The Salang Pass during winter
Map of Afghanistan with Parwan highlighted
|• Governor||Mohammad Asim Asim|
|• Total||5,974 km2 (2,307 sq mi)|
|• Density||130/km2 (330/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+4:30 (Afghanistan Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||AF-PAR|
|Main languages||Dari and Pashto|
Parwān (Dari/Pashto: پروان), also spelled Parvān, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 751,000. The province is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society. The province is divided into ten districts. The town of Charikar serves as the provincial capital. The province is located north of Kabul Province and south of Baghlan Province, west of Panjshir Province and Kapisa Province, and east of Wardak Province and Bamyan Province.
The name Parwan is also attributed to a town, the exact location of which is now unknown, that supposedly existed during prehistory, in the nearby Hindu Kush mountains.
Despite a four decade-long state of war in Afghanistan, Parwan was relatively free of conflict by the mid-2010s. While occasional attacks on government or international forces are reported, they are usually minor.[ citation needed ] Such incidents in Parwan mostly involve grenade attacks on the residences of government officials or roadside bombs. Bagram Air Base, which is one of the largest US military bases in Afghanistan, is located in Parwan.
|History of Afghanistan|
|Related historical names of the region|
In 329 BC, Alexander the Great founded the settlement of Parwan as his Alexandria of the Caucasus. It was conquered by Arab Muslims in 792 AD.In 1221, the province was the site of the battle between the invading Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, and the Khwarezmian Empire led by Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, where the Mongols were defeated. The famous Moroccan traveler and scholar, Ibn Battuta, visiting the area in 1333 writes:
"We halted next at a place called Banj Hir (Panjshir), which means "Five Mountains," where there was once a fine and populous city built on a great river with blue water like the sea. This country was devastated by Tinkiz, the king of the Tatars, and has not been inhabited since. We came to a mountain called Pashay, where there is a convent of the Shaykh Ata Awliya, which means "Father of the Saints." He is also called Sisad Salah, which is the Persian for "three hundred years," because they say that he is three hundred and fifty years old. They have a very high opinion of him and come to visit him from the towns and villages, and sultans and princesses visit him too. He received us with honor and made us his guests. We encamped by a river near his convent and went to see him, and when I saluted him he embraced me. His skin is fresh and smoother than any I have seen; anyone seeing him would take him to be fifty years old. He told me that he grew new hair and teeth every hundred years. I had some doubts about him, however, and God knows how much truth there is in what he says. We travelled thence to Parwan, where I met the amir Buruntayh. He treated me well and wrote to his representatives at Ghazna enjoining them to show me honour. We went on to the village of Charkh [Charikar], it being now summer, and from there to the town of Ghazna. This is the town of the famous warrior-sultan Mahmud ibn Sabuktagin, one of the greatest of rulers, who made frequent raids into India and captured cities and fortresses there."— Ibn Battuta, 1304–1369
The area was subsequently ruled by the Timurids and Mughals until Ahmad Shah Durrani made it part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. In 1840, Parwan was the site of a major battle in the First Anglo-Afghan War where the invading British were defeated.Parwan's modern history began with the construction of a new textile factory in the town of Jabal Saraj in 1937. Parwan was involved in the Soviet–Afghan War as some of the fiercest fighting took place in the area. In the 1990s it was the site of heavy resistance against the Taliban.
Since the removal of the Taliban in late 2001, the United States Armed Forces took control of Bagram Air Base and began using it as one of their main bases in Afghanistan. A Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) led by South Korea helped the locals with development activities in the province until 2014.In mid-February 2011, five rocket-propelled grenades hit the newly built South Korean military base housing the provincial reconstruction team and civilian aid workers. No one was injured in the attack, but it came hours after a visit by South Korean Defense Minister Kim Kwan-jin, raising suspicions of Taliban involvement. The opening ceremony of the base was postponed indefinitely.
A plan to build a power plant in the province is under consideration. A large portion of Parwan's economy relies on remittances from the Afghan diaspora living abroad.
