Irish Guards

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Irish Guards
Irish Guards badge.png
Capstar of the Irish Guards
Active1 April 1900 – present
CountryFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Type Foot Guards
Role1st Battalion – Light Role Infantry
Size1 Battalion
Part of 11th Infantry Brigade and Headquarters South East
Garrison/HQRHQ — London
1st Battalion Cavalry Barracks, Hounslow
Nickname(s)The Micks
Bob's Own
Motto(s)"Quis Separabit" (Latin)
"Who Shall Separate Us?"
MarchQuick – St Patrick's Day
Slow – Let Erin Remember
Mascot(s) Irish Wolfhound.
Commanders
Current
commander
Lieutenant Colonel R P Money
Colonel in Chief Elizabeth II
Colonel of
the Regiment
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge KG, KT, PC, ADC
Insignia
Tactical Recognition Flash GuardsTRF.svg
Tartan Saffron (pipes)
Plume St. Patrick's blue
Right side of Bearskin cap
AbbreviationIG

The Irish Guards (IG), part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army and, together with the Royal Irish Regiment, it is one of the two Irish infantry regiments in the British Army. [1] [2] The regiment has participated in campaigns in the First World War, the Second World War, the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan as well as numerous other operations throughout its history. The Irish Guards claim six Victoria Cross recipients, four from the First World War and two from the Second World War.

Contents

One way to distinguish between the five regiments of Foot Guards is the spacing of the buttons on their tunics. The Irish Guards have buttons arranged in fours as they were the fourth Foot Guards regiment to be founded. They also have a prominent St. Patrick's blue plume on the right side of their bearskins. [3]

History

The Irish Guards were formed on 1 April 1900 by order of Queen Victoria to commemorate the Irishmen who fought in the Second Boer War for the British Empire. [4] [5]

First World War

1st Battalion, Irish Guards prepare to leave Wellington Barracks, Westminster, London, following the outbreak of the First World War, 6 August 1914. The Battalion arrived in France as part of the British Expeditionary Force on 13 August 1914. Irish Guards leave for France.jpg
1st Battalion, Irish Guards prepare to leave Wellington Barracks, Westminster, London, following the outbreak of the First World War, 6 August 1914. The Battalion arrived in France as part of the British Expeditionary Force on 13 August 1914.

Following the outbreak of the First World War, 1st Battalion Irish Guards was deployed to France almost immediately, and they remained on the Western Front for the duration of the war. During the early part of the war, the Battalion took part in the Battle of Mons and formed the Allied rearguard during the Great Retreat. The Battalion then took part in one of the bloodiest battles of 1914, the First Battle of Ypres, which began on 19 October, inflicting major casualties among the old Regular Army. [6]

The 1st Battalion was involved in fighting for the duration of 'First Ypres', at Langemarck, Gheluvelt and Nonne Bosschen. The 1st Battalion suffered huge casualties between 1–8 November holding the line against near defeat by German forces, while defending Klein Zillebeke. [6]

In May 1915, the 1st Battalion took part in the Battle of Festubert, though did not see much action. Two further battalions were formed for the regiment in July. In September that year, all three battalions took part in the Battle of Loos, which lasted from 25 September until early October. [7]

The Irish Guards went into action again on 1 July 1916 when the Battle of the Somme began. The 1st Battalion took part in an action at Flers–Courcelette where they suffered severe casualties in the attack in the face of withering fire from the German machine-guns. The Battalion also took part in the action at Morval before they were relieved by the 2nd Battalion. [8]

In 1917 the Irish Guards took part in the Battle of Pilckem which began on 31 July during the Third Battle of Ypres. The Irish Guards also took part in the Battle of Cambrai that year. In 1918 the regiment fought in a number of engagements during the Second Battle of the Somme, including at Arras and Albert. The regiment then went on to take part in a number of battles during the British offensives against the Hindenburg Line. [9] On 11 November 1918 the Armistice with Germany was signed. The 1st Battalion was at Maubeuge when the Armistice was signed. [10]

The regiment's continued existence was threatened briefly when Winston Churchill, who served as Secretary of State for War between 1919 and 1921, sought the elimination of the Irish Guards and Welsh Guards as an economy measure. This proposal, however, did not find favour in government or army circles and was dropped. Between the wars, the regiment was deployed at various times to Turkey, Gibraltar, Egypt and Palestine. [11]

Second World War

Guardsmen of the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards, advancing north of Anzio, Italy, 25 January 1944. The British Army in Italy 1944 NA11445.jpg
Guardsmen of the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards, advancing north of Anzio, Italy, 25 January 1944.

