maywand 66,2972,858 km2160 villages. 95% Pashtun and 5% other. [19]
Miyanishin 17,006917 km2Pashtun [20]
Nesh 15,1461,302 km2Pashtun [21]
Panjwayi 98,448Pashtun [12]
Reg 10,097Baloch and Pashtun
Shah Wali Kot 49,025Pashtun
Shorabak 13,020Pashtun and Baloch
Spin Boldak 113,727Pashtun
Zhari 96,987Pashtun
Dand 50,752Pashtun

Transport and economy

A Kam Air passenger plane at Kandahar International Airport in 2012 Kam Air at Kandahar International Airport in 2012.jpg
A Kam Air passenger plane at Kandahar International Airport in 2012

The Ahmad Shah Baba International Airport is located east of the city of Kandahar. It is for civilian and military use. It serves the population of southern Afghanistan by providing domestic flights to other cities and international flights to Dubai, Pakistan, Iran and other regional countries. The airport was built by the United States in the 1960s under the United States Agency for International Development program. It was later used by Soviet and Afghan forces during the 1980s and again during the 2001–present NATO-led war. The airport was upgraded and expanded during the last decade by the United States Army Corps of Engineers.

There is currently no rail service but reports indicate that at least one will be built between the city of Kandahar and the border town of Spin Boldak in the south, which will then connect with Pakistan Railways. [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] Ground transport of goods is done by trucks and cars. A number of important roads run through the province and this helps the area's economy. The town of Spin Boldak serves as a major transporting, shipping, and receiving site. It is being developed so that trade with neighboring Pakistan increases.

Kandahar province has bus services to major towns and village headquarters. Its capital, Kandahar, used to have a city bus service that took commuters on daily routes to different destinations throughout the city. There are taxicabs that provide transportation service inside the city as well as throughout the province. Other traditional methods of ground transportation are also used. Private vehicles are on the rise in the country, with large showrooms selling new or second-hand vehicles imported from the United Arab Emirates. More people are buying new cars as the roads and highways are being improved.

Kandahar has been known for having well-irrigated gardens and orchards, and was famous for its grapes, melons, and pomegranates. The main source of trade is to Pakistan, Iran and other regional countries. Kandahar is an agricultural area and several of the districts are irrigated by the Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority. [29] The Dahla Dam is located in the province, north of the city of Kandahar.


The Kandahar Regional Military Hospital on Camp Hero opened its doors in 2007. Air Force Mentors Help Build Afghan National Army Medical Capability DVIDS131822.jpg
The Kandahar Regional Military Hospital on Camp Hero opened its doors in 2007.

There are a number of hospitals in the province, most of them in the city of Kandahar. They include Aino Mina Hospital, Al Farhad Hospital, Ayoubi Hospital, Mirwais Hospital, Mohmand Hospital, [30] Sial Curative Hospital and Sidal Hospital.


A Kandahar University student sweeping the sidewalk in June 2012. Kandahar PRT site survey at Kandahar University.jpg
A Kandahar University student sweeping the sidewalk in June 2012.

Kandahar University is one of the largest educational institutions in the province. It has over 5,000 students, about 300 of which are female students. [31] In partnership with the Asia Foundation, Kandahar University conducted a pilot project that provided female high school graduates with a four-month refresher course to prepare for the college entrance examination. The university is one of two universities in Kandahar that serve all of southern Afghanistan. The conditions in the university are poor but improving slowly. Kandahar University is far behind many of the other universities in the country because of insecurity and shortage of funding,

There are approximately 377 public and private schools in Kandahar province. The total number of students is 362,000. Of this, 79,000 are female students. Due to insecurity and other issues, many female students drop out before obtaining a diploma. [32] Almost 150 educational institutes were closed in the past, according to the education ministry. Some of the well known public schools in Kandahar are Ahmad Shah Baba High School, Mahmud Tarzi High School, Mirwais Hotak High School, Nazo Ana High School, Shah Mahmud Hotak High School, and Zarghuna Ana High School. Private schools include Afghan Turk High Schools.

Notable people from Kandahar Province

Royalty and statesmen
Other politics, generals and administration

See also

Related Research Articles

Durrani Empire Afghan empire founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani

The Durrani Empire, also called the Sadozai Kingdom and the Afghan Empire, was an Afghan empire founded and built by Ahmad Shah Abdali in parts of Central Asia, the Middle East and South Asia. At its maximum extent, the empire ruled over the modern-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as parts of northeastern and southeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India.

