Regions of Brazil

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Brazil is geopolitically divided into five regions (also called macroregions) by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Portuguese : Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE); each region is composed of three or more states. Although officially recognized, the division is merely academic, considering geographic, social and economic factors, among others, and has no political effects other than orientating Federal-level government programs. Under the state level, there are also mesoregions and microregions. [1]

Contents

The five regions


Name
Population
(2016 estimate)
Most populous
municipality

Largest metropolitan area

Number of states
North 17.7 million Manaus Manaus metropolitan area 7
Northeast 56.9 million Salvador Recife metropolitan area 9
Central-West 15.6 million Brasília Brasilia Urban Metropolitan Complex3 + DF
Southeast 86.3 million São Paulo São Paulo metropolitan area 4
South 29.4 million Curitiba Porto Alegre metropolitan area 3

North Region

Brazil Region Norte.svg

Northeast Region

Brazil Region Nordeste.svg

Mid West Region

Brazil Region CentroOeste.svg

Southeast Region

Brazil Region Sudeste.svg

South Region

Brazil Region Sul.svg

Ethnic composition of regions

The composition of regions of Brazil according to autosomal genetic studies focused on the Brazilian population (which has been found to be a complex melting pot of European, African and Native Americans components):

A 2011 autosomal DNA study, with nearly 1000 samples from all over the country ("whites", "pardos" and "blacks"), found a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component. [3] The study showed that Brazilians from different regions are more homogeneous than previously thought by some based on the census alone. "Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, a lot greater between Brazilian regions than within Brazilian regions." [4]

Region [3] EuropeanAfricanNative American
Northern Brazil 68.80%10.50%18.50%
Northeast of Brazil 60.10%29.30%8.90%
Southeast Brazil 74.20%17.30%7.30%
Southern Brazil 79.50%10.30%9.40%

According to an autosomal DNA study from 2010, a new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the South, where the European contribution reaches nearly 90%. The results, published by the scientific American Journal of Human Biology by a team of the Catholic University of Brasília, show that, in Brazil, physical indicators such as colour of skin, eyes and hair have little to do with the genetic ancestry of each person, which has been shown in previous studies (regardless of census classification). [5] Ancestry informative SNPs can be useful to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry. Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations (European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians) with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture. In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources (African, Amerindian, and European) to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population. Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model. Pairwise estimates of F(st) among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions. Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry (0.771) followed by African (0.143) and Amerindian contributions (0.085). The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bioanthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations." [6]

Region [6] EuropeanAfricanNative American
Northern Brazil 71.10%18.20%10.70%
Northeast of Brazil 77.40%13.60%8.90%
West-Central Brazil 65.90%18.70%11.80%
Southeast Region, Brazil 79.90%14.10%6.10%
Southern Brazil 87.70%7.70%5.20%

An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found a similar profile "all the Brazilian samples (regions) lie more closely to the European group than to the African populations or to the Mestizos from Mexico." [7]

Region [7] EuropeanAfricanNative American
Northern Brazil 60.6%21.3%18.1%
Northeast of Brazil 66.7%23.3%10.0%
West-Central Brazil 66.3%21.7%12.0%
Southeast Region, Brazil 60.7%32.0%7.3%
Southern Brazil 81.5%9.3%9.2%

According to another autosomal DNA study from 2008, by the University of Brasília (UnB), European ancestry dominates in the whole of Brazil (in all regions), accounting for 65.90% of heritage of the population, followed by the African contribution (24.80%) and the Native American (9.3%); the European ancestry being the dominant ancestry in all regions including the Northeast of Brazil. [8]

A study from 1965, "Methods of Analysis of a Hybrid Population" ( Human Biology , vol 37, number 1), led by geneticists D. F. Roberts and R. W. Hiorns, found out the average Northeastern Brazilian to be predominantly European in ancestry (65%), with minor but important African and Native American contributions (25% and 9%). [9]

See also

Notes

Related Research Articles

Geography of Brazil Overview of the geography of Brazil

The country of Brazil occupies roughly half of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil covers a total area of 8,514,215 km2 (3,287,357 sq mi) which includes 8,456,510 km2 (3,265,080 sq mi) of land and 55,455 km2 (21,411 sq mi) of water. The highest point in Brazil is Pico da Neblina at 2,994 m (9,823 ft). Brazil is bordered by the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, and France.

Paraná (state) State of Brazil

Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line. It is subdivided into 399 municipalities, and its capital is the city of Curitiba. Other major cities are Londrina, Maringá, Ponta Grossa, Cascavel, São José dos Pinhais and Foz do Iguaçu. The state is home to 5,4% of the Brazilian population and has 6,2% of the Brazilian GDP.

Rio Grande do Sul State of Brazil

Rio Grande do Sul is a state in the southern region of Brazil. It is the fifth-most-populous state and the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo, Rivera and Artigas to the south and southwest, and the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest. The capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, and the crime rate is relatively low compared to Brazilian national average. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high in the state, as of 2017. The state has 5,4% of the Brazilian population and it is responsible for 6,6% of the Brazilian GDP.

Southern Cone Geographic region

The Southern Cone is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, mostly south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. In terms of social, economic and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, and sometimes includes Brazil's four southernmost states. In its broadest definition, taking into account common history and geography, it also includes Paraguay, another Spanish-speaking country.