During the Second World War, the regiment fought in Norway, France, North Africa, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany. The regiment first saw combat during the Norwegian Campaign. Following a challenging sea voyage to Norway, the 1st Battalion arrived in May 1940 and fought for two days at the town of Pothus before they were forced to retreat. The Irish Guards conducted a fighting withdrawal and served as the Allied rearguard. [12]

The Battalion was evacuated along with the rest of the expeditionary force in June. While the 1st Battalion was fighting in Norway, the 2nd Battalion was deployed to the Hook of Holland to cover the evacuation of the Dutch Royal Family and Government in May 1940. The 2nd Battalion was then deployed to France and ordered to defend the port of Boulogne. The guardsmen held out against overwhelming odds for three days, buying valuable time for the Dunkirk Evacuation, before they were evacuated themselves. [13] In November 1942, during the Second World War, Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg joined the British Army as a volunteer in the Irish Guards. [14]

In March 1943 the 1st Battalion landed, with the rest of the 24th Guards Brigade, in Tunisia, to fight in the final stages of the campaign in North Africa. The Battalion saw extensive action while fighting through Tunisia and was subsequently deployed to the Italian Front in December of that year. The Battalion took part in the Anzio landings on 22 January 1944. [15] They also participated in the fierce fighting around the Allied beachhead and suffered severe casualties fighting off a German counterattack at Campoleone after which the depleted battalion was returned to the UK in April. [16]

Two Irish Guardsmen and a camouflaged Sherman Firefly guard a section of the Bremen-Hamburg autobahn, 20 April 1945. The British Army in North-west Europe 1944-45 BU4157.jpg
Two Irish Guardsmen and a camouflaged Sherman Firefly guard a section of the Bremen-Hamburg autobahn, 20 April 1945.

The Irish Guards returned to France in June 1944 when the 2nd and 3rd Battalions took part in the Normandy Campaign. Both battalions served as part of the Guards Armoured Division and took part in the attempt to capture Caen as part of Operation Goodwood. They also saw action in the Mont Pincon area. On 29 August, the 3rd Battalion crossed the Seine and began the advance into Belgium with the rest of the Guards Armoured Division towards Brussels. [17]

The Irish Guards were part of the ground force of Operation Market Garden, 'Market' being the airborne assault and 'Garden' the ground attack. [18] The Irish Guards led the vanguard of XXX Corps in their advance towards Arnhem, which was the objective of the British 1st Airborne Division, furthest from XXX Corps' start line. The Corps crossed the Belgian-Dutch border, advancing from Neerpelt on 17 September but the Irish Guards encountered heavy resistance which slowed the advance. [19] Following the conclusion of Market Garden, the Irish Guards remained in the Netherlands until taking part in the Allied advance into Germany and seeing heavy action during the Rhineland Campaign with Guardsman Edward Charlton winning the final Victoria Cross to be awarded in the European theatre. [20]

1945 - 2019

1st Battalion, Irish Guards Brigade Advisory Group move on patrol with Afghan National Army soldier during Operation Omid Shash in Gereshk, Helmand province. Irish Guards advisors note Afghan army progress in Helmand province DVIDS369492.jpg
1st Battalion, Irish Guards Brigade Advisory Group move on patrol with Afghan National Army soldier during Operation Omid Shash in Gereshk, Helmand province.

