Scots Guards

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The Scots Guards
Scots Guards Badge.jpg
Regimental badge of the Scots Guards
Active1642–1651
1662–present
CountryFlag of Scotland.svg  Kingdom of Scotland
(1642-1651)
Flag of England.svg  Kingdom of England
(1662–1707)
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
(1801–present)
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
TypeFoot Guards
Role1st Battalion Scots Guards – Mechanized Infantry
F Company – Public Duties
SizeOne battalion
One company
Garrison/HQRHQ – London
1st Battalion – Aldershot - Moving to Catterick
F Company – London
Nickname(s)The Kiddies; Jock Guards
Motto(s)"Nemo Me Impune Lacessit"
(Latin)
"No one assails me with impunity"
MarchQuick – Highland Laddie
Slow – The Garb of Old Gaul
Anniversaries St Andrew's Day
Nov 30
Battle of Mount Tumbledown
Jun 13
Commanders
Colonel-in-Chief Elizabeth II
Colonel of
the Regiment
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent KG, GCMG, GCVO
Insignia
Tactical Recognition Flash GuardsTRF.svg
Tartan Royal Stewart (pipers kilts, trews and plaids)
Plumenone
AbbreviationSG

The Scots Guards (SG), is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army. Their origins lie in the personal bodyguard of King Charles I of England and Scotland. Its lineage can be traced back to 1642, although it was only placed on the English Establishment (thus becoming part of what is now the British Army) in 1686. It is the oldest formed Regiment in the Regular Army, more so than any other in the Household Brigade. [1]

Regiment Military unit

A regiment is a military unit. Their role and size varies markedly, depending on the country and the arm of service.

British Army land warfare branch of the British Armed Forces of the United Kingdom

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.

Contents

History

Formation; 17th Century

Citadel of Namur above the Meuse; the regiment gained its first battle honour for an assault during the 1695 Siege Namur JPG7.jpg
Citadel of Namur above the Meuse; the regiment gained its first battle honour for an assault during the 1695 Siege

The regiment now known as the Scots Guards traces its origins to the Marquis of Argyll's Royal Regiment, a unit raised in 1642 by Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll in response to the 1641 Irish Rebellion. [2] After the Restoration of Charles II, the Earl of Linlithgow received a commission dated 23 November 1660 to raise a regiment which was called The Scottish Regiment of Footguards. [3]

Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll Governed Scotland during Wars of the Three Kingdoms

Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll, 8th Earl of Argyll, chief of Clan Campbell, was a Scottish nobleman, politician, and peer. The de facto head of Scotland's government during most of the conflict of the 1640s and 50s known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, he was a major figure in the Covenanter movement that fought for the maintenance of the Presbyterian religion against the Stuart monarchy's attempts to impose episcopacy. He is often remembered as the principal opponent of the royalist general James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose.

The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for Catholics. The coup failed and the rebellion developed into an ethnic conflict between the Gaelic Irish and old English Catholics on one side, and both ethnically English Protestants and Scottish/Presbyterian planters on the other. This began a conflict known as the Irish Confederate Wars.

George Livingston (1616–1690) was a military officer and third Earl of Linlithgow.

It was used in the Covenanter risings of 1679, with James Douglas taking over from Linlithgow as Colonel in 1684. [4] The regiment helped suppress Argyll's Rising in June 1685, and expanded to two battalions. After the November 1688 Glorious Revolution, the first battalion was sent to Flanders; the second served in Ireland under Colonel Douglas and fought at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, before joining the First in 1691. [5] George Ramsay became Colonel when Douglas died of disease in July 1691; during the 1688-1697 Nine Years War, elements of the regiment were present at the battles of Steenkerque, Landen, or Neerwinden and the recapture of Namur in 1695. After the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, the regiment returned to England, then back to Scotland in 1699. [6]

James Douglas (English Army officer) Lieutenant-General James Douglas (1645-1690), Scots-born army officer

Lieutenant-General James Douglas (1645–1691) was a Scottish military officer who served successively with the French army and the Dutch Scots Brigade, was appointed Commander in Chief for Scotland by James II and held senior commands under William III in the 1689–1691 Williamite War in Ireland. He died of fever at Namur in the Spanish Netherlands in 1691 during the Nine Years War.

Argylls Rising

Argyll's Rising or Argyll's Rebellion was a 1685 attempt by a group of largely Scottish exiles, led by Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, to overthrow King James II and VII. It took place shortly before and in support of the Monmouth Rebellion, led by James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. Argyll's Rising was intended to tie down Royal forces in Scotland while Monmouth's army marched on London. Both rebellions were backed by Protestants opposed to the kingship of James, a Roman Catholic.

Glorious Revolution 17th Century British revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689.