In Brazil, Pardo, is an ethnic and skin color category used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in the Brazilian censuses. The term "pardo" is a complex one, more commonly used to refer to Brazilians of mixed ethnic ancestries. Pardo Brazilians represent a diverse range of skin colors and ethnic backgrounds. They are typically a mixture of Europeans, Sub-Saharan Africans and/or Native Brazilian.

Afro-Brazilians are Brazilians who have predominantly or partial African ancestry. Most members of another group of people, multiracial Brazilians or pardos, may also have a range of degree of African ancestry. Depending on the circumstances, the ones whose African features are more evident are always or frequently seen by others as "africans" - consequently identifying themselves as such, while the ones whom this evidence is lesser may not be seen as such so regularly. It is important to note that the term pardo, such as preto, is rarely used outside the census spectrum. Brazilian society has a range of words, including negro itself, to describe multiracial people.

Northeast Region, Brazil Region in Brazil

The Northeast Region of Brazil is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. For the socio-geographic area see Nordeste. Of Brazil's twenty-six states, it comprises nine: Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia, along with the Fernando de Noronha archipelago.

Southeast Region, Brazil Region in Brazil

The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed of the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It is the richest region of the country, responsible for approximately 60% of the Brazilian GDP, as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais are the three richest states of Brazil, the top three Brazilian states in terms of GDP. The Southeast of Brazil also has the highest GDP per capita among all Brazilian regions.

White Brazilians refers to Brazilian citizens of European and Middle Eastern descent. According to 2019 IBGE estimates, they totaled 89,732,822 people and made up 42.7% of the Brazilian population.

Nordeste (socio-geographic division)

The socio-geographic division of Nordeste is the oldest populated by Europeans and currently the second most populous area of Brazil.

Brazilians Citizens of the Federative Republic of Brazil

Brazilians are citizens of Brazil. A Brazilian can also be a person born abroad to a Brazilian parent or legal guardian as well as a persons who acquired Brazilian citizenship. Brazil is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many ethnic origins. As a result, a majority of Brazilians do not identify their nationality as not being necessarily directly related to their ethnicity; in fact, the idea of ethnicity as it is understood in the anglophone world is not popular in the country.

Brazilian censuses do not use a "multiracial" category. Instead, the censuses use skin colour categories. Most Brazilians of visibly mixed racial origins self-identify as pardos. However, many White Brazilians have distant non-white ancestry, while the group known as pardos likely contains non-mixed acculturated Amerindians. According to the 2010 census, "pardos" make up 82.277 million people or 43.13% of Brazil's population.

Brazilian society is made up of a confluence of people of several different origins, from the original Native Brazilians, with the influence of Portuguese colonists and people of African descent. Other significant groups include Italians, Spaniards, Germans and Japanese.

Dutch Brazilians Brazilians of Dutch descent

Dutch Brazilians refers to Brazilians of full or partial Dutch ancestry. Dutch Brazilians are mainly descendants of immigrants from the Netherlands.

The population of Brazil is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups. In general, Brazilians trace their origins from three sources: Europeans, Amerindians and Africans. Historically, Brazil has experienced large degrees of ethnic and racial admixture, assimilation of cultures and syncretism. The Brazilian population is said to be the most mixed raced people in the world.

Global Village Telecom (GVT) was a Brazilian telecommunications company that offers services on landline telephone, broadband for both consumer and business, Pay TV and voice over IP. GVT has been in the market since the end of 2000. GVT today operates under the Vivo brand.

In Brazil, a sarará is a multiracial person, being a particular kind of mulato or juçara, with perceivable Black African facial features, light complexion and fair but curly hair, called cabelo crespo, or fair but Afro-like frizzly hair, called carapinha, cabelo encarapinhado or cabelo pixaim. In the 1998 IBGE PME, 0.04% of respondents identified, in an inquiry on race/colour, as "sarará".

Ethnic groups in Latin America

The inhabitants of Latin America are from a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition of the group varies from country to country. Many have a predominance of European-Amerindian or Mestizo population; in others, Amerindians are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations have large African or Mulatto populations.

2001 in Brazil

Events in the year 2001 in Brazil.

1994 in Brazil

Events in the year 1994 in Brazil.

References

  1. The Five Regions Of Brazil, from worldatlas.com
  2. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2011-08-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. 1 2 Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Di Pietro, Giuliano; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Milene Raiol; Ojopi, Élida B.; Perini, Jamila A.; Racciopi, Clarice; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme (2011). Harpending, Henry (ed.). "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil is More Uniform Than Expected". PLoS ONE . 6 (2): e17063. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...617063P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. PMC   3040205 . PMID   21359226.
  4. Nossa herança europeia — Archived 2012-01-30 at the Wayback Machine
  5. DNA de brasileiro é 80% europeu, indica estudo
  6. 1 2 Lins, T. C.; Vieira, R. G.; Abreu, B. S.; Grattapaglia, D.; Pereira, R. W. (March–April 2009). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". American Journal of Human Biology . 22 (2): 187–192. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. PMID   19639555. S2CID   205301927.
  7. 1 2 Forensic Science International: Genetics. Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population (inglés) Archived 2011-04-08 at WebCite basandos en estudios del IBGE de 2008. Se presentaron muestras de 12.886 individuos de distintas etnias, por regiones, provenían en un 8,26% del Norte, 23,86% del Nordeste, 4,79% del Centro-Oeste, 10,32% del Sudeste y 52,77% del Sur.
  8. Untitled Document Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine
  9. BVGF - A Obra / OpЩsculos Archived 2012-03-31 at the Wayback Machine