After the war, the regiment was reduced to a single battalion. In 1947, the 1st Battalion deployed to Palestine to perform internal security duties there. It was then posted to the Suez Canal Zone in Egypt, remaining there until the British withdrawal in 1956. The regiment continued to serve in troubled regions such as Cyprus and Aden throughout the 1950s and 1960s. During this time they were also part of the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) in Germany on a number of occasions. They also served as the garrison of Hong Kong from 1970 to 1972. [21]

The Irish Guards were one of the few regiments in the British Army initially exempt from service in Northern Ireland during The Troubles. However, a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb blasted a bus carrying members of the regiment band to Chelsea Barracks in October 1981. [22] [23] 39 people (23 soldiers and 16 others) were wounded and two civilians were killed. [24] [25] 1992 saw the regiment finally carry out its first tour-of-duty in Northern Ireland, based in County Fermanagh. [21]

Irish Guards during a training exercise in Belize. Win the Firefight MOD 45162915.jpg
Irish Guards during a training exercise in Belize.

More recently, the Irish Guards were involved in the Balkans Conflicts when they were deployed to Macedonia and Kosovo in 1999 and were the first British unit to enter the Kosovan capital city of Pristina on 12 June. The regiment played a significant role in the initial stages of the Iraq War as part of the 7th Armoured Brigade and they led the British advance into Basra in March 2003. [26] The Irish Guards deployed to Iraq on Operation Telic 10 in 2007. [27] In 2010, the regiment deployed on their first tour of duty to Afghanistan. [28] Number 2 Company deployed to Afghanistan in 2013 as a Brigade Operations Company. [29] [30]

In 2014 the entire regiment deployed to Cyprus to patrol the buffer zone as part of Operation Tosca 20. [31] Following the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing, the Irish Guards were deployed in London to guard key locations, including the Ministry of Defence building in Whitehall, as part of Operation Temperer. [32] Later that year Number 1 Company deployed to the Falkland Islands as the Roulement Infantry Company while Number 2 Company deployed to Thailand on an overseas training exercise where they worked alongside the Thai Army. [33]

2019/20

December 2019 saw the Irish Guards deploy on two operations concurrently. Number 1 Company deployed to South Sudan on Operation Trenton and the rest of the Battalion deployed to Iraq on Operation Shader, training Iraqi Security Forces in the mission to defeat Daesh. However, the deployment rapidly changed in January 2020 with the escalation of the 2019–20 Persian Gulf crisis following the American strike on Major General Qasem Soleimani. The Irish Guards' mission changed from training to force protection in order to protect British assets in Iraq from possible retaliation by Iran. Eventual de-escalation saw the Irish Guards resume their original mission. [34] [35]

As a result of the Army 2020 Refine reforms, the Irish Guards are in the process of relocating from Cavalry Barracks, Hounslow to Mons Barracks at Aldershot Garrison. [36] [37] [38]

Current role and organisation

The 1st Battalion Irish Guards is broken down into five separate Companies; No 1, No 2, No 3 and No 4 Companies, along with the Headquarters Company. [39]

Recruitment

Although restrictions in Ireland's Defence Act make it illegal to induce, procure or persuade enlistment of any citizen of Ireland into the military of another state, [40] people from the Republic do frequently enlist in the Regiment. [41]

Uniform

1st Battalion Irish Guards are pictured lining up on parade during a State Visit by the President of Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Irish Guards lining up in a parade.jpg
1st Battalion Irish Guards are pictured lining up on parade during a State Visit by the President of Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono

Like the other Guards regiments, the "Home Service Dress" of the Irish Guards is a scarlet tunic and bearskin. Buttons are worn in fours, reflecting the regiment's position as the fourth most senior Guards regiment, and the collar is adorned with embroided shamrock. They also sport a St. Patrick's blue plume on the right side of the bearskin. [42]

A plume of St Patrick's blue was selected because blue is the colour of the mantle and sash of the Order of St Patrick, a chivalric order, [43] founded by George III of the United Kingdom for the Kingdom of Ireland in February 1783 [44] from which the regiment also draws its cap star and motto. [45]

Band of the Irish Guards marching into Wellington Barracks following the Queen's Birthday Parade in 2017 Irish Guards Band State Opening of Parliament 2012.jpg
Band of the Irish Guards marching into Wellington Barracks following the Queen's Birthday Parade in 2017

In "Walking-out Dress", the Irish Guards can be identified by the green band on their forage caps. Officers also traditionally carry a blackthorn pace stick. [46]