History of Afghanistan Historical development of Afghanistan

The history of Afghanistan as a state began in 1880 with its establishment following the end of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The written recorded history of the land presently constituting Afghanistan can be traced back to around 500 BCE when the area was under the Achaemenid Empire, although evidence indicates that an advanced degree of urbanized culture has existed in the land since between 3000 and 2000 BCE. Bactria dates back to 2500 BC. The Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up to large parts of Afghanistan in the north. Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army arrived at what is now Afghanistan in 330 BCE after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire during the Battle of Gaugamela. Since then, many empires have risen from Afghanistan, including the Greco-Bactrians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Timurids, Mughals, Hotakis and Durranis.

Kandahar City in Afghanistan

Kandahar is a city in Afghanistan, located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of 1,010 m (3,310 ft). It is Afghanistan's second largest city after Kabul, with a population of about 614,118. It is the capital of Kandahar Province and also the center of the larger cultural region called Loy Kandahar. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar into the capital of the Hotak dynasty. In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Durrani dynasty, made Kandahar the capital of the Afghan Empire.

Pashtuns Ethnolinguistic group native to South and Central Asia

Pashtuns, historically known as Afghans, are an Iranian ethnic group native to Central and South Asia.

Pashtunistan historical region inhabited by the Pashtun people

Pashtunistan is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based. Alternative names historically used for the region include "Pashtūnkhwā" (پښتونخوا) and "Afghānistān" (افغانستان), since at least the 3rd century CE onward. Pashtunistan borders Iran to the west, Persian and Turkic-speaking areas of Turkestan region to the north, Kashmir to the northeast, Punjab to the east, and Balochistan to the south.

Gul Agha Sherzai

Gul Agha Sherzai, also known as Mohammad Shafiq, is a politician in Afghanistan. He is the former governor of Nangarhar province in eastern Afghanistan. He previously served as Governor of Kandahar province, in the early 1990s and from 2001 until 2003. In October 2013, Sherzai resigned from his post as governor and formally announced himself as a candidate for Afghanistan's 2014 Presidential Election. He is presently the minister of border and tribal affairs.

This index list around 14% of all Afghanistan-related articles on Wikipedia.

Farah Province Province of Afghanistan

Farah is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part of the country next to Iran. It is a spacious and sparsely populated province, divided into eleven districts and contains hundreds of villages. It has a population of about 563,026, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural tribal society. The Farah Airport is located near the city of Farah, which serves as the capital of the province. Farah is linked with Iran via the Iranian border town of Mahirud.

Uruzgan Province Province of Afghanistan

Uruzgan, also spelled as Urozgan or Oruzgan, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. Uruzgan is located in the center of the country. The population is 436,079, and the province is mostly a tribal society. Tarinkot serves as the capital of the province.

Durrani Pashtun tribe

The Durrānī formerly known as Abdālī (ابدالي), are one of the largest tribes of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is in southern Afghanistan, straddling into Toba Achakzai in Balochistan, Pakistan, but they are also settled in other parts of Afghanistan and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Farah, Afghanistan City in Farah Province, Afghanistan

Farah is the capital and largest city of Farah Province in western Afghanistan. It is located on the Farah River, close to the border with Iran. It is one of the largest cities of western Afghanistan in terms of population, at 54,000. Farah Airport is located in the area.

Hotak dynasty Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns (1709–1738)

The Hotak dynasty was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns. It was established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak, who led a successful revolution against the declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar in what is now southern Afghanistan.

Durrani dynasty Dynasty of the Afghan Empire

The Durrani dynasty was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies, which at its peak included the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. The Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century.

Mirwais Hotak, was an influential Pashtun from Kandahar, Afghanistan, who was the founder of the Hotak dynasty that existed from 1709 to 1738.

Pashtun tribes Large family units of the Eastern Iranian ethnic groups

The Pashtun tribes, historically also known as Afghan tribes, are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سړبني), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي) and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).

Mohammad Yousef Pashtun is an Afghan Technocrat and Politician, serving as the Senior Adviser to the President of Afghanistan on Construction, Mines, Water & Energy. He previously served as Minister of Urban Development and Housing for two terms and Governor of Kandahar province, in 2003 replacing Gul Agha Sherzai under President Hamid Karzai administration. In 2010, he was appointed as Senior Adviser to President Karzai on Construction, Mines, Water & Energy. In 2014, Minister Pashtun continued to serve as Senior Adviser to President Ashraf Ghani.

