Chibchan languages

Last updated
Chibchan
Geographic
distribution
Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia
Linguistic classification Macro-Chibchan ?
  • Chibchan
ISO 639-5 cba
Glottolog chib1249 [1]
Chibcha lang.png

The Chibchan languages (also Chibchan, Chibchano) make up a language family indigenous to the Isthmo-Colombian Area, which extends from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia and includes populations of these countries as well as Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The name is derived from the name of an extinct language called Chibcha or Muysccubun, once spoken by the people who lived on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense of which the city of Bogotá was the southern capital at the time of the Spanish Conquista. However, genetic and linguistic data now indicate that the original heart of Chibchan languages and Chibchan-speaking peoples may not have been in Colombia at all, but in the area of the Costa Rica-Panama border, where one finds the greatest variety of Chibchan languages.

Contents

External relations

A larger family called Macro-Chibchan , which would contain the Misumalpan languages, Xinca, and Lenca, was found convincing by Kaufman (1990).[ full citation needed ]

Classification

The extinct languages of Antioquia, Old Catío and Nutabe have been shown to be Chibchan (Adelaar & Muysken, 2004:49). The language of the Tairona is unattested, apart from a single word, but may well be one of the Arwako languages still spoken in the Santa Marta range. The Zenú AKA Sinú language of northern Colombia is also sometimes included, as are the Malibu languages, though without any factual basis.

Adolfo Constenla Umaña argues that Cueva, the extinct dominant language of Pre-Columbian Panama long assumed to be Chibchan based on a misinterpreted Kuna vocabulary, was actually Chocoan, but there is little evidence.

The Cofán language (Kofán, Kofane, A'i) of Ecuador and Colombia has been erroneously included in Chibchan due to borrowed vocabulary.

Jolkesky (2016)

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016): [2]

(† = extinct)

Chibcha

Varieties

Below is a full list of Chibchan language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties. [3]

Rama group
Guatuso group
Talamanca group
Dorasque group
Guaymi group
Cuna group
Antioquia group
Chibcha group
Motilon group
Arhuaco (Arwako) group
Paya group

Proto-language

Proto-Chibchan reconstructions by Constenla (1981): [4]