Prince William wearing an Irish Guards Tunic and Forage Cap at his wedding to Kate Middleton All smiles Wedding of Prince William of Wales and Kate Middleton.jpg
Prince William wearing an Irish Guards Tunic and Forage Cap at his wedding to Kate Middleton

Like the other Guards regiments, they wear a khaki beret with the blue/red/blue Household Division backing patch on it. On the beret, ranks from Guardsman to Lance Sergeant wear a brass or staybrite cap badge, Sergeants and Colour Sergeants wear a bi-metal cap badge, Warrant Officers wear a silver plate gilt and enamel cap badge and commissioned officers of the regiment wear an embroidered cap badge. [47]

The Irish Guards pipers wear saffron kilts, green hose with saffron flashes and heavy black shoes known as brogues with no spats, a rifle green doublet with buttons in fours and a hat known as a caubeen.The regimental capstar is worn over the piper's right eye and is topped by a blue hackle. [48] A green cloak with four silver buttons is worn over the shoulders and is secured by two green straps that cross over the chest. [49]

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who is Colonel of the Irish Guards, wore the uniform of the Irish Guards at his wedding to Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. [50]

Motto

The regiment takes its motto, "Quis Separabit", or "Who shall separate us?" from the Order of St Patrick. [51]

Nickname

The Irish Guards are known affectionately throughout the British Army as "the Micks" or "Fighting Micks." An earlier nickname, "Bob's Own", after Field Marshal Lord Roberts has fallen into disuse. The term "Micks", while generally derogatory in civilian life, is embraced in the context of the Irish Guards' nickname. [5]

Training

Recruits practicing drill on Catterick parade square Helles Barracks Parade Ground - geograph.org.uk - 1192460.jpg
Recruits practicing drill on Catterick parade square

Recruits to the Guards Division go through a thirty-week training programme at the Infantry Training Centre (ITC). The training is two weeks more than the training for the Regular line infantry regiments of the British Army; the extra training, carried out throughout the course, is devoted to drill and ceremonies. [52]

Mascot

Mascot Irish Wolfhound Wolfhound mascot wb.jpg
Mascot Irish Wolfhound

Since 1902, an Irish Wolfhound has been presented as a mascot to the regiment by the Irish Wolfhound Club, who originally hoped the publicity would increase the breed's popularity with the public. The first mascot was called Brian Boru. [53]

In 1961, the wolfhound was admitted to the select club of "official" Army mascots, entitling him to the services of the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, as well as quartering and food at public expense. Originally, the mascot was in the care of a drummer boy, but is now looked after by one of the regiment's drummers and his family. The Irish Guards are the only Guards regiment permitted to have their mascot lead them on parade. During Trooping the Colour, the mascot marches only from Wellington Barracks as far as Horse Guards Parade. He then falls out of the formation and does not participate in the Trooping itself. Domhnall, the regiment's seventeenth mascot, retired back to Ireland, in 2019. [54]

Traditions and affiliations

The Drums & Pipes, 2017 Buckingham Palace (3694847301).jpg
The Drums & Pipes, 2017

St. Patrick's Day is the traditional regimental celebration. [55] It is customary for the regiment to begin the day's celebrations with the Guardsmen being woken by their officers and served gunfire. [56] Fresh shamrock is then presented to members of the regiment, whether they are in the UK or abroad on operations. [45]

Except in wartime, the presentation of shamrock is traditionally made by a member of the Royal Family. This task was first performed in 1901 by Queen Alexandra and later by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. After the latter's death, the presentation was made by The Princess Royal. Starting in 2012, the presentation has been made by the Duchess of Cambridge. [57]

In 1950 King George VI marked the fiftieth anniversary of the formation of the Irish Guards by presenting the Shamrocks on St Patrick´s Day. [58] This honour was mirrored by King George's surviving wife, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, fifty years later when she presented shamrocks to the regiment on St. Patrick's Day in their centenary year of 2000. [59]

Battle honours

The Queen's Colour of the 1st Battalion Irish Guards, displaying some of the Regiment's battle honours. An officer of the 1st Battalion, the Irish Guards holds the Regimental Colours.jpg
The Queen's Colour of the 1st Battalion Irish Guards, displaying some of the Regiment's battle honours.