The 18th Century

The March of the Guards to Finchley by William Hogarth; defending London during the 1745 Jacobite Rising William Hogarth 007.jpg
The March of the Guards to Finchley by William Hogarth; defending London during the 1745 Jacobite Rising

When the War of the Spanish Succession began in 1702, Ramsay was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Scotland and the regiment spent most of the war on garrison duties at home; he died in 1705, but political disputes meant the Marquess of Lothian became Colonel only in 1707. The First Battalion was sent to Spain in 1709 and fought at Almenar and Saragossa in Spain; it was forced to surrender with the rest of the British expeditionary force when surrounded at Brihuega in December 1710. [7] It was retitled The Third Regiment of Foot Guards in 1712 and moved from Edinburgh to London; it did not return to Scotland for another 100 years. [8]

War of the Spanish Succession major European conflict (1700–1714) after the death of Charles II

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700. His closest heirs were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families; acquisition of an undivided Spanish Empire by either threatened the European balance of power.

Lieutenant-General William Kerr, 2nd Marquess of Lothian, was a Scottish peer who held a number of minor military and political offices. He was known by the courtesy title of Lord Newbattle until 1692, when he succeeded as Lord Jedburgh, then as Marquess of Lothian when his father died in 1703.

Battle of Almenar battle 27 jul 1710

The Battle of Almenar also referred to as Almenara was a battle in the Iberian theatre of the War of the Spanish Succession.

Both battalions remained in England during the 1715 Jacobite Rising and next saw active service during the 1740-1748 War of the Austrian Succession. The First Battalion was at Dettingen in 1743 and Fontenoy in April 1745, a British defeat famous for the Gardes françaises and Grenadier Guards inviting each other to fire first. [9] The two battalions were in London during the 1745 Jacobite Rising; a famous engraving by William Hogarth shows them taking up defensive positions in North London. However, the Jacobite army turned back at Derby and they took no part in its suppression; in July 1747, the Second Battalion was sent to Flanders, where it fought at Lauffeld, before the war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. [10]

Jacobite rising of 1715

The Jacobite rising of 1715, was the attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart to regain the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland for the exiled House of Stuart.

War of the Austrian Succession Dynastic war in Austro-Hungary

The War of the Austrian Succession involved most of the powers of Europe over the issue of Archduchess Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included peripheral events such as King George's War in British America, the War of Jenkins' Ear, the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, and the First and Second Silesian Wars.

Battle of Dettingen battle

The Battle of Dettingen took place on 27 June 1743 at Dettingen on the River Main, Germany, during the War of the Austrian Succession. The British forces, in alliance with those of Hanover and Hesse, defeated a French army under the duc de Noailles. George II commanded his troops in the battle, and this marked the last time a British monarch personally led his troops on the field. The battle straddled the river about 18 miles east of Frankfurt, with guns on the Hessian bank but most of the combat on the flat Bavarian bank. The village of Dettingen is today the town of Karlstein am Main, in the extreme northwest of Bavaria.

Scots Guard Sergeant A. Fraser unhorsing Col. Cuieres at Hougoumont Farm, June 1815 Colonel Cubieres unhorsed.jpg
Scots Guard Sergeant A. Fraser unhorsing Col. Cuieres at Hougoumont Farm, June 1815

In the absence of a modern police force, the military was often used for crowd control; in 'Memoirs of a Georgian Rake,' William Hickey describes a detachment from the 'Third Regiment of Guards, principally Scotchmen' dispersing a crowd attempting to release the radical politician, John Wilkes from prison in 1768. [12]

John Wilkes 18th-century English radical, journalist, and politician

John Wilkes was a British radical, journalist, and politician.

1805–1913

In April 1809 the 1st Battalion made their way to the Iberian Peninsula where they were to take part in the Peninsular War in Portugal and Spain. On 12 May 1809, the 1st Battalion took part in the crossing of the River Douro, an operation that ended so successfully that the French Army were in full retreat to Amarante after the actions in Oporto and its surrounding areas. In late July 1809 the regiment took part in the Battle of Talavera, one of the bloodiest and most bitter of engagements during the war. [2]

The 2nd Battalion's flank companies took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign in the Low Countries. The 1st Battalion went on to take part in the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro in May 1811, the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812, the Siege of San Sebastián in Summer 1813 and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813. [2]

At the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815, the Scots Guards were positioned on the ridge just behind Hougoumont, while the light companies of the two battalions, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel James Macdonnell, garrisoned the Farm, a place on the right flank of the British and Allied army that would be a key position during the battle. [13]

Scots Guards drummer, piper, bugler and bandsman, circa 1891 Scots Guards drummer, piper, bugler and bandsman, around 1891.jpg
Scots Guards drummer, piper, bugler and bandsman, circa 1891

1914–1945

The First World War

The 1st Battalion, part of the 1st (Guards) Brigade of the 1st Division, was part of the British Expeditionary Force which arrived in France in 1914. The Battalion took part in the Battle of Mons in August 1914, the First Battle of the Marne in September 1914 and the Battle of the Aisne also in September 1914. The 1st and 2nd Battalions then took part in the First Battle of Ypres in November 1914, the Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915 and the Battle of Loos in September 1915. In July 1916 the Scots Guards took part in the first Battle of the Somme and in July 1917, the regiment began its involvement in the Battle of Passchendaele. In March 1918 they fought at the second Battle of the Somme and in Autumn the regiment took part in the final battles of the war on the Western Front. [14]