glossProto-Chibchan
arm, hand, shoulder*ˈkuíkI, *ˈkuí-
ashes*bur-, *buˈrṹ
at, in*skA; *ki; *sə
at, in, towards*ka
big (size or quantity)*təˈĩ
bird*dù
blood*ApÍ
boat, craft*huˈLù
body*AˈpÀ
bone*ˈkàrə
breasts*kAʔ
breast*ˈtsúʔ, *ˈtsúʔtsú
brother*səˈkə
brother-in-law*ˈuba; *ˈduáʔ
butterfly*kuA-, *kuAʔ-
cedar (several trees of the Cedrela genus)*uˈru
ceiba *puLí, *puLíkI
child, young of an animal, egg*əˈrə̀
child, young of an animal*ˈuÁʔ-
cloth*ˈsuá-
cloud*ˈbõ̀, *bo-
cockroach*ˈsóx-
cocoa*kə́ˈhùʔ
come*ˈda-; *ˈdI-
cook*ˈdu-
cotton*suˈhí
cough, catarrh*ˈtóʔ
crocodile*ˈkú-
cultivated field*ˈtÌ
curassow ( Crax rubra )*ˈdubÍ
deer*ˈsur, *ˈsurĩ̀
diminutive*-ˈaːrə
dog*ˈto
dove (common ground dove)*ˈÚtu-
dry*diˈsə-
dry season*ˈduá-
eagle, hawk*ˈpṹ
ear*ˈkuhkə́, *ˈkuhkuə́
eat, drink*ˈga-
egg, sprout, suckling*ˈpú
emerald toucanet *dəˈkər̃ə́
enter*ˈdok-
excrement*ˈgã́
eye*úb
face*uˈbə́
father*ˈkáka
feline*dəbə̃́; *kuLÁʔ
find*ˈkũ
finger, hand*ˈkU
firewood, fire, coal, live coal*ˈgÌ
first person prefix*də̃-
fish*ˈuA; *dibÃ̀
five*sAkẽ́
flesh*gAtA
fly*ˈkulu
foot*sAˈkə̃
four*bəhˈke
fruit*ubə́
give birth*ˈgU-
gnat (jején)*buˈr̃ṹʔ
go*ˈdA-
grease*ˈkiə́
grind*ˈuʔ
grindstone, to sharpen*ˈiáʔ
grow, widen*təˈlə-
guan (bird)*ˈkũ̀
hand*AtA; *guLÀ
head, hair*ˈtsã̀
house*ˈhu
how many*ˈbi
hunger*bAˈLi
I*ˈda
jocote ( Spondias purpurea ), jobo ( Spondias mombin )*bəˈrə́ʔ
kill*ˈguə
know, see*sũ
lake*iAˈbÁ
laugh*ˈhaĩ
laurel ( Cordia alliodora )*ˈBúʔ
leaf*ˈkə́
leg*kəˈrə
liquid*dí; *ˈli
lizard*ulíʔ
louse*ˈkṹ
maize*ˈIBI
make*gU
mayo (tree)*bèk
monkey: howler monkey *úriʔ
monkey: spider monkey *dõ̀, *do-
monkey: white-faced monkey *hòkI
moon, month*siˈhíʔ
mother-in-law*ˈgAkA
mouse*ˈsuhkÌ
mouth*ˈkahkə
mud*ˈdÚ; *oˈr̃i
name*ˈhaká
nape, neck*duˈkurə
neck*ˈgala
net*kAˈlÁʔ
nose*dəˈIkI
now*ˈBə
old*AˈkÍkI; *tAˈlá
one*ˈé ?
otter*doʔ
paca ( Agouti paca )*ˈkuri
peachpalm ( Bactris gasipaes , Guilelma utilis )*ˈsúbaʔ
peccary ( Tayassu pecari spiradens)*siˈdĩ́ʔ
peel, undress*ˈsu-
person*ApÍ-
place, time, environment, land*ˈká
plant*ˈdi
poró tree, elequeme tree (synonyms)*baˈlò
pot, vessel, jar*ˈũ
pumpkin, squash*Apì
rattle, maraca, colander, gourd cup (= object elaborated from a gourd)*ˈtã́
reed*kəˈru
rotten*ˈdṹ
sand*ˈu; *ˈuBA
say*ˈguA-; *ˈgI
sea*dAgÌ
second person prefix*bi-
see*ˈguəkI
seek*ˈdí
seed, plant*ˈpkua
seize, hold*kaLUh-
seven*ˈkúh-
shark*tAˈLì
shrimp*ˈkUs
sing*ˈtA
six*ˈted
skin, bark*hukə́
sleep*kAp-
small*ˈ¢id
smell, odor*hALÀ
snake*tAkAbÌ
soil, earth, dirt, clay*ˈtÁBA
son*gAbÀ
spider*óhk
squirrel*kudã́
star*bÌ-
stick (a spear), insert, put in*ˈtsã
stone*ˈhákI
sun*dì; *ˈka; *dui
sweet*bəˈlóʔ
tail*ˈduhkI
tapir*dAĩ́ʔ
take*ˈgúʔ
tear*ˈubə́diə
that*ˈhéʔ; *ˈse; *ˈkue; *ˈdiÀ
third person*i-; *A
this*ˈdi-; *ˈhíʔ
three*ˈbai
tobacco*ˈdu, *ˈduə̀
tongue*pkúʔ, *ˈpkuə́
tooth*ˈtu; *aˈkə
toucan sp.*Biˈli
tray (made of wood, used to wash)*kuˈLIʔ
transitive verb marker*Bə-
tree*ˈkàr; *kaˈri
tree, trunk of a tree, wood*ˈkarə́
tuber*ˈtuʔ
turtle*kuÌ; *uˈli
two*ˈbU
uncle*kəˈru
vulva*ˈkÍ
water*ˈdíʔ
we (inclusive)*ˈsẽ́ʔ
weep*ˈbo
what*ˈhi
where*biə
white*buLu
wind*ˈBur-
with*uA; *tÁ
woodpecker*soˈr̃o
woods, firewood*ˈbUʔ
work*hiBA
worm*ˈgĩ́
you (sg.)*ˈbáʔ
yucca *ˈik

Proto-Chibchan horticultural vocabulary: [5]

Related Research Articles

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Misumalpan languages language family

The Misumalpan languages are a small family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples on the east coast of Nicaragua and nearby areas. The name "Misumalpan" was devised by John Alden Mason and is composed of syllables from the names of the family's three members Miskito, Sumo languages and Matagalpan. It was first recognized by Walter Lehmann in 1920. While all the languages of the Matagalpan branch are now extinct, the Miskito and Sumu languages are alive and well: Miskito has almost 200,000 speakers and serves as a second language for speakers of other Indian languages on the Mosquito Coast. According to Hale, most speakers of Sumu also speak Miskito.

