|Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia|
|Linguistic classification|| Macro-Chibchan ?|
The Chibchan languages (also Chibchan, Chibchano) make up a language family indigenous to the Isthmo-Colombian Area, which extends from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia and includes populations of these countries as well as Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The name is derived from the name of an extinct language called Chibcha or Muysccubun, once spoken by the people who lived on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense of which the city of Bogotá was the southern capital at the time of the Spanish Conquista. However, genetic and linguistic data now indicate that the original heart of Chibchan languages and Chibchan-speaking peoples may not have been in Colombia at all, but in the area of the Costa Rica-Panama border, where one finds the greatest variety of Chibchan languages.
A larger family called Macro-Chibchan , which would contain the Misumalpan languages, Xinca, and Lenca, was found convincing by Kaufman (1990).[ full citation needed ]
The extinct languages of Antioquia, Old Catío and Nutabe have been shown to be Chibchan (Adelaar & Muysken, 2004:49). The language of the Tairona is unattested, apart from a single word, but may well be one of the Arwako languages still spoken in the Santa Marta range. The Zenú AKA Sinú language of northern Colombia is also sometimes included, as are the Malibu languages, though without any factual basis.
Adolfo Constenla Umaña argues that Cueva, the extinct dominant language of Pre-Columbian Panama long assumed to be Chibchan based on a misinterpreted Kuna vocabulary, was actually Chocoan, but there is little evidence.
The Cofán language (Kofán, Kofane, A'i) of Ecuador and Colombia has been erroneously included in Chibchan due to borrowed vocabulary.
Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):
(† = extinct)
Below is a full list of Chibchan language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.
Proto-Chibchan reconstructions by Constenla (1981):
|arm, hand, shoulder||*ˈkuíkI, *ˈkuí-|
|at, in||*skA; *ki; *sə|
|at, in, towards||*ka|
|big (size or quantity)||*təˈĩ|
|cedar (several trees of the Cedrela genus)||*uˈru|
|child, young of an animal, egg||*əˈrə̀|
|child, young of an animal||*ˈuÁʔ-|
|curassow ( Crax rubra )||*ˈdubÍ|
|dove (common ground dove)||*ˈÚtu-|
|egg, sprout, suckling||*ˈpú|
|firewood, fire, coal, live coal||*ˈgÌ|
|first person prefix||*də̃-|
|grindstone, to sharpen||*ˈiáʔ|
|jocote ( Spondias purpurea ), jobo ( Spondias mombin )||*bəˈrə́ʔ|
|laurel ( Cordia alliodora )||*ˈBúʔ|
|monkey: howler monkey||*úriʔ|
|monkey: spider monkey||*dõ̀, *do-|
|monkey: white-faced monkey||*hòkI|
|paca ( Agouti paca )||*ˈkuri|
|peachpalm ( Bactris gasipaes , Guilelma utilis )||*ˈsúbaʔ|
|peccary ( Tayassu pecari spiradens)||*siˈdĩ́ʔ|
|place, time, environment, land||*ˈká|
|poró tree, elequeme tree (synonyms)||*baˈlò|
|pot, vessel, jar||*ˈũ|
|rattle, maraca, colander, gourd cup (= object elaborated from a gourd)||*ˈtã́|
|second person prefix||*bi-|
|soil, earth, dirt, clay||*ˈtÁBA|
|stick (a spear), insert, put in||*ˈtsã|
|sun||*dì; *ˈka; *dui|
|that||*ˈhéʔ; *ˈse; *ˈkue; *ˈdiÀ|
|third person||*i-; *A|
|tray (made of wood, used to wash)||*kuˈLIʔ|
|transitive verb marker||*Bə-|
|tree, trunk of a tree, wood||*ˈkarə́|
Proto-Chibchan horticultural vocabulary:
Costa Rican culture has been heavily influenced by Spanish culture ever since the Spanish colonization of the Americas including the territory which today forms Costa Rica. Parts of the country have other strong cultural influences, including the Caribbean province of Limón and the Cordillera de Talamanca which are influenced by Jamaican immigrants and indigenous native people, respectively.
The Misumalpan languages are a small family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples on the east coast of Nicaragua and nearby areas. The name "Misumalpan" was devised by John Alden Mason and is composed of syllables from the names of the family's three members Miskito, Sumo languages and Matagalpan. It was first recognized by Walter Lehmann in 1920. While all the languages of the Matagalpan branch are now extinct, the Miskito and Sumu languages are alive and well: Miskito has almost 200,000 speakers and serves as a second language for speakers of other Indian languages on the Mosquito Coast. According to Hale, most speakers of Sumu also speak Miskito.
The Choco languages are a small family of Native American languages spread across Colombia and Panama.