Bārakzai is the name of a Pashtun tribe from present-day, Kandahar, Afghanistan. '"Barakzai" is a common name among the Pashtuns and it means "son of Barak" in Pashto. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zirak branch of the Durrani tribe being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people.

Old Kandahar

Old Kandahar is a historical section of the city of Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. It is thought its foundation was laid out by Alexander the Great in 330 BC under the name Alexandria Arachosia. and served as the local seat of power for many rulers in the last 2,000 years. It became part of many empires, including the Mauryans, Indo-Scythians, Sassanids, Arabs, Zunbils, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Timurids, Mughals, Safavids, and others. It was one of the main cities of Arachosia, a historical region sitting in Greater Iran's southeastern lands and was also in contact with the Indus Valley Civilization. The city has been a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Southern Asia and Central Asia, controlling the main trade route linking the Indian subcontinent with the Middle East, the rest of Central Asia and the Persian Gulf.

Lōy Kandahār is a historical and cultural region of Afghanistan, comprising the modern Afghanistan provinces of Kandahar, Helmand, Farah, Uruzgan, as well as parts of Nimruz and Zabul, and the Pashtun majority northern part of Balochistan Province, Pakistan. In 1709, Mirwais Hotak made the region an independent kingdom and turned Kandahar city into the capital of the Hotak dynasty. In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Durrani dynasty, made Kandahar the capital of the Afghan Empire.


  1. 1 2 "Senior Officials Appointed in Kandahar". TOLOnews. January 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  2. 1 2 3 "Name of the Province: Kandahar". Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: President. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Estimated Population of Afghanistan 2021-22" (PDF). nsia.gov.af. National Statistic and Information Authority (NSIA). April 2021. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  4. 1 2 "Kandahar Provincial Overview". Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  5. "Alexander the Great: his towns – Alexandria in Arachosia". Livius.org.
  6. https://www.livius.org/a/pakistan/shahbazgarhi/shahbazgarhi2.html
  7. Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1970). An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. First Edition. Kabul: Afghan Air Authority, Afghan Tourist Organization. p. 492. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  8. Afghanistan: a new history By Martin Ewans Edition: 2, illustrated Published by Routledge, 2002 Page 15 ISBN   0-415-29826-1, ISBN   978-0-415-29826-1
  9. "Kandahar Becomes Battlefield Before a U.S. Offensive"
  10. Alison, Jane (2010-04-01). "Most Dangerous, Most Unmerciful". VQR Online. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  11. Galloway, Gloria (23 August 2008). "Security chief concern for new Kandahar governor". The Globe and Mail.
  12. 1 2 3 هنریار, ارشاد (2019-05-26). "فارسی زبان‌های قندهار؛ پیشتاز زرگری و رای‌گیری". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  13. Afghanistan's Provinces – Kandahar at NPS
  14. "Arghistan District" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  15. "Daman District (Updated DDP)" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  16. "Ghorak District" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  17. "Khakriz District" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  18. "Maruf District" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  19. "Maiwand District" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  20. "Mianishin District" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  21. "Nish District" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  22. https://gulfnews.com/world/asia/pakistan/pakistan-to-launch-train-service-with-afghanistan-1.75690206
  23. https://pajhwok.com/2020/12/05/pakistan-plans-chaman-spin-boldak-rail-link/
  24. https://ariananews.af/pakistan-to-build-railway-line-between-chaman-and-spin-boldak/
  25. https://avapress.com/en/206056/Pakistan-to-build-railway-line-between-Chaman-and-Spin-Boldak
  26. https://www.dawn.com/news/1593915
  27. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/asia-pacific/afghanistan-uzbekistan-pakistan-ink-map-for-rail-link/2131605
  28. https://thediplomat.com/2021/02/whats-behind-the-planned-uzbekistan-afghanistan-pakistan-railway/
  29. "The Helmand Valley Project in Afghanistan: A.I.D. Evaluation Special Study No. 18" (PDF). C. Clapp-Wicek & E. Baldwin, U.S. Agency for International Development. December 1983.
  30. https://mohmandhospital.com/
  31. "Kandahar University Goes Solar". November 3, 2012. Archived from the original on February 18, 2013. Retrieved 2012-11-05.
  32. "Number of girls graduated from Kandahar schools increases". TOLOnews. March 10, 2021. Retrieved 2021-03-10.

Further reading