Choco languages language family

The Choco languages are a small family of Native American languages spread across Colombia and Panama.

Isthmo-Colombian Area

The Isthmo-Colombian Area is defined as a cultural area encompassing those territories occupied predominantly by speakers of the Chibchan languages at the time of European contact. It includes portions of the Central American isthmus like eastern El Salvador, eastern Honduras, Caribbean Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and northern Colombia.

Barbacoan languages language family poken in Colombia and Ecuador

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Bribri people ethnic group

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Lencan is a small family of nearly extinct indigenous Mesoamerican languages.

The Uwa language, Uw Cuwa, commonly known as Tunebo, is a Chibchan language spoken by between 1,800 and 3,600 of the Uwa people of Colombia, out of a total population of about 7,000.

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Bribri, also known as Bri-bri, Bribriwak, and Bribri-wak, belongs to the Chibchan languages. This language family is indigenous to the Isthmo-Colombian Area, which extends from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia and includes populations of these countries as well as Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As of 2002, there were about 11,000 speakers left. An estimate by the National Census of Costa Rica in 2011 found that Bribri is currently spoken by 54.7% of the 12,785 Bribri people, about 7,000 individuals. It is a tonal SOV language. There are three traditional dialects of Bribri: Coroma, Amubre and Salitre. Bribri is a tribal name, deriving from a word for "mountainous" in their own language. The Bribri language is also referred to as Su Uhtuk, which means "our language." Bribri is reportedly most similar to sister language Cabécar as both languages have nasal harmony, but the two are mutually unintelligible.

Spanish conquest of the Chibchan Nations Part of the Spanish conquest of Colombia

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Costa Rica's official and predominant language is Spanish. The variety spoken there, Costa Rican Spanish, is a form of Central American Spanish.

Macro-Chibchan languages

Macro-Chibchan is a proposed grouping of the languages of the Lencan, Misumalpan, and Chibchan families into a single large phylum (macrofamily). The Lencan and Misumalpan languages were once included in the Chibchan family proper, but were excluded pending further evidence as that family became well established. Kaufman (1990) finds the Chibchan–Misumalpan connection convincing, if as yet unsubstantiated, though Campbell (1997) finds it doubtful. The Xincan family was once included in Macro-Chibchan, but this is now doubtful.

Index of Central America-related articles

This is an Index of Central America-related articles. This index defines Central America as the seven nations of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.

The Cabécar language is an indigenous American language of the Chibchan language family which is spoken by the Cabécar people in Costa Rica. Specifically, it is spoken in the inland Turrialba Region of the Cartago Province. 80% of speakers are monolingual; as of 2007, it is the only indigenous language in Costa Rica with monolingual adults. The language is also known by its dialect names Chirripó, Estrella, Telire, and Ujarrás.

The Talamanca languages are a well-defined branch of Chibchan languages spoken in central–southern Costa Rica and northern Panama. They are:

Indigenous peoples of Costa Rica group of peoples

Indigenous people of Costa Rica, or Native Costa Ricans, are the people who lived in what is now Costa Rica prior to European and African contact and the descendants of those peoples. About 114,000 indigenous people live in the country, comprising 2.4% of the total population. Indigenous Costa Ricans strive to keep their cultural traditions and language alive.

Costa Ricans People from the country of Costa Rica

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Cabécar people

The Cabécar are an indigenous group of the remote Talamanca region of eastern Costa Rica. They speak Cabécar, a language belonging to the Chibchan language family of the Isthmo-Colombian Area of lower Central America and northwestern Colombia. According to census data from the National Institute of Statistics and Census of Costa Rica, the Cabécar are the largest indigenous group in Costa Rica with a population of nearly 17,000.

References

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chibchan". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas . Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  3. Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages . Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  4. Constenla Umaña, Adolfo (1981). Comparative Chibchan Phonology. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
  5. Constenla Umaña, Adolfo. 2012. Chibchan languages. In Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona (eds.), The Indigenous Languages of South America: A Comprehensive Guide, 391-440. Berlin: Mouton.

Bibliography