The Isthmo-Colombian Area is defined as a cultural area encompassing those territories occupied predominantly by speakers of the Chibchan languages at the time of European contact. It includes portions of the Central American isthmus like eastern El Salvador, eastern Honduras, Caribbean Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and northern Colombia.
Barbacoan is a language family spoken in Colombia and Ecuador.
Paezan may be any of several hypothetical or obsolete language-family proposals of Colombia and Ecuador named after the Paez language.
The Bribri are an indigenous people of Costa Rica. They live in the Talamanca canton in Limón Province of Costa Rica. They speak the Bribri language and Spanish. There are varying estimates of the population of the tribe. According to a census by the Ministerio de Salud, there are 11,500 Bribri living within service range of the Hone Creek Clinic alone. They are a voting majority in the Puerto Viejo de Talamanca area. Other estimates of tribal population in Costa Rica range much higher, reaching 35,000.
Lencan is a small family of nearly extinct indigenous Mesoamerican languages.
The Uwa language, Uw Cuwa, commonly known as Tunebo, is a Chibchan language spoken by between 1,800 and 3,600 of the Uwa people of Colombia, out of a total population of about 7,000.
Bribri, also known as Bri-bri, Bribriwak, and Bribri-wak, belongs to the Chibchan languages. This language family is indigenous to the Isthmo-Colombian Area, which extends from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia and includes populations of these countries as well as Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As of 2002, there were about 11,000 speakers left. An estimate by the National Census of Costa Rica in 2011 found that Bribri is currently spoken by 54.7% of the 12,785 Bribri people, about 7,000 individuals. It is a tonal SOV language. There are three traditional dialects of Bribri: Coroma, Amubre and Salitre. Bribri is a tribal name, deriving from a word for "mountainous" in their own language. The Bribri language is also referred to as Su Uhtuk, which means "our language." Bribri is reportedly most similar to sister language Cabécar as both languages have nasal harmony, but the two are mutually unintelligible.
Spanish conquest of the Chibchan Nations refers to the conquest by the Spanish monarchy of the Chibcha language-speaking nations, mainly the Muisca and Tairona that inhabited present-day Colombia, beginning the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Costa Rica's official and predominant language is Spanish. The variety spoken there, Costa Rican Spanish, is a form of Central American Spanish.
Macro-Chibchan is a proposed grouping of the languages of the Lencan, Misumalpan, and Chibchan families into a single large phylum (macrofamily). The Lencan and Misumalpan languages were once included in the Chibchan family proper, but were excluded pending further evidence as that family became well established. Kaufman (1990) finds the Chibchan–Misumalpan connection convincing, if as yet unsubstantiated, though Campbell (1997) finds it doubtful. The Xincan family was once included in Macro-Chibchan, but this is now doubtful.
This is an Index of Central America-related articles. This index defines Central America as the seven nations of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.
The Cabécar language is an indigenous American language of the Chibchan language family which is spoken by the Cabécar people in Costa Rica. Specifically, it is spoken in the inland Turrialba Region of the Cartago Province. 80% of speakers are monolingual; as of 2007, it is the only indigenous language in Costa Rica with monolingual adults. The language is also known by its dialect names Chirripó, Estrella, Telire, and Ujarrás.
The Talamanca languages are a well-defined branch of Chibchan languages spoken in central–southern Costa Rica and northern Panama. They are:
Indigenous people of Costa Rica, or Native Costa Ricans, are the people who lived in what is now Costa Rica prior to European and African contact and the descendants of those peoples. About 114,000 indigenous people live in the country, comprising 2.4% of the total population. Indigenous Costa Ricans strive to keep their cultural traditions and language alive.
Costa Ricans, also called Ticos, are a group of people from a multiethnic Spanish-speaking nation in Central America called Costa Rica. Costa Ricans are predominantly castizos, whites and mestizo, but their country is considered a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic backgrounds. As a result, modern-day Costa Ricans do not consider their nationality as an ethnicity but as a citizenship with various ethnicities. Costa Rica has four small minority groups: Mulattoes, Blacks, Asians, and Amerindians. In addition to the "Indigenas", whites, mestizos, blacks and mulattoes, Costa Rica is also home to thousands of Asians. Most of the Chinese and Indians now living in the country are descendants of those that arrived during the 19th century as migrant workers.
The Cabécar are an indigenous group of the remote Talamanca region of eastern Costa Rica. They speak Cabécar, a language belonging to the Chibchan language family of the Isthmo-Colombian Area of lower Central America and northwestern Colombia. According to census data from the National Institute of Statistics and Census of Costa Rica, the Cabécar are the largest indigenous group in Costa Rica with a population of nearly 17,000.