The Second World War

In April 1940, the 1st Battalion, as part of the 24th Guards Brigade, took part in its first campaign of the war, during the expedition to Norway. In North Africa, as part of the 22nd Guards Brigade, the 2nd Battalion took part in fighting against the Italians in Egypt followed by tough fighting in Libya, then also controlled by Italy. In North Africa, in March 1943, the 2nd Battalion took part in the defensive Battle of Medenine, after the Germans had counter-attacked the Allies. [15]

In September 1943, the 2nd Battalion, as part of the 201st Guards Brigade of the 56th (London) Division, took part in the Landing at Salerno. In December 1943, the 1st Battalion, as part of 24th Guards Brigade, arrived in the Italian Theatre. At the Battle of Monte Cassino in early 1944, the 2nd Battalion suffered heavy casualties in tough fighting. [16]

The 1st Battalion, as part of its brigade, joined the 6th South African Armoured Division in May 1944. The regiment took part in many fierce engagements throughout 1944, including those against the Gothic Line, a formidable defensive line. [17]

Since 1946

Modern-day recruits practicing drill at Catterick Helles Barracks Parade Ground - geograph.org.uk - 1192460.jpg
Modern-day recruits practicing drill at Catterick

The 2nd Battalion was once more involved in war when it deployed to Malaya during the Malayan Emergency. Then in late 1951, the 1st Battalion was deployed to Cyprus and in February 1952, the battalion deployed to the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt. Both the 1st and 2nd Battalion deployed to Northern Ireland during the Troubles in the early 1970s. [18]

During the Falklands War in 1982 the main force of the Scots Guards began its advance on the western side of Mount Tumbledown. During the course of the battle in the early hours of 14 June 1982, men of the 2nd Battalion 'wearing berets instead of helmets' launched a bayonet charge on the stout Argentinian defenders which resulted in bitter and bloody fighting, and was one of the last bayonet charges by the British Army. [16]

In 2004 the 1st Battalion deployed to Iraq on a 6-month posting as part of 4th Armoured Brigade. The 4th Brigade relieved 1st Mechanised Brigade, and joined the Multi-National Division (South East), which was under UK command. [19]

In October 2018, the 1st Battalion deployed to Akrotiri and Dhekelia as part of Operation Tosca. [20] By the end of 2019 the 1st Battalion will move back to Catterick and form as part of the Strike Brigade as part of the Army 2020 reforms. [21]

Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicles of the Scots Guards patrolling in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, in 2008 A convoy of Warrior infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) patrolling near Musa Qala, Afghanistan. MOD 45149486.jpg
Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicles of the Scots Guards patrolling in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, in 2008

Traditions and affiliations

The Scots Guards and other Guards regiments have a long-standing connection to the Parachute Regiment. Guardsman who have completed the P company selection course are transferred into the Guards Parachute Platoon, who are currently attached to 3 PARA. This continues the lineage of the No. 1 (Guards) Independent Parachute Company, who were the original Pathfinder Group of 16th Parachute Brigade. [22]

The Scots Guards is ranked as the third regiment in the Guards Division. As such, Scots Guardsmen can be recognised by having the buttons on their tunics spaced in threes. [16]

Structure and Role

The regiment consists of a single operational battalion, which was based in Catterick between 2008 and 2015, thereafter moving to Aldershot in the armoured infantry role. As part of Army 2020 the battalion moves back to Catterick. The 1st Battalion Scots Guards has five operational companies: three mechanized companies (Right Flank, C Company and Left Flank), one Support Weapons company (B Company) and one headquarters and logistics company (HQ Company). [23] Since 1993, F Company, permanently based in Wellington Barracks, London on public duties, has been the custodian of the colours and traditions of the 2nd Battalion, which was placed in permanent suspended animation in 1993 as a result of Options for Change. [24] 1st Battalion will be equipped with Mastiff Vehicles (and later the Mechanised Infantry Vehicle (MIV)) under Army 2020 Refine and be under the first Strike Brigade. The 1st Battalion will not conduct public ceremonial duties unlike the other guards regiments. [25] [26] [27] [28]

Training

Recruits to the Guards Division go through a thirty-week gruelling training programme at the Infantry Training Centre (ITC). The training is two weeks more than the training for the Regular line infantry regiments of the British Army; the extra training, carried out throughout the course, is devoted to drill and ceremonies. [29]

Regimental colonels

Regimental colonels have included:

Battle honours

The battle honours of the Scots Guards are as follows: [36]

Alliances

Order of precedence

Preceded by
Coldstream Guards
Infantry Order of Precedence Succeeded by
Irish Guards

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