The regiment's battle honours are as follows: [60]

Victoria Cross recipients

Notable members

Regimental Colonels

The Duke of Cambridge at Queen Elizabeth II's Birthday Parade, June 2013 Prince William Trooping the Colour.JPG
The Duke of Cambridge at Queen Elizabeth II's Birthday Parade, June 2013

British Army regiments typically have an honorary "colonel", often a member of the Royal Family or a prominent retired military officer with connections to the regiment.

The Irish Guards colonels have been:

Order of precedence

Preceded by
Scots Guards
Infantry Order of Precedence Succeeded by
Welsh Guards

Alliances

The Irish Guards enjoys a Bond of Friendship with 13th Demi-Brigade of the Foreign Legion. This official affiliation stems from the shared history of the two regiments. They both fought together in Taskforce Rupert during the 1940 Norwegian campaign. [84]

The Irish Guards and other Guards regiments have a long-standing connection to The Parachute Regiment. Irish Guardsmen who have completed P Company can be seconded to the Guards Parachute Platoon, which is currently attached to the 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment. The Guards Parachute Platoon maintains the tradition established by Number 1 (Guards) Independent Parachute Company that was part of the original Pathfinder Group of 16th Parachute Brigade, which has since been designated as the 16th Air Assault Brigade. [85]