In July 2012, the Taliban executed a married woman in front of a large crowd after she was found guilty of adultery.It was reported that the woman had a secret affair with a married military commander of the Afghan National Army.
The current governor of the province is Mohammad Asim Asim. The city of Charikar is the capital of the province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are handled by the Afghan National Police (ANP). The provincial police chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by other Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), including the NATO-led forces.
The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 32% in 2005 to 11% in 2011.The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 4% in 2005 to 7% in 2011.
The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) fell from 37% in 2005 to 28% in 2011.The overall net enrolment rate (6–13 years of age) increased from 42% in 2005 to 54% in 2011.
As of 2020, the total population of the province is about 751,000,which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society.
According to the Naval Postgraduate School, the ethnic groups of the province are as follows: Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Pashtuns, Kuchis and other minority groups.
According to Afghanistan's Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development:
Around three quarters (73%) of the population of Parwan lives in rural districts, while one quarter (27%) lives in urban areas, Around 50% of the population is male and 50% is female. Dari and Pashto are the main languages spoken in the province; however Dari speakers outnumber Pashto speakers by a ratio of 5 to 2.Parwan province also has a population of Kuchis or nomads whose numbers vary in different seasons. In winter 30,290 Kuchi live in Parwan province, of which 66% are short-range migratory and the remaining 34% are long-range migratory. During the summer, Kuchi migrate to Parwan province from Laghman, Kapisa, Baghlan and to a lesser extent from Kabul, Nangarhar and Kunar. The Kuchi population in the summer is 121,517 individuals.
Ghazni, historically known as Ghaznin (غزنين) or Ghazna (غزنه) and also transliterated as Ghuznee, is a city in southeastern Afghanistan with a population of around 190,000 people. The city is strategically located along Highway 1, which has served as the main road between Kabul and Kandahar for thousands of years. Situated on a plateau at 2,219 metres (7,280 ft) above sea level, the city is 150 kilometres (93 mi) south of Kabul and is the capital of Ghazni Province.
Bagram is a town and seat in Bagram District in Parwan Province of Afghanistan, about 25 kilometers north of the capital Kabul. It is the site of an ancient city located at the junction of the Ghorband and Panjshir Valley, near today's city of Charikar, Afghanistan. The location of this historical town made it a key passage from Ancient India along the Silk Road, leading westwards through the mountains towards Bamiyan, and north over the Kushan Pass to the Baghlan Valley and past the Kushan archeological site at Surkh Kotal, to the commercial centre of Balkh and the rest of northern Afghanistan.
Kunduz or Qunduz is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northern part of the country next to Tajikistan. The population of the province is around 1,136,677, which is mostly a tribal society; it is one of Afghanistan's most ethnically diverse provinces with many different ethnicities in large numbers living there. The city of Kunduz serves as the capital of the province. It borders the provinces of Takhar, Baghlan, Samangan and Balkh, as well as the Khatlon Region of Tajikistan. The Kunduz Airport is located next to the provincial capital.
Bamyan Province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central highlands of the country. Its terrain is mountainous or semi-mountainous, at the western end of the Hindu Kush mountains concurrent with the Himalayas. The province is divided into eight districts, with the town of Bamyan serving as its capital. The province has a population of about 495,557 and borders Samangan to the north, Baghlan, Parwan and Wardak to the east, Ghazni and Daykundi to the south, and Ghor and Sar-e Pol to the west. It is the largest province in the Hazarajat region of Afghanistan, and is the cultural capital of the Hazara ethnic group that predominates in the area.
Farah is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part of the country next to Iran. It is a spacious and sparsely populated province, divided into eleven districts and contains hundreds of villages. It has a population of about 563,026, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural tribal society. The Farah Airport is located near the city of Farah, which serves as the capital of the province. Farah is linked with Iran via the Iranian border town of Mahirud.
