Mohmand

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The Mohmand (Pashto : مومند) or Momand tribe is one of the most prominent Pashtun tribes. They are descended from the 1st Son of Daulatyar and 2nd son, Daudzai, according to Pashtun historical literature. They are based primarily in the eastern districts of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, and the Mohmand district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan , bordering Nangarhar to the east.

Contents

Most members of the Mohmand tribe speak a northern variety of Pashto. Rahman Baba, Abdul Hamid Baba one of the most popular Pashto poets, and Abdul Ahad Mohmand, the first Afghan astronaut, belonged to the Mohmand tribe.

History

The Momands Ghoryakhel originally lived in present-day Mohmand region, Kandahar, Ghazni, Ghor, and between the basins of the Tarnak river, Oxus river and Indus river for centuries along the present Pak-Afghan border.

The Momand are historically known for the resistance against outside forces. From 1672 to 1676, the Momand, under the leadership of Aimal Khan Momand, rebelled and fought deadly wars against the Mughal Army. [1] When Peshawar was annexed formally by the British, the area that comprises the present Mohmand agency was ruled by the local tribesmen and was under the influence of Khan of Lalpura, the Present Khan of lalpura is Khan Tahir Zaman Khan Mohmand. Lal Pur District. The Safis were under the control of Khans of Bajaur and the Utmankhels were independent of any Khanate. [2]

The Momands fought many times against the British India and other foreign invasion. The area of the Mohmands may be defined roughly as bounded on the East by Charsadda, and Peshawar Dist in present Pakistan. On the North by Bajour Agency; on the West by Nangarhar (Afghanistan) and on the South by the Khyber Agency; The area of Mohmand is about 1200 sq. m. The Durand line boundary line now runs through the Mohmand area. The Emir of Afghanistan in 1893 gave assurances to the Burhan Khel, Dawezai, Halimzai, Isa Khel, Tarangzai and Utmanzai sections of the Mohmands that they will not suffer by the severance of their ancient connection with Afghanistan; and these are known as the Assured Clans. Mohmands live in Afghanistan, primarily in Nangarhar, Ghazni, Kunar, Logar and Kunduz, and in Pakistan as well. Many of them live in Mohmands village of Pul-e-Jogi of Braki Brak District. Pul-e-Jogi is 10 minutes drive from Wardak Province. Likewise, Mohmand live in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan, particularly Mohmand Agency. Many people of cast Mohmand migrated to India. Among them were 12 brothers who formed a tribe known as Barabasti. The people of Barah Basti are known to Mohmands and their sub clan Daud Zai. [3]

In May 2018, Mohmand tribal elders condemned the merger of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and were supporters of a separate province Qabailistan. [4]

Principal clans

The major tribes in Mohmand agency are:

The central bazaar of Mohmand is Gandhab and locally known as Ghandao Bazaar. The Tarakzai are concentrated in the lower Mohmand from Ekka Ghund to Michanai up to Daudzai. They are a well-educated tribe settled at the gate of the Mohmand Agency. The sub-tribes of the Tarak Zai are Morcha Khel, Dado Khel, Qasim Khel, Bran Khel and Issa Khel.

The Marchakhel family, a sub-tribe of the Tarak Zai Mohmands (Dado khel), is a well-known family from Lal Pur. "Khan kor" ( Royal Family of khan), a sub-tribe of the Marchakhel Mohmands, are among the most powerful Mohmands. The Khan was regarded as the king of Mohmands by many famous Afghans such as Amir Sher Ali Khan of Afghanistan. Khan had Khani over all the Mohmands and continues to have influence over Lal Pur. Most Murchakhel now live in Pakistan. Most influential members of the Royal family of Lalpura are Khan Haider Zaman Mohmand Late, Khan Tahir Zaman Mohamnd, Dost Muhammad Khan, Gohar Zaman Khan, Asad Zaman Khan, Ghulam hussain khanKhan Turan Zaman Khan and Latif Jan

Lal Pur was a famous trade route. The Khan would collect taxes from the traders. Lal Pur was considered a kingdom. The Khans fought frequently with the British during the Afghan wars. Saadat khan of Lal Pur was the father-in-law of Amir of Afghanistan and was the grandfather of the famous Amir Ayub Khan of Afghanistan, also known as "The Victor of Maiwand" or "The Afghan Prince Charlie".

The Marchakhel was the chief of Mohmands and had influence over all Mohmand tribes except the Safi Mohmand which were under the influence of khan of Bajawar. Marchakhels ruled over all Mohmands. Marchakhels rule was from Lal Pur, Afghanistan to Peshawar, Pakistan. [2]

Peshawar

Mohmands living in different villages in south of Peshawar. Their leaders are call by Malik or Arbab. Arbab residing in Landi Arbab Peshawar are known as Mohmand tribe and there villages from Badaber, Kagawala, Masrezai, Surizai, Sulimankhel, Bazidkhel, Mashokhel, Masho gagar, Sheikhan, Matani, Adezai, Pasani, Hazaar Khwanay, Bahadur Kalay, etc. and the surrounding area; the last village is Landi Arbab. There are five main sub divisions of the Momand tribe living an above villages of Peshawar. Rahman BaBa Shrine is in Bahadar Kalay Peshawar and he was Momand Ghoryakhel and that village is Momand tribe. [ citation needed ]

Rivers

The Kabul River and Swat River are the two rivers that pass through the area of the Lower Mohmand. The Kabul River forms the boundary between the Khyber and Mohmand agencies after entry into Pakistan territory. The flow of the water is from the west towards the east. On entry into Pakistan territory, the course of the Kabul River is through high mountains gorges till after it passes through the Warsak Dam, where after it starts running through the Peshawar valley area. The Swat river flows from the north towards south after entering the agency limits from the Malakand and passes through the area of Prang Ghar/Pindiali Tehsil. The course of this river is also through mountainous territory till it reaches the Munda Headworks wherefrom it starts running through the plains. [ citation needed ]

Climate

The climate in Mohmand agency is hot in summer season while cool in winter. The summer season commences from May and continues for 4 months till 31 August. The winter season starts from November and continue till February. The rainfall is scanty. Most of the rainfall is during winter season.[ citation needed ]

Occupations

The sources of income are very limited in general except agriculture and some trade/business. Most of the locals are earning their livelihood in the Gulf States.[ citation needed ]

Places of interest

Warsak Hydel Power station is situated on the river Kabul about 32.2 km from Peshawar. The construction of the project was started in 1955 and the power station was commissioned in 1960. Before commissioning of Mangla Power station, it was one of the major sources of power.

Mohmand dam is being constructed on Swat River to the east of the agency which is an ideal site for a hydro power station. The Prime Minister Imran Khan initiated the project in May 2019.

Gandab valley

This historic valley is situated in the Mohmand agency and shoots forth in the north- west direction from Pir Killa, a village on the main Michni Shabqadar road, and 32 km to the north of Peshawar. It runs parallel to a dry bed of a nullah; it is inhabited by the Halim zai section of the Mohmand tribe.

Notable Mohmands

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References

  1. Momand, Ahmad Gul. The Bare Language of Khoshal's Poetry. Nangarhar University. p. 13.
  2. 1 2 http://waziristanhills.com/FATA/AgenciesFRs/MohmandAgency/tabid/78/language/en-GB/Default.as%5B%5D
  3. http://www.barahbasti.org/Shajrah_BarahBasti_Afghanan.pdf
  4. Mohmand, Mureeb (2018-05-29). "Aftermath: Mohmand tribe opposes Fata, K-P merger". The Express Tribune . Pakistan. Retrieved 2018-05-29.