Notes

  1. "The fighting Irish". The Irish Times. 31 July 2010. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  2. "Kevin Myers: However we view war, let's wish our lads a safe return". Independent.ie. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  3. "How To Identify The Foot Guards at Buckingham Palace". Tripsavvy. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  4. Bartlett, Thomas; Jeffery, Keith (1997). A Military History of Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 380. ISBN   0-521-62989-6 . Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  5. 1 2 Irish Guards Regimental website Archived 8 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  6. 1 2 Kipling, Rudyard. "1914 - Mons To La Bassée" . Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  7. Kipling, Rudyard. "1915 - Loos And The First Autumn" . Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  8. Kipling, Rudyard. "1916 - Salient and the Somme" . Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  9. "World War One". Irish Guards. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  10. Kipling, Rudyard. "1918: Arras to the Armistice" . Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  11. "Irish Guards 1918-1939". Irish Guards. Archived from the original on 29 July 2003. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  12. Wilkinson and Astley, p. 66
  13. Ellis 2004, p. 157.
  14. "Biography of Grand Duke Jean". Luxembourg government. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  15. "The Anzio Landing 22–29 January". American Forces in action. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  16. D'Este, p. 200.
  17. "Units of the Guards Armoured Division race along the highway to Brussels and liberate the city". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  18. Randel 2006, p. 32.
  19. Ryan 1999, p. 183.
  20. Whiting, p. 87
  21. 1 2 "Irish Guards". British Army units 1945 on. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  22. "'May have hit wrong target' say Guards". 16 October 1981. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  23. "London bomb kills one; hurts up to 50". New York Times. 11 October 1981. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  24. "Bomb Incidents (London)" . Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  25. "Britain: Once More, Terror in the Streets". TIME.com. 9 November 1981. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  26. Taylor, Matthew (13 September 2008). "Beginners luck". The Guardian. London, UK.
  27. "Irish Guards, Basra, Iraq, 2007". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  28. "Irish Guards on tour of duty in Afghanistan". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  29. "The Irish Guards". British Army. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  30. "The Irish Guards | National Army Museum". Nam.ac.uk. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  31. "On Patrol With The Irish Guards In Cyprus". Forces.net. 16 July 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  32. "First Troops Deployed in Operation Temperer". Warfare.Today. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  33. "UK to join military exercise". Bangkok Post. 19 October 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  34. "US will hit 'very fast and very hard' if Iran retaliates for Qassem Soleimani assassination, Trump warns". The Times. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  35. "British Army Training Mission Suspended In Iraq". Forces.net. 5 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  36. "The Irish Guards". British Army. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  37. Army Secretariat (10 March 2017). "Response to FOI2017/02130 - Request for information related to Army 2020 Refine" (PDF). publishing.service.gov.uk. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  38. "British Army units from 1945 on - Irish Guards". british-army-units1945on.co.uk. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  39. "The Irish Guards - The Battalion Layout". 2 March 2008. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  40. "Defence Act, 1954" . Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  41. "Lure of combat draws Irish men and women to British army". The Irish Times. 6 September 2008. Subscription required to view
  42. Taylor, Bryn (2006). "A brief history of the regiment". Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
  43. Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Volumes 13. C. Knight. 1839. p. 246.
  44. Statutes and ordinances of the most illustrious Order of Saint Patrick, Dublin 1831, pp. 6–13.
  45. 1 2 "The Irish Guards - A Brief History of The Regiment". Archived from the original on 8 November 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  46. "Ireland's Blackthorn Stick". Tintean. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  47. "Irish Guards officer's embroidered cap badge" . Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  48. "Identify the Guardsmen by their Buttons!". Royal Windsor. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  49. "Everything you need to know about the Changing of the Guard at Windsor". Windsor Express. 10 March 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  50. "Royal wedding: Prince William marries in Irish Guards red". Telegraph.co.uk. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  51. "Cambridge University Heraldic and Genealogical Society - Orders of Chivalry". cam.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 12 January 2003. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  52. "Combat Infantryman's Course – Foot Guards". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  53. "Regimental mascots - Irish Guards 1902-1910" . Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  54. "Irish Guards calling for 'honourable' retirement for Irish wolfhound Domhnall". The Independent. 22 April 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  55. "The Irish Guards - St Patrick's Day". Archived from the original on 8 November 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  56. "Prince William fills in for Kate as he presents Irish Guards with St Patrick's Day shamrock". Daily Telegraph. London, UK.
  57. "Kate's Irish charm: An emerald Duchess presents St Patrick's Day shamrocks to guardsmen (and she's a knockout for one soldier)". Daily Mail. London, UK.
  58. The Duke of Cambridge Joins the Irish Guards at the St Patrick´s Day Parade. (17 March 2016) Royal.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2019
  59. "Queen Mother greets Irish Guards". BBC. London, UK.
  60. "Irish Guards". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 28 October 2005. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  61. "Europe's Last VC — Guardsman Edward Charlton", After the Battle (magazine) No. 49, 1985. Contains additional memoirs of the surviving Irish Guards officers and men and German officers which correct the original citation.
  62. "No. 36136". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 August 1943. p. 3689.
  63. "No. 31178". The London Gazette . 11 February 1919. pp. 2249–2250.
  64. "No. 30338". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 October 1917. p. 10678.
  65. "No. 29074". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 February 1915. p. 1700.
  66. "No. 30338". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 October 1917. pp. 10678–10679.
  67. "No. 28533". The London Gazette . 22 September 1911. p. 6950.
  68. World War 1 through a lens Archived 6 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine by EE O'Donnell SJ, The Irish Catholic , 7 August 2014.
  69. "No. 49156". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 November 1982. p. 14267.
  70. "Lord Moyola". The Daily Telegraph. London. 20 May 2002. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006.
  71. "Le Grand-Duc Jean - Cour Grand-Ducale de Luxembourg - Famille grand-ducale". www.monarchie.lu. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
  72. "Sojourn in Silesia: 1940–1945: Amazon.co.uk: Arthur Charles Evans CBE, Catherine Aldous, Pat McNeill: 9781898030829: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  73. "Obituary - Sir John Gorman". Daily Telegraph. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  74. "No. 29070". The London Gazette . 16 February 1915. p. 1565.
  75. "Patrick Leigh Fermor (obituary)". The Daily Telegraph . London. 10 June 2011.
  76. Telegraph Obituaries (21 January 2019). "Nigel 'Nosher' Morgan". The Telegraph . Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  77. Kipling, Rudyard (1923). The Irish Guards in the Great War. Macmillan.
  78. Ó hEithir, Breandán, An Chaint sa tSráidbhaile. Comhar Teoranta, 1991, p. 164. ISBN   978-0-631-23580-4
  79. "Vandeleur, Joe". unithistories.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  80. "Vandeleur, Giles Alexander Meysey". unithistories.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  81. "The Irish Guards - A Brief History, 1980 to The Present Day". Archived from the original on 25 July 2003. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  82. "No. 56020". The London Gazette (1st supplement). 7 November 2000. p. 12480.
  83. "Prince William becomes Colonel of the Irish Guards". The Telegraph. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  84. Adams, Jack (1989). The Doomed Expedition: The Campaign in Norway, 1940. Pen and Sword. ISBN   978-0850520361.
  85. "No 1 (Guards) Independent Parachute Company". ParaData. Retrieved 10 January 2013.