Ghazni is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in southeastern Afghanistan. The province contains 19 districts, encompassing over a thousand villages and roughly 1.3 million people, making it the 5th most populous province. The city of Ghazni serves as the capital. It lies on the important Kabul–Kandahar Highway, and has historically functioned as an important trade center. The Ghazni Airport is located next to the city of Ghazni and provides limited domestic flights to Afghanistan's capital, Kabul.
Kapisa is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. Located in the north-east of the country. The population of Kapisa is estimated to be 496,840, although there has never been an official estimate. The province covers an area of 1,842 km2 making it the smallest province in the country, however it is the most densely populated province apart from Kabul Province. It borders Panjshir Province to the north, Laghman Province to the east, Kabul Province to the south and Parwan Province to the west. Mahmud-i-Raqi is the provincial capital, while the most populous city and district of Kapisa is Nijrab.
Nimruz or Nimroz is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part of the country. It lies to the east of the Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran and north of Balochistan, Pakistan, also bordering the Afghan provinces of Farah and Helmand. It has a population of about 186,963 people. The province is divided into five districts, encompassing about 649 villages.
Samangan is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located north of the Hindu Kush mountains in the central part of the country. The province covers 11,218 square kilometres (4,331 sq mi) and is surrounded by Sar-e Pol Province in the west, Balkh in the north, Baghlan in the east, and Bamyan in the south.
Takhar is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeast of the country next to Tajikistan. It is surrounded by Badakhshan in the east, Panjshir in the south, and Baghlan and Kunduz in the west. The city of Taloqan serves as its capital.
Maidan Wardak Province, also called Maidan Wardag or Wardak, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central region of Afghanistan. It is divided into eight districts and has a population of approximately 671,817. The capital of the province is Maidan Shar, while the most populous district in the province is Saydabad District.
Panjshir is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country. The province is divided into eightdistricts and contains 512 villages. As of 2021, the population of Panjshir province was about 173,000. Bazarak serves as the provincial capital.
Charikar is the main town of the Koh Daman Valley and the capital of Parwan Province in northern Afghanistan. It has a population of around 171,200, which is majority Tajik populated.
Puli Hisar or Pul-e-Hesar is a district in Baghlan Province, Afghanistan. It was created in 2005 from part of Andarab District.
The Panjshir River flows through the Panjshir Valley in northeastern Afghanistan, 150 kilometres (93 mi) north of Kabul. Its main tributary is the Ghorband River which flows from the Parwan Province and joins the Panjshir River 10 km east of Charikar in Bagram District. The Panjshir River takes its source near the Anjuman Pass and flows southward through the Hindu Kush and joins the Kabul River at the town of Surobi. A dam was built on the Panjshir River near Surobi in the 1950s to supply water from the Panjshir River to the Kabul River. There is just one permanent bridge on Panjshir river that provides access to Bagram Airport. On 12 July 2018, there was a flood in Panjshir valley in which ten people were killed.
Kohistan, also transliterated Kuhistan, Kuhiston, is the northern district of Kapisa province, Afghanistan. In productive agricultural seasons the area has an abundance of sweet mulberries, grapes, apricots and pomegranates. Yearly thousands of visitors spend their weekends in its picnic place of Sayaad along the Panjshir river that flows into Sourubi lake. The population was 100,200 (2006), mainly Persian-speaking Tājik people.
The Ghorband River is a river of Afghanistan, flowing through Parwan Province. It is a tributary of the Panjshir River, then a sub-tributary of the Indus River, then the Kabul River.
Lists of Afghan provincial governors include a list of the current governors of provinces of Afghanistan, a list of governors appointed by the Taliban, and lists of governors of each province.
The COVID-19 pandemic in Afghanistan is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The virus was confirmed to have spread to Afghanistan when its index case, in Herat, was confirmed on 24 February 2020.
This article documents the timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic in Afghanistan.
Dari and Pashto are the main languages spoken in the province; however Dari speakers outnumber Pashto speakers by a ratio of 5 to 2.
The population of approximately 560,000 is composed of Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek, Qizilbash, Kuchi, Hazara, Turkmen and other minority groups.
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