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The 1st Armoured Infantry Brigade is an infantry brigade of the British Army with a long history including service during both World War I and World War II. It is based at Tidworth Camp. Previously, it has been designated 1st (Guards) Brigade, 1st Infantry Brigade, 1st Mechanised Brigade, and under the initial Army 2020 reforms assumed the title of 1st Armoured Infantry Brigade.

Scots Guards part of the Guards Division;  Foot Guards regiment of the British Army

The Scots Guards (SG), is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army. Their origins lie in the personal bodyguard of King Charles I of England and Scotland. Its lineage can be traced back to 1642, although it was only placed on the English Establishment in 1686. It is the oldest formed Regiment in the Regular Army, more so than any other in the Household Brigade.

5th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom) combat formation of the British Army

The 5th Infantry Brigade was a regular infantry brigade of the British Army that was in existence since before the First World War, except for a short break in the late 1970s, until amalgamating with 24th Airmobile Brigade, in 1999, to form 16 Air Assault Brigade.

4th Battalion, Parachute Regiment

The 4th Battalion, Parachute Regiment, is an Army Reserve unit of the British Army and is based across the United Kingdom. Originally the Battalion covered the North of England, with its headquarters located in Pudsey, West Yorkshire. Following the Options for Change review in 1993, 4 PARA amalgamated with the 15th (Scottish) Battalion of the Parachute Regiment, which was downsized and became 15 (Scottish) Company of 4 PARA. As part of further changes in 1999, the Battalion also merged with the 10th (Volunteer) Battalion which then became 10 (London) Company.

7 Parachute Regiment Royal Horse Artillery is a regiment of the Royal Artillery in the British Army. It currently serves in the field artillery role with 16 Air Assault Brigade, and is equipped with the L118 Light Gun.

History of the Irish Guards

The history of the Irish Guards as an infantry regiment of the British Army dates from the Regiment's formation in 1900. The Irish Guards have an over one hundred year-long history during which the regiment have served with distinction in almost all of the United Kingdom's conflicts throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries ranging from the First World War to the War in Afghanistan.

1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment Airborne light infantry unit of the British Army

The 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment, is a battalion of the British Army's Parachute Regiment. Along with various other regiments and corps from across the British Armed Forces.

2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment formation of the Parachute Regiment, part of the British Army

The Second Battalion, Parachute Regiment, is a battalion-sized formation of the Parachute Regiment, part of the British Army, and subordinate unit within 16th Air Assault Brigade whose Commanding Officer for the period 2013-2016 was Lieutenant Colonel Oliver Kingsbury OBE.

3rd Battalion, Parachute Regiment

The 3rd Battalion, Parachute Regiment, is a battalion sized formation of the British Army's Parachute Regiment and is a subordinate unit within 16 Air Assault Brigade.

Grenadier Guards infantry regiment of the British Army

The Grenadier Guards is an infantry regiment of the British Army. It can trace its lineage back to 1656 when Lord Wentworth's Regiment was raised in Bruges to protect the exiled Charles II. In 1665, this regiment was combined with John Russell's Regiment of Guards to form the current regiment, known as the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards. Since then, the regiment has filled both a ceremonial and protective role as well as an operational one. In 1900, the regiment provided a cadre of personnel to form the Irish Guards; while later, in 1915 it also provided the basis of the Welsh Guards upon their formation.

Guards Division (United Kingdom) operational division of the British Army in World War I and briefly after World War II

The Guards Division was an infantry division of the British Army that was formed in the Great War in France in 1915 from battalions of the Guards regiments from the Regular Army. The division served on the Western Front for the duration of the First World War. The division's insignia was the "All Seeing Eye".

John Kipling son of Rudyard Kipling

John Kipling was the only son of British author Rudyard Kipling. In the First World War his father used his influence to get him an army commission, despite his having been decisively rejected for poor eyesight. His death at the Battle of Loos caused his father